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associated with the scientific exploration of or by the aid of antiquated methods which led the Adirondack Mountains, the most pictur- to quite erroneous conclusions.

An assemesque part of the State of New York, the blage of crystalline limestone, quartzites, great playground of the people of this and schists and gneisses was clearly of sedimentother states. In 1893 Cushing, with James ary origin, while certain massive rocks were F. Kemp and C. H. Smyth, Jr., entered this as clearly igneous. There were also extensive difficult field for the purpose of intensive in- areas of gneisses and schists of doubtful orivestigation of its geological structure. For gin. To determine the origin of these rocks, more than one generation it had been a com- together with the structural and age relations mon remark among intelligent people that the of the various formations, was the fundaAdirondacks were “the oldest rocks on earth," mental problem. Working at first in the but except in broadest features their structures northeastern part of the region, Cushing had were not understood or the relations of their to deal mainly with rocks that proved to be mountain-making rock masses, one to another, igneous, and he was able to establish not only comprehended. Professor Kemp, conceiving their origin but also, to a large extent, their the importance of a systematic attack on this time relations, and particularly that of the resistant field where geological information very extensive anorthosites and syenites. The had lagged so far behind the rest of the state, work was later extended to the southern edge brought together this little trinity of workers of the Adirondacks and, finally, to the northunder the auspices of the state survey and western part, his last paper being a report on its joint activity continued for many years; the Gouverneur quadrangle, now in press. and though the attack eventually became a In this district he came in contact with exdesultory one by two of the three, Cushing's tensive areas of the Grenville sedimentary part went on without interruption. He was a series, and worked out in detail their relafine geologist in a difficult field, keen, patient, tions to the granites, syenites and gabbros. with the factors of his problem fully in hand; In this work he emphasized the relatively an excellent petrologist with a perfectly com- slight erosion of the crystalline rocks as competent understanding of the dynamics of the pared with districts to the east, with the rePrecambrian rocks. His grasp of the compli- sultant partial, or complete, survival of the cated Precambrian history of New York and roofs of batholiths. In the course of these the succession of events composing it finally years of field and laboratory study he gathenabled him to tell the story in his “ Geology ered a great mass of data which afforded the of the Northern Adirondacks." From the be- basis for important papers dealing with difginning of his field work in New York Pro- ferentiation, assimilation, and other petrologic fessor Cushing showed that he was quite as problems. In this work he was greatly aided competent to carry on the work in the un- by a series of highly accurate analyses of altered sedimentary rocks, even in the in- rocks made for him by his friend, Dr. E. W. tensive way which present requirements de- Morley. mand. He was a manly, frank, open-hearted One can not look over Cushing's publicaand devoted student of his science, who chal- tions on the Adirondack region, even casually, lenged respect for his work and engaged the without being impressed by the great volume deep attachment of those who were admitted of work represented, and the wide range of to his friendship.

problems treated. The more carefully his John M. CLARKE papers are studied, the more evident is the

wealth of accurate observation and carefully WHEN Cushing began his work in the Adi- reasoned conclusions contained in them. They rondack region in 1893 the pre-Cambrian constitute a brilliant record of achievement rocks, excepting the area in which Kemp was in a difficult field of research. working, had been studied only very locally

C. H. SMYTH, JR.

ALTHOUGH Professor Cushing was primarily

consist largely of the thinner, near-shore edges interested in Precambrian lithology and stra- of a great number of formations, and that tigraphy, he was led into stratigraphic inves- there is a great lack of correspondence betigation of the Paleozoic formations by his tween the formations on the different sides. work along the margin of the Adirondack mas

This conclusion found its expression in a sive and his desire to read the history of this

more refned distinction and correlation of region from the overlapping and surrounding formational units in the Paleozoic rocks surPaleozoic rocks. He was a pioneer in this

rounding the Adirondacks. work, and by his method of carefully noting Cushing's stratigraphic work has left its and comparing the lithologic characters, rela- indelible impress upon the elaboration of the tive thicknesses and amounts of overlap on

geologic history of New York. He was equally the Precambrian, as well as the fossil con- keen and enthusiastic in studying the lithotents of the various Paleozoic formations, he logic and structural, as well as the stratiwas able to trace the unequal emergences and graphic and faunistic characters of the formasubmergences of the different sides of the tions; and those who had the good fortune to Adirondack massive.

be associated with him in the field will never He began at the northeast corner of the forget his vigorous sterling character, cautious Adirondacks, in Clinton county, where he and fair weighing of all evidence, and his fine early recognized the great thicknesses of the sense of humor. Potsdam and Beekmantown formations and

R. RUEDEMANN their thinning westward and southward, implying the more rapid and steady subsidence

SCIENTIFIC EVENTS of the northeastern part of the Adirondacks AN ENGLISH HOSPITAL FOR NERVOUS in Late Cambrian and Early Ordovician time.

