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ductive efforts into the most important chan- The roll of the society includes 313 members nels which promise him some success; and

of the ass

ssociation, of which number 107 are thirdly by realizing his duty to make the value association fellows. The society is therefore and interest of his own work, and of his sci- entitled to two representatives in the council ence in general, appeal as widely as possible. of the association.

0. D. KELLOGG Two state academies of science, the Michi

gan Academy and the Oklahoma Academy, have SUMMARY OF A REPORT OF THE PERMANENT

been added to the list of affiliated academies SECRETARY CONCERNING THE AFFAIRS OF THE ASSOCIATION, SUBMITTED TO through their election by the council at the THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AT

Chicago meeting. Each affiliated academy is ITS MEETING, APRIL 24, 1921

entitled to a representative in the association The following paragraphs present the main council. features of the permanent secretary's report (With the two academies that were affiliated for the period from October 1, 1920, to March

by the action of the Executive Committee on 31, 1921.

April 24—the North Carolina Academy and In accordance with a vote of the Council at

the Maryland Academy-there are now twelve Chicago, Doctor Sam F. Trelease was ap- affiliated academies, named as follows: Illipointed assistant secretary, beginning Janu- nois, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, ary 1. The assistant secretary has thus far Michigan, Nebraska, New Orleans, North been engaged mainly in editorial work on the Carolina, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin.) new membership list.

The arrangement for the affiliation of acadThe new volume of the Summarized Pro

emies allows the academy to collect the annual ceedings is far advanced and will soon appear association dues of its national members from the press. It is planned to be more use- (members who are also members of the ful and satisfactory than the earlier volumes.

American Association) and allows it to retain, It will contain the constitution and by-laws of

for its expenses all association entrance fees the association, the summarized reports of obtained through its efforts and also one dollar seven annual meetings—from 1914 to 1920

of each payment of association annual dues (with citation references to SCIENCE for the collected by it. The permanent secretary's important official publications), and the com- office supplies each affiliated academy with plete membership list corrected to the date of printed and addressed statement cards for all printing The list contains about 12,000

of its national members and these are sent to names and addresses. Subscriptions for the

the members of the academy, so as to be renew volume were booked at the price of $1.00

ceived October 1 of each year (the beginning to members, until December 1, 1920, since

of the association fiscal year). For each $5 which date the price to members has been

payment received in response to this billing $1.50. Over 1,600 volumes have been paid for

the academy transmits $4 to the office of the in advance. (The present price will be main

permanent secretary, who then orders the free tained until the date of actual publication, journal for each member so paying. (The after which it will become $2 to members and journal can not be ordered until the $4 remit$2.50 to nonmembers. Subscriptions and re

tance is in the hands of the permanent secremittances should be sent to the Permanent

tary.)-Immediately after its affiliation each Secretary of the American Association for the newly affiliated academy receives from the Advancement of Science, Smithsonian Insti

permanent secretary's office a payment amounttution, Washington, D. C.)

ing to one dollar for each one of its national The American Mathematical Society, which

members who has already paid his association was invited to become affiliated with the asso- dues for the current year. When a member of eiation at the Chicago meeting, has ratified the association becomes a member of an affithis affiliation and is now an affiliated society. liated academy after its affiliation the acad

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Number of

March 31, Mar. 31, 1920

1921 Active life members

353

350 Annual members credited with dues for current year

8,034

9,287

ber pays

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emy is allowed to retain the usual dollar allowance if it collects the annual association dues of such member after April 1, but the allowance is not effective for that year if the mem

his dues before April 1. The operation of academy affiliation is illustrated by the above table, for the years 1920 and 1921.

It appears that the affiliation arrangement for academies has thus far been very unprofitable in a financial way, but it is hoped that the financial loss by the association and the corresponding contributions toward the support of the academies may prove justifiable as expense incurred in promoting the advancement of science and education in the United States.

The present status of the membership of the association (March 31, 1921) is summarized below, together with corresponding data for 1920.

The expenses of the Chicago meeting, including those of the preliminary announce ment, were nearly $4,000, of which about onehalf was raised through local subscriptions secured by the Local Committee. The printing of the General Program cost $1,002.50 and the printing and mailing of the preliminary announcement cost $955.35.

Preparations for the annual meeting are exceptionally well in hand this year, the local committee having already begun its work, and

1 The sum of the corresponding numbers in col. umns 3 and 6 does not agree exactly with the number in column 5, because members sometimes have to be transferred from the account of one academy to that of another because of change of residence.

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2 On April 21, this number had been increased to 9,852.

3 On April 21, this number had been decreased to 870.

4 It should be noted that this number is considerably larger than the normal expectancy on account of dropping for nonpayment of dues. The list during 1920 still contained all those names that should ordinarily have been dropped at the beginning of that year. On October 1, 1920, names were dropped for which there was an arrearage of 3 years, as well as those for which there was an arrearage of 2 years.

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J. McKeen Cattell, Editor of SCIENCE Representing the NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

John C. Merriam
John M. Clarke
J. McKeen Cattell
Vernon Kellogg, secretary, National Research

Council
C. E. McClung, director, Zoological Laboratory,

University of Pennsylvania Representing the AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE

ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE John C. Merriam Henry S. Graves, former chief, U. S. Forest

Service Isaiah Bowman, director, American Geographical

Society Barrington Moore, president, American Eco

logical Society V. E. Shelford, professor of zoology, University

of Illinois Chairman, John C. Merriam Vice-chairman, John M. Clarke

Secretary, Albert L. Barrows, National Research Council, 1701 Massachusetts Avenue, Washington, D. C.

Assistant Secretary, Willard G. Van Name, American Museum of Natural History, New York, N. Y.

Program The purpose in organizing this Executive Committee is to promote, by scientific effort and through education, the most reasonable

use of our natural resources for the economic, industrial and social development of the country.

The American people have been richly endowed with natural wealth and have quickly availed themselves of their endowment. The first easy and quick production for the pressing needs of the growing population, followed by rapid strides toward the realization of wealth, have brought large elements of the natural resources to the danger line, some to more costly and lessened production, while others are threatened by extinction. Commercial production will of necessity be governed by economic law; use will be dependent on production, but both must be free of waste and governed by intelligent foresight. There are important natural resources whose commercial uses are less obvious but whose depletion is a grave disturbance of the balance of nature.

This is a problem of the public welfare. Its solution should marshal not only scientific knowledge and the economic interests of the country but also the moral forces of the body politic. Organized effort to safeguard our natural heritage must come quickly. As use becomes greater, abuse and wastage must be diminished.

This Executive Committee does not assume a supervisory attitude in matters of conservation but seeks to advise, coordinate and substantiate outstanding organizations. It sets forth the following program as expressive of its purpose:

1. The problem is a basic one in public welfare. It should therefore challenge intelligent attention, command public confidence and receive necessary financial support.

2. This movement is at present representative of the scientific membership and functions of its parent societies, the National Academy of Sciences, the National Research Council, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. The committee may be enlarged from time to time by the addition of members of experience and wisdom; but its work must be of a character truly to represent its parent organizations. It

should keep in close touch with their govern- it wisely. Advantage must be taken of existing bodies, and annually present a report to ing channels of educational approach through their councils. The results of the work will the state educational organizations and the carry the weight of the associated leaders of

state executives, in which the Division of science in America.

States Relations of the National Research 3. Essential to the purposes of the under- Council may helpfully cooperate. taking is a competent and vigorous executive,

It is held that the proper teaching of the composed of a director or executive secretary

conservation principle is a most effective safewith necessary expert and clerical assistance.

guard for the future of this nation. This The functions of this executive are provision

undertaking will therefore involve uninter-, ally outlined thus:

rupted effort with the eventual aid of proper (a) To assemble, classify and correlate all

texts, the probable establishment of a bureau outstanding activities in the scientific and

of lecturers who may reach the public outside industrial conservation of natural resources;

the schools, and the utilization of all modern with the purpose of bringing these into effec

accessories to effective educational appeal. tive juxtaposition and concentration and thus produce an active army of organized workers

Supplementary directed to a common end without duplication

Cost of the work.–The cost of the work is estiof effort or cost. The former is essentially

mated as $25,000 per annum, distributed as folstatistical; the latter is directive and requires

lows: a skillful exercise of judicious procedure and

Salaries tactful guidance.

Executive Officer

$10,000 (6) To effect active cooperation with the First Associate

5,000 officers and directorates of existing organiza- 1 Clerk

1,600 tions concerned with natural resources.

1 Clerk

1,500

1 Clerk (c) To assemble available data relating to

1,400 the status of our natural resources, to enlist

$19,500 therefor such industrial and other agencies as

Traveling Expenses

2,000 Office Rent

1,000 are actively engaged therewith, to interpret

Office Expenses these data in relation to protection and re

Including telephone, telegrams, staserve, as well as to the economic and social

tionery, postage, etc.

500 welfare of the state, and to provide a broad Printing, Drafting and Contingent.... 1,800 scientific basis for legislative action by the state and the federal government.

Total

$25,000 (d) To initiate and judiciously enforce by education recognition of the principle under

Financing. It is desirable, if possible, to lying the protection and use of natural re- secure a permanent fund of $500,000 whose

income would be available for the work in It is held that this recognition can be made

contemplation. In that event, a separate founmost effective and enduring by implantation dation could be established, or the fund could in the minds of the children of the elementary

be given to the National Academy, the Naschools; that in schools of higher grade, in

tional Research Council, or the American Ascolleges and universities, and in schools of en- sociation for the Advancement of Science with gineering and applied science this principle provision for the use of the income for the can be enforced by correct teaching in already work of this committee. established courses. Extravagance of state- In case the funds are in the form of annual ment and emotionalism must be cautiously contributions, it is desirable to plan in adavoided. Teachers must themselves be taught vance for a certain income to cover a period not only to inculcate this principle but to do of not less than five or ten years. Reasonable

sources.

tion involve the cooperation of boy-scout masters, schoolboys, and hotel managers, as well as of a large number of bookstores as local agents. Helpful publicity has also been gained through the voluntary cooperation of the press. The printing in a single publication of a brief statement regarding the Geological Survey's maps often results in orders for a hundred or more maps and many inquiries for the State index maps, which are sent free, showing the areas already mapped.

The periods of maximum demand for these government maps are the beginning of the vacation period and the beginning of the school year.

permanence should be given the project before its formal undertaking.

John M. CLARKE,
HENRY S. GRAVES,

BARRINGTON MOORE,

Committee on Program June 3, 1921

SCIENTIFIC EVENTS THE INCREASING USE OF UNITED STATES

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MAPS THE project of covering the 3,000,000 square miles of the United States with accurate topographic surveys was definitely adopted by the federal government in 1882. The project was large, and the work is even now less than half completed. The standards of accuracy and refinement in topographic surveying have been constantly raised by the topographic engineers of the United States Geological Survey, Department of the Interior, with the view of meeting adequately every use to which the maps can be put. The law provides for the sale of the maps made by the Geological Survey at the cost of printing, a charge that must be considered merely nominal when it is realized that the cost of an edition of a printed map may be only a small percentage of the cost of surveying the area it represents.

The government itself is making a large and increasing use of these topographic maps, but the expenditure of public funds for these surveys is otherwise fully warranted only as the public uses the maps. To promote this use, the Geological Survey has recently given more attention to the wider distribution of the maps.

The distribution of a government map depends largely upon publicity, though the necessity of adopting commercial business methods in handling orders for the maps when a demand is created must not be overlooked. To inform the public of the existence of authoritative maps published by the federal government a special effort is now being made to reach the communities in every area that is covered bya map, and to this end every map as issued is brought to the attention of the local and state press.

Other methods of promoting wider distribu

THE ROYAL SOCIETY CONVERSAZIONE 1 The annual conversazione of the Royal Society was held at Burlington House on May 11, and was so well attended that it was practically impossible to see a tenth part of the exhibits and demonstrations. Fortunately arrangements are always made for an earlier press view of the latter. This year amongst the thirty-nine demonstrations figuring in the catalogue there was none having any direct bearing on medical science, though the exhibition contained much of great general interest. Mr. L. T. Hogben, of the Imperial College of Science, demonstrated the effects on tadpoles of feeding them with pineal gland. Hitherto there has been no proof of any physiological function exercised by the pineal body, but Mr. Hogben has succeeded in showing, in tadpoles at least, that it has some controlling power over the pigment cells. Macroscopic and microscopic preparations showed that in the pineal-fed tadpoles there is a very evident contraction of the melanophores, an effect that is not produced by feeding experiments with any other endocrine organ. Mr. C. Tate Regan, F.R.S., gave a demonstration of part of the life-history of the common eel, founded on the researches of Dr. J. Schmidt, who showed that the freshwater eel of Europe breeds in the Atlantic, southeast of Bermuda. A series of larvæ, from the middle and western North Atlantic, with long and slender pointed

1 From The British Medical Journal.

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