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create them but oftener operates to weaken port for specific projects, and mode of adminor destroy them.

istration of particular trusts or foundations Human relationships in industry we have that the Research Information Service has now and always have had, and, whether recog- created a special file for this information nized or not, they have caused quite as much which it is proposed to keep up to date for trouble as purely economic conditions, for the the benefit of those who may desire to use it. state of a laborer's mind, more even than the Furthermore, in order to give wider publicity state of his purse, determines his acts.

to the immediately available information, the No industrial question is of greater im- Council has issued a bulletin under the title, portance than human relations in industry, “Funds available in 1920 in the United States and none is more complex nor baffling. Yet of America for the encouragement of scienno pains can be spared, or are being spared, tific research.” This publication has been disto find remedial measures. Many hopeful tributed widely to American scientists and to schemes for a better human organization of in- those who are interested in furthering the dedustry have been suggested and are under velopment of science.1 trial, some fortunately with encouraging In the course of search for data on research promise.

funds, it was discovered that some of the The dominant bearing of this discussion on recently created community foundations or technical education is this: Our technical trusts control funds which may be used, at schools are training the future brain workers the discretion of their distributing boards, for and managers of industry. We may, therefore, scientific surveys or for research. If the rewell ask ourselves, at this time, if there is

sources of community foundations be added anything we can do beyond what we are now to the funds at present listed by the Redoing to train our students to understand more search Information Service as primarily for fundamentally and to meet more successfully research in the natural sciences, the total apthe gravest of all their future repsonsibilities, proximates five hundred million dollars. It the organization and management of men. is estimated that for the encouragement and responsibility which they and we owe, not in- support of scientific research through medals, dustry alone, but the whole economic, so- prizes, grants and research scholarships and cial, and political stability of the nation. fellowships, between forty and fifty million ERNEST Fox NICHOLS dollars is spent in the United States annually.

The “community trust” idea is of peculiar SCIENCE AND COMMUNITY TRUSTS

interest and significance in this connection. THE Research Information Service of the In the year 1914 certain wise and far-sighted National Research Council recently compiled citizens of Cleveland decided to organize for available information about funds for scien- the benefit of the community a trust to be tific research. It appears that there are hun- known as the Cleveland Foundation. This, dreds of special funds, trusts or foundations the original community trust, has grown to for the encouragement or support of research a fund of approximately one hundred million in the mathematical, physical, and biological dollars, either given or bequeathed. Followsciences, and their applications in engineering, ing the lead of Cleveland, more than forty medicine, agriculture and other useful arts. other American cities have organized similar The chief uses of these moneys are prizes, trusts, primarily to assure greater security of medals, research scholarships or fellowships, principal, flexibility in the use of income, and grants, sustaining appropriations, and endow- prevention of obsolescence. ments.

1 Inquiries concerning research funds should be So numerous have been the requests to the addressed to the National Research Council, InResearch Council for information about formation Service, 1701 Massachusetts Avenue, sources of research funds, availability of sup- Washington, D. C.

or

The seriousness of the risk of obsolescence and the enormous economic waste which results therefrom are effectively presented by Mr. Frank J. Parsons, Director of the New York Community Trust:

Judge F. H. Goff, originator of the community trust plan, is authority for the statement that in England alone there are some 40,000 foundations or trusts with fixed objects. The great majority of these bequests have become obsolescent by reason of social or economic changes. The situation finally became so serious in England that Parliament passed an Act, the intent of which was to revive the trusts and renew their usefulness.

The United States, although young, is by no means free from illustrations of the folly of making charitable gifts with fixed objects. Benjamin Franklin, one of the wisest of Americans, set aside a certain sum of money in his will, to be used only for the maintenance and benefit of a certain type of artisan, numerous at the time, but non-existent to-day because of changes in social conditions and the introduction of machinery. Wise in his own generation, Franklin failed when he tried to provide for the indefinite future.