DISORDERS Then at the southwest corner he found the We learn from the London Times that Sir successive overlap of the Ordovician forma- Ernest Cassel has given £225,000 to found and tions, notably of the Beekmantown and Tren- endow a hospital or sanatorium for the treatton, upon the comparatively even Precambrian ment of functional nervous disorders, and the floor and thus inferred a relatively even sink- King and Queen have consented to become paing of this side of the Adirondacks in Early trons of the new institution. Sir Ernest Casand Middle Ordovician time, interrupted by sel has purchased a fine mansion and park in an elevation in Chazy time.

ideal surroundings at Penshurst, Kent, for the In the “Geology of the Northern Adiron- purpose. The house, which has been recondack Region” the Paleozoic history of the structed, will accommodate about 60 patients, Adirondacks is for the first time treated logic- and was opened on May 23. ally by a comparison of the Paleozoic deposits By the term “ functional nervous disorders” on all four sides. This work also showed will be understood those common but complex Cushing where correct data were still lacking and distressing conditions which are not the for a more comprehensive treatment of his direct outcome of organic disease. Among subject. These data were supplied by his such may be named neurasthenia, nervous later work (jointly with Ulrich and Ruede- break-down, loss of power not associated with mann) on the Paleozoics of the Thousand evident structural changes, together with Islands (northwest corner), Saratoga Springs those manifold kindred troubles which are (northeast corner) and Ogdensburg (north loosely termed “nervous.” Largely the result side) regions. It was his intention to con- of the stress and turmoil of modern life, they tinue the work in the Watertown region to- are unfortunately of great frequency and are gether with Ruedemann. Jointly with these accompanied by much suffering, and followed, co-workers he reached the conclusion that the not uncommonly, by disastrous mental and Paleozoic rocks which rim the Adirondacks physical consequences. Subjects of these disorders often become incapacitated and remain untrammeled use by her in experimentation and in so for want of the particular treatment they pursuit of science, require. For such treatment scarcely any fa

Now, therefore, in consideration of the object cilities exist at the present moment. To say

above set forth and in order that the fullest sci

entific use may be made of such material, the that a condition is merely due to "nerves

said executive committee of the Mme. Curie Fund, has been almost equivalent to saying that it

as representing the subscribers thereto, does hereby calls for nothing beyond rest and change. give, grant and transfer to Mme. Marie Curie the These disorders are, however, amenable to said gram of radium, to be used and applied by medical treatment under favorable conditions, her freely and in her discretion in experimentation and it is to provide such means of cure and

and in the best interests of science by herself perfurther to expand and elaborate them that the

sonally, or under her direction or through such present institution has been founded.

agencies, assistants and successors as she may

nominate, and in the confident expectation that The hospital is primarily intended for those

Mme. Curie will take measures as will insure the members of the educated classes who are un- continued use of the said material for the purable to meet the heavy expenses associated poses stated, in case of her withdrawal from activi. with care and treatment in a nursing home. ties or other disability through such persons as she The upkeep of the institution and the treat- may adjudge best qualified for the purpose. ment of the patients have been largely pro

RUINS IN THE UPPER CANADIAN VALLEY vided for by the generosity of the founder, but a charge will be made to each patient as

In March and April, Messrs. W. K. Moore

head and J. B. Thoburn travelled through the a contribution to his or her maintenance. The members of the general committee,

Upper Canadian valley and the Panhandle of

Texas and eastern New Mexico, continuing under the chairmanship of Sir Ernest Cassel, are Sir Robert Hudson, Sir Courtauld Thom

the explorations begun last spring in that

region. They discovered that the small buildson, Sir Felix Cassel (the trustees of the fund), and Mrs. Joshua, together with the

ings and house foundations which are sup

posed to have marked the beginning of the members of the medical committee, Miss Aldrich-Blake, M.S., Dr. Farquhar Buzzard,

Pueblo-Cliff Dweller culture extended through

New Mexico to the foot of the continental Sir Maurice Craig, Lord Dawson, Professor

divide. In the Mora valley they found seven J. S. Haldane, Dr. Henry Head, Dr. A. F. Hurst, and Sir Frederick Treves. Dr. T. A.

or eight small ruins and one L-shaped strucRoss, who has had a wide experience of dis

ture 200 x 150 feet which were distinctively eases of the nervous system, has been ap

Pueblo. On the surface, and by means of expointed medical director.

cavation, broken pottery of black and white

design was found. This was archaic Pueblom THE GIFT TO MME. CURIE

the earliest type. In Ute and La Cinta can

yons were found rock shelters and caverns The deed of gift, which accompanied the

which had been inhabited by Indians. Many gram of radium presented to Mme. Curie by

more petroglyphs were also discovered. President Harding on May 27 reads:

The results of this expedition are said to This agreement, made this 19th of May, 1921, confirm the observations made last year to the between the Committee of Women of the Marie

effect that a new field in American archeology Curie Fund, of 3 Macdougal Street, New York

has been opened and that Indian remains exCity, and Mme. Curie, of Paris, France, wit

tend through a territory approximately 250 x nesseth: WHEREAS a gram of radