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earnestly sought, for we can not afford to sacrifice the breadth of a man to create a too narrowly efficient machine.

II When President Maclaurin said “A technical school was not doing its whole duty unless it kept in the closest touch with industry," he spoke the minds of many thoughtful men.

The two outstanding industrial problems to-day are: (1) The more intensive application of scientific knowledge and research to the processes and products of industry; (2) the cultivation of more understanding and wholesome relations between labor and management. Both of these problems may rightly claim attention in any modern scheme of technical education. On each of these questions I wish to speak very briefly.

Of scientific research there are two more or less distinct types. Both embody the genuine spirit of inquiry; both use the same tools and instruments under similar laboratory conditions. The essential difference between them is not in method but in aim and intention. In applied science research, the controlling purpose is to reach a definite and predetermined result which can be immediately applied to the material profit, convenience, or comfort of man. In pure science research, the only purpose is the discovery of new knowledge without thought of any material benefit to any. body. The fundamental discoveries from which applied science gets its raw material for useful applications come out of the pure science laboratory. That you can not apply knowledge you haven't got needs no proving.

Take any familiar application of science you choose, and one, two, or at most three backward steps bring you to the pure science laboratory where the fact or principle employed was first discovered. Sir J. J. Thomson has said in substance, “If you want improvements in industry, you may turn with confidence to applied science. If you want to revolutionize an industry or create a new one, you will do well to search the innermost recesses of the pure science laboratory.” The difference between the man of theory and the

practical man is one of suggestiveness and scope.

Applied science research in the modern sense is of comparatively recent origin. What we now call pure science is centuries older. At its beginning, therefore, applied science had the accumulated results of centuries of pure science to draw upon, but, due to the brilliantly amazing progress of applied science, that surplus in many fields is nearing exhaustion.

With depleted reserves applied science must soon face one of two alternatives. Either it must descend from its past and present rapid succession of great achievements to a more modest hand-to-mouth existence, reworking old ones and consuming next year whatever pure science, at its present working rate, may discover this; or else the hosts of pure science research must be vastly strengthened, and the volume of their yearly output many times increased.

That some of our more progressive industries already realize the situation is amply proved by the very rapidly increasing amount of pure science research issuing from the research laboratories of our optical, chemical, electrical, and other highly developed industries.

Under these circumstances technical schools owe to modern industry the more intensive cultivation of research with increasing emphasis on pure science. Every possible means should be used to train up more men in pure science, men competent to enter the fruitful and important field of research, to supply the rapidly increasing demand for workers in the fast multiplying laboratories of progressive industry.

In every fruitful cooperation between technical education and industry, our schools should be prepared to give more than they receive and to lead, not follow.

III Under the present organization of our largest industries the conscious responsibilities of real ownership have become somewhat vague. Industrial ownership to-day is widely diffused

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and dispersed. Shares of ownership are bought and sold daily by hundreds of thousands. Certificates of ownership are often regarded by their holders more as sources of income than as symbols of responsibility.

As a working plan the rights and duties of ownership are delegated to boards of directors, and the active management of our industries rests in the hands of employees. Thus the older distinction of employer, meaning owner, and employee, meaning workman, has largely ceased in our largest industrial corporations. All are essentially employees but of two distinct classes, brain workers and hand workers. The brain workers build up, maintain, and manage the business, and direct the hand workers, as brain directs hands in the individual, with this important and sometimes vaguely realized difference, that the hands in this case are not instruments only but independent thinking, feeling personalities.

The older or traditional attitude toward labor unrest was that the questions involved

purely economic questions. More thoughtful and more widely informed people, and there are many of them, feel that the problem is not so simple, but involves many additional elements, chiefly those which enter into all human relationships.

Purely for the sake of illustration, let us take the case of a not uncommon type of workman who becomes dissatisfied with his job. He feels little or no loyalty to the business nor to the foreman or manager who personifies it. He understands neither the manager's work in relation to production, nor the manager's pay.

There are further enviable differences between the manager's apparent freedom of action, his more comfortable working surroundings and those of the laborer. The laborer fails to realize the economic reasons for these differences. The manager in his sight produces nothing, hence the laborer doubts in his heart the importance of managers and higher officials in general. From his warped outlook, wages would be higher if these men who meddle, but do no real work, were removed from the payroll.

Thus he feels little respect or liking for the management. The manager may also seem lacking in respect for a sour-tempered operative. The motives behind the simplest manifestations of good will may be misconstrued and distrusted. Thus a mutual economic necessity is the only binding material which holds these two together, and each chafes at the bond.

Dissatisfied, the laborer shirks and hates his employment which, in this mood, is without human appeal or interest for him. Furtively shirking, he loses some of his sense of personal dignity and much of his self-respect. Sooner or later, as circumstances favor, he will try to regain a feeling of self-importance by trying with others who are like-minded a concerted conflict with the management in the form of a strike.

If the strike is won, the worker feels his course justified, his conduct approved, his selfesteem in a measure restored. If lost, he returns to his work liking it and his superiors none the better, only to wait sullenly for another trial of strength.