Prior to 1850 Bryan Mullanphy, a wealthy lawyer and at one time mayor of St. Louis, personally helped hundreds of travelers who became stranded in his city on their way to the great un. developed West. When he died it was found that he had left one third of all his property to the City of St. Louis, as trustee, to "aid and assist worthy and distressed travelers and emigrants coming to the City of St. Louis bona fide to settle for a home in the West." His act was greatly commended and all thought he had wisely applied his charity to meet a great need; yet fifteen years later the railroads had pushed into the West far beyond St. Louis, and the number of needy travelers coming within the terms of the bounty of Mullanphy's will was greatly diminished and is now practically nil. The estate now amounts to $975,000, and the three Commissioners having the management of the city's trust are still bound by the original terms of the will as laid down in 1851.

In 1907 Robert N. Carson, of Philadelphia, left $3,500,000 for the care and education of “poor white healthy girls, both of whose parents shall be deceased,' and in 1909 Charles E. Ellis, also of Philadelphia, loft $4,500,000 for “full orphan or fatherless girls." The hampering and restric

tive conditions of the wills in each case were such, however, that after the lapse of more than ten years the trustees of these two great gifts are caring for but 114 girls, while the funds are said to be sufficient to provide for from 600 to 1,000 girls.2 The following “illustrative purposes

are quoted from the Resolution and Declaration of Trust creating the New York Community Trust: (a) For assisting public educational, charitable

benevolent institutions, whether supported wholly or in part by private donations or by public taxation;

(b) For promoting scientific research for the advancement of human knowledge and the alleviation of human suffering or the suffering of ani. mals;

(c) For the care of the sick, aged and helpless;

(d) For the care of needy men, women and children;

(e) For aiding in the reformation of (1) victims of narcotics, drugs and intoxicating liquors, (2) released inmates of penal and reformatory institutions, and (3) wayward or delinquent persons;

(f) For the improvement of living and working conditions;

(9) For providing facilities for public recreation;

(h) For the encouragement of social and domestic hygiene;

(i) For the encouragement of sanitation and measures for the prevention of disease;

(j) For investigating or promoting the investigation of or research into the causes of ignorance, poverty and vice, preventing the operation of such causes, and remedying or ameliorating the conditions resulting therefrom.

Science as well as charity has its “ dead hand trusts. It is wholly impossible for anyone to predict future conditions or needs. Consequently the community trust idea should interest all who desire to promote the public welfare with minimum risk of having their gifts pass into desuetude. Many of the existing foundations and corporations which bear the names of individuals are in principle

2 These statements are in part quoted from Mr. Parsons and in part paraphrased for the sake of brevity.

community trusts, but they have the tem- have been provided in the following manner: porary disadvantage of intimate association $5,000,000 for endowment from the estate of the with the personality or memory of a particular

late Joseph R. DeLamar. family or individual. They therefore are

$3,000,000 for the construction of new buildings somewhat less likely to receive during their

and their equipment, from the Carnegie Corpora

tion, the General Education Board and the Rockeearly history such gifts as readily come to the

feller Foundation, each of which has pledged community trust which bears the name of a

$1,000,000. city or state.

Land located between 165th and 168th Streets, ROBERT M. YERKES

Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue and val. NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

ued at not less than $1,000,000, which is the gift

of a donor who wishes to remain anonymous. SCIENTIFIC EVENTS

An additional sum of $1,000,000 for endow

ment from another anonymous donor. THE MEDICAL SCHOOL OF COLUMBIA UNI. VERSITY AND THE PRESBYTERIAN

GIFTS BY CARNEGIE CORPORATION TO CARHOSPITAL

NEGIE INSTITUTES OF PITTSBURGH It has been announced from Columbia University that a permanent alliance has been ef

As a result of joint conferences held by the fected between the university and the Presby

trustees, respectively, of the Carnegie Corterian Hospital, to provide a medical center,

poration of New York, the Carnegie Institute and the large sums needed to carry the plan

of Pittsburgh and the Carnegie Institute of into effect, have been provided by gift.

Technology, a definite agreement has been enUnder the terms of the agreement, the uni

tered into by the Carnegie Corporation to give

an additional sum of more than $17,000,000 versity and the hospital each continue their independent existence and control. The medical

over a period of years for maintenance and school, now occupying the site bounded by development of the institutes. 59th and 60th Streets and Tenth Avenue, and

According to a statement issued by the Carthe hospital, now occupying the site between

negie Corporation, the Carnegie Institute of Madison and Park Avenues, 69th and 70th

Technology now has about 4,000 students. Streets, are as soon as possible to be provided They come from every state in the Union and with new and thoroughly equipped buildings

from all parts of the world. The plan now to

be carried out contemplates the full completion upon a common site. The professional staff of the hospital is to consist of professors and

of Mr. Carnegie's gift in developing at Pittsother members of the faculty of the medical

burgh a great technical institute available for school, to be appointed by the hospital upon

the young men, and particularly those in modthe nomination of the university. For the

erate circumstances, not only of the Pittsburgh oversight of the common interests of the uni.

district, but of the whole country. The plan

is distinctly national in scope. versity and the hospital in the new undertaking, an administrative board is established, Under the arrangements now made, the into consist of three representatives of the trus

stitutions ultimately will have received from tees of the university and three representatives

Mr. Carnegie, the corporation and other of the managers of the hospital. The first ad- sources more than $49,000,000. The financial ministrative board is to consist of Messrs. program that has just been mapped out may be John G. Milburn, Walter B. James, and

summarized as follows: William Barclay Parsons, representing the

OUTRIGHT APPROPRIATIONS university, and Edward S. Harkness, Henry

For the Carnegie Institute of PittsW. de Forest and William Sloane, representing

burgh: the hospital.

Additional endowment

$2,000,000 The large sums needed to enable Columbia Cash to be used at discretion of insti. University to bear its share in this enterprise, tute

672,888

CONDITIONAL UPON ADDITIONAL SUMS BEING

RAISED

For the Carnegie Institute of Tech

MEETINGS OF BRTISH AND AMERICAN nology:

CHEMISTS For expenses over a period of 25

Joint meetings will be held this autumn years ..

5,640,000

by chemists of Great Britain, Canada and the For repairs and replacement of equipment

United States. Members of the Society of

350,000 For a gymnasium, the planning of

Chemical Industry of Great Britain will join which is to begin at once..

600,000

with the Canadian branch of their organization

in sessions in Montreal late in August. The Total

$9,262,888 scientific and business sessions will center at

McGill University, where there will be a special convocation. The Canadian and British

chemists will inspect numerous plants and For the Carnegie Institute of Pitts

will proceed to Ottawa and Toronto, where burgh:

they will be entertained by the local sections. To accrue in 15 years on condition that an equal amount is raised for

On September 5 they will reach Niagara Falls, endowment of educational work of

where they will view the vast establishments the Museum and Art Gallery ..... $ 200,000

which modern physics and chemistry have For the Carnegie Institute of Tech

created. nology:

The members will then cross the border, Maximum to be paid by July 1,

being met by a committee of the American 1946, on a basis of $2 for every $1

section of their society and conducted through raised from other sources..

8,000,000

the industrial plants on this side of the Falls.

Dinner will be served at Buffalo, and on their Total

$8,200,000

arrival at Syracuse, they will have luncheon

with the Solvay Process Company. The chemFor the Carnegie Institute of Pitts

ists will then go to Albany and New York burgh:

$ 200,000 City, where they will be welcomed by the For the Carnegie Institute of Tech

American Section of the Society of Chemical nology

4,000,000 Industry.

Elaborate arrangements for the reception of Total

$4,200,000

the chemists will be carried out, through the From Mr. Carnegie during his lifetime and coordinating committee, of which Dr. B. C. later from the Carnegie Corporation, the two

Hesse is chairman and Dr. Allen Rogers is Carnegie Institutes in Pittsburgh have al- secretary. The festivities, meetings and enterready received $27,654,594.51, and the present

tainments which will follow are designed to program supplements those funds. Consum- bring into closer bonds all chemists of Anglomation of the financial arrangements now en

Saxon stock. tered into will result as follows:

The fall meeting of the American Chemical

Society, with its 15,500 members, is to be Previous appropriations made by

held in New York City from September 6 to Mr. Carnegie and the Carnegie

10, inclusive. The first contact will be at a Corporation

$27,654,594.51

lawn party, to be given on the afternoon of Present outright appropriations... 9,262,888.00 Present appropriations, conditional

September 7 to foreign guests and to scientific upon raising funds from other

societies at Columbia University. Other sosources

8,200,000.00

cieties asked to participate in the welcoming Sums to be raised from other

of the visitors from abroad are: The American 4,200,000.00 Electrochemical Society; the American Insti

tute of Chemical Engineers; the American Grand total

$49,317,482.51 Section of the Société de Chimie industrielle;

SUMS TO BE RAISED FROM OUTSIDE SOURCES

sources

and the Manufacturing Chemists' Association A discussion of the status and the prospects of the United States. The foreign guests have for scientific research at the institution was also been invited to the smoker and entertain- led by the deans of the various schools and ment of the American Chemical Society, which the president of the college. A committee will will be held on the evening of Wednesday, Sep- plan for further meetings next year. tember 7.

Scientific sessions of the American Chemical SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS Society, in which many matters concerning

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY at its commencement chemical research and applied chemistry will

exercises conferred the degree of doctor of be discussed, are to be held at Columbia Uni

science on Mme. Curie, Dr. John C. Merriam, versity. To these meetings the British and

president of the Carnegie Institution of WashCanadian guests have been bidden. They will

ington, and Dr. Samuel W. Lambert, dean also be present at the banquet of the American

emeritus of the school of medicine. The deChemical Society on the evening of September

gree of doctor of laws was conferred on Dr. 9 at the Waldorf-Astoria.

James Rowland Angell, president elect of The fortnight beginning September 12 will

Yale University. The candidates were prebe dedicated to American chemistry in all its

sented by Dr. James F. Kemp, professor of phases, for it marks the holding of the Na

geology. tional Exposition of Chemical Industries, which is to be held in the Coast Artillery Ar

The Case School of Applied Science has mory in the Bronx. There will be brought

conferred the doctorate of science on Albert together under one roof a demonstration of

Sauveur, professor of metallurgy and metalwhat has been accomplished in this country

lography in Harvard University. since the European War in adapting the re- PROFESSOR John M. COULTER, of the Unisources of the United States to national needs. versity of Chicago, and Dr. Samuel Garman,

of the Harvard Museum of Comparative ZoORGANIZATION OF MEMBERS OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION AT THE PENNSYL

ology, have been elected foreign members of VANIA STATE COLLEGE

the Linnean Society of London. At the Pennsylvania State College, State THE Franklin Institute has conferred its College, Pa., the members of the American Franklin medal and certificate of honorary Association for the Advancement of Science, membership on Professor Charles Fabry, of numbering about forty, met for dinner at the the University of Paris, for his studies in the University Club on May 20. Professor A. J. field of light radiation. Wood, of the school of engineering, presided.

PROFESSOR ALBERT EINSTEIN sailed for LiverThe speaker of the evening, Dr. Ira N. Hollis,

pool on the Celtic on May 30. He will deliver president of the Worcester Polytechnic Insti

the Adamson lecture of the University of Mantute, outlined the types of research suitable for

chester. He will afterwards lecture at King's educational institutions as differentiated from

College, London, and other institutions. the purely applied types of investigations more appropriately undertaken by commercial firms. MME. CURIE was given on May 26 the deDr. Hollis regretted that so much of the sci- gree of doctor of laws by the University of entific effort of this age has had to go into Pittsburgh, being presented by Dr. W. J. Holmethods of destruction of all that civilization land. During the day she visited the laborahas built up, and spoke in the highest terms of tories where was refined the gram of radium the utility of such researches as that of Pro- presented to her by President Harding on befessor Michelson in perfecting methods of ac

half of American women. On the following curate astronomical measurements which aid day she went to Canonsburg, Pa., to inspect the humanity in a comprehension of the immensity plant where the ore from which radium is obof the universe.

tained passes through the initial processes of

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