The laborer's indiscriminate and integrated discontent he is likely to attribute to the specter called capitalism. Capitalism is, therefore, his enemy.

This monster he attacks in the one spot where he believes its nervous system is centered—its purse. To the agitator of disorganization this mass of accumulated and unsorted discontent is his one great opportunity, and we know he is quick to make the most of it. To the typical proletarian, not the least of the attractions of a world-leveling-down program is the removal of the people he believes respect neither him nor his labor.

This brief view of the tangle of disorders and misconceptions, which may arise in a workingman's mind, shows mental states of by no means infrequent occurrence.

Now the true essence of successful industry is mutual respect between employee and manager, willing cooperation, a sense of mutual opportunity and responsibility, and a shared personal or institutional loyalty. But these factors are human rather than economic. Economic necessity alone is not only powerless to

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create them but oftener operates to weaken port for specific projects, and mode of adminor destroy them.

istration of particular trusts or foundations Human relationships in industry we have that the Research Information Service has now and always have had, and, whether recog- created a special file for this information nized or not, they have caused quite as much which it is proposed to keep up to date for trouble as purely economic conditions, for the the benefit of those who may desire to use it. state of a laborer's mind, more even than the Furthermore, in order to give wider publicity state of his purse, determines his acts.

to the immediately available information, the No industrial question is of greater im- Council has issued a bulletin under the title, portance than human relations in industry, Funds available in 1920 in the United States and none is more complex nor baffling. Yet of America for the encouragement of scienno pains can be spared, or are being spared, tific research.” This publication has been disto find remedial measures. Many hopeful tributed widely to American scientists and to schemes for a better human organization of in- those who are interested in furthering the dedustry have been suggested and are under velopment of science.1 trial, some fortunately with encouraging In the course of search for data on research promise.

funds, it was discovered that some of the The dominant bearing of this discussion on recently created community foundations or technical education is this: Our technical trusts control funds which may be used, at schools are training the future brain workers the discretion of their distributing boards, for and managers of industry. We may, therefore, scientific surveys or for research. If the rewell ask ourselves, at this time, if there is sources of community foundations be added anything we can do beyond what we are now to the funds at present listed by the Redoing to train our students to understand more search Information Service as primarily for fundamentally and to meet more successfully research in the natural sciences, the total apthe gravest of all their future repsonsibilities, proximates five hundred million dollars. It the organization and management of men. A is estimated that for the encouragement and responsibility which they and we owe, not in- support of scientific research through medals, dustry alone, but the whole economic, so- prizes, grants and research scholarships and cial, and political stability of the nation.

fellowships, between forty and fifty million ERNEST Fox NICHOLS

dollars is spent in the United States annually.

The “community trust” idea is of peculiar SCIENCE AND COMMUNITY TRUSTS

interest and significance in this connection. THE Research Information Service of the In the year 1914 certain wise and far-sighted National Research Council recently compiled citizens of Cleveland decided to organize for available information about funds for scien- the benefit of the community a trust to be tific research. It appears that there are hun- known as the Cleveland Foundation. This, dreds of special funds, trusts or foundations the original community trust, has grown to for the encouragement or support of research a fund of approximately one hundred million in the mathematical, physical, and biological dollars, either given or bequeathed. Followsciences, and their applications in engineering, ing the lead of Cleveland, more than forty medicine, agriculture and other useful arts. other American cities have organized similar The chief uses of these moneys are prizes, trusts, primarily to assure greater security of medals, research scholarships or fellowships, principal, Alexibility in the use of income, and grants, sustaining appropriations, and endow

prevention of obsolescence. ments.

1 Inquiries concerning research funds should be So numerous have been the requests to the

addressed to the National Research Council, InResearch Council for information about formation Service, 1701 Massachusetts Avenue, sources of research funds, availability of sup- Washington, D. C.

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The seriousness of the risk of obsolescence and the enormous economic waste which results therefrom are effectively presented by Mr. Frank J. Parsons, Director of the New York Community Trust:

Judge F. H. Goff, originator of the community trust plan, is authority for the statement that in England alone there are some 40,000 foundations or trusts with fixed objects. The great majority of these bequests have become obsolescent by reason of social or economic changes. The situation finally became so serious in England that Parliamont passed an Act, the intent of which was to revive the trusts and renow their usefulness.

The United States, although young, is by no means free from illustrations of the folly of making charitable gifts with fixed objects. Benjamin Franklin, one of the wisest of Americans, set aside a certain sum of money in his will, to be used only for the maintenance and benefit of a certain type of artisan, numerous at the time, but non-existent to-day because of changes in social conditions and the introduction of machinery. Wise in his own generation, Franklin failed when he tried to provide for the indefinite future.

Prior to 1850 Bryan Mullanphy, a wealthy law. yer and at one time mayor of St. Louis, person. ally helped hundreds of travelers who became stranded in his city on their way to the great undeveloped West. When he died it was found that he had left one third of all his property to the City of St. Louis, as trustee, to "aid and assist worthy and distressed travelers and emigrants coming to the City of St. Louis bona fide to settle for a home in the West.” His act was greatly commended and all thought he had wisely applied his charity to meet a great need; yet fifteen years later the railroads had pushed into the West far beyond St. Louis, and the number of needy travelers coming within the terms of the bounty of Mullanphy's will was greatly diminished and is now practically nil. The estate now amounts to $975,000, and the three Commissioners having the management of the city's trust are still bound by the original terms of the will as laid down in 1851.

In 1907 Robert N. Carson, of Philadelphia, left $3,500,000 for the care and education of “poor white healthy girls, both of whose parents shall be deceased,” and in 1909 Charles E. Ellis, also of Philadelphia, left $4,500,000 for "full orphan or fatherless girls.The hampering and restric

tive conditions of the wills in each case were such, however, that after the lapse of more than ten years the trustees of these two great gifts are caring for but 114 girls, while the funds are said to be sufficient to provide for from 600 to 1,000 girls.2

The following “illustrative purposes” quoted from the Resolution and Declaration of Trust creating the New York Community Trust: (a) For assisting public educational, charitable

benevolent institutions, whether supported wholly or in part by private donations or by public taxation;

(6) For promoting scientific research for the advancement of human knowledge and the alleviation of human suffering or the suffering of ani. mals;

(c) For the care of the sick, aged and helpless;

(d) For the care of needy men, women and children;

(e) For aiding in the reformation of (1) victims of narcotics, drugs and intoxicating liquors, (2) released inmates of penal and reformatory institutions, and (3) Wayward or delinquent persons;

(f) For the improvement of living and working conditions ;

(9) For providing facilities for public recreation;

(h) For the encouragement of social and domestic hygiene;

(i) For the encouragement of sanitation and measures for the prevention of disease;

(j) For investigating or promoting the investigation of or research into the causes of ignorance, poverty and vice, preventing the operation of such causes, and remedying or ameliorating the con. ditions resulting therefrom.

Science as well as charity has its “ dead hand” trusts. It is wholly impossible for anyone to predict future conditions or needs. Consequently the community trust idea should interest all who desire to promote the public welfare with minimum risk of having their gifts pass into desuetude. Many of the existing foundations and corporations which bear the names of individuals are in principle

These statements are in part quoted from Mr. Parsons and in part paraphrased for the sake of brevity.

community trusts, but they have the temporary disadvantage of intimate association with the personality or memory of a particular family or individual. They therefore are somewhat less likely to receive during their early history such gifts as readily come to the community trust which bears the name of a city or state.

ROBERT M. YERKES NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

SCIENTIFIC EVENTS THE MEDICAL SCHOOL OF COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY AND THE PRESBYTERIAN

HOSPITAL It has been announced from Columbia University that a permanent alliance has been effected between the university and the Presbyterian Hospital, to provide a medical center, and the large sums needed to carry the plan into effect, have been provided by gift.

Under the terms of the agreement, the university and the hospital each continue their independent existence and control. The medical school, now occupying the site bounded by 59th and 60th Streets and Tenth Avenue, and the hospital, now occupying the site between Madison and Park Avenues, 69th and 70th Streets, are as soon as possible to be provided with new and thoroughly equipped buildings upon a common site. The professional staff of the hospital is to consist of professors and other members of the faculty of the medical school, to be appointed by the hospital upon the nomination of the university. For the oversight of the common interests of the university and the hospital in the new undertaking, an administrative board is established, to consist of three representatives of the trustees of the university and three representatives of the managers of the hospital. The first administrative board is to consist of Messrs. John G. Milburn, Walter B. James, and William Barclay Parsons, representing the university, and Edward S. Harkness, Henry W. de Forest and William Sloane, representing the hospital.

The large sums needed to enable Columbia University to bear its share in this enterprise,

have been provided in the following manner:

$5,000,000 for endowment from the estate of the late Joseph R. DeLamar.

$3,000,000 for the construction of new buildings and their equipment, from the Carnegie Corporation, the General Education Board and the Rockefeller Foundation, each of which has pledged $1,000,000.

Land located between 165th and 168th Streets, Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue and val. ued at not less than $1,000,000, which is the gift of a donor who wishes to remain anonymous.

An additional sum of $1,000,000 for endowment from another anonymous donor. GIFTS BY CARNEGIE CORPORATION TO CAR.

NEGIE INSTITUTES OF PITTSBURGH As a result of joint conferences held by the trustees, respectively, of the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Carnegie Institute of Pittsburgh and the Carnegie Institute of Technology, a definite agreement has been entered into by the Carnegie Corporation to give an additional sum of more than $17,000,000 over a period of years for maintenance and development of the institutes.

According to a statement issued by the Carnegie Corporation, the Carnegie Institute of Technology now has about 4,000 students. They come from every state in the Union and from all parts of the world. The plan now to be carried out contemplates the full completion of Mr. Carnegie's gift in developing at Pittsburgh a great technical institute available for the young men, and particularly those in moderate circumstances, not only of the Pittsburgh district, but of the whole country. The plan is distinctly national in scope.

Under the arrangements now made, the institutions ultimately will have received from Mr. Carnegie, the corporation and other sources more than $49,000,000. The financial program that has just been mapped out may be summarized as follows:

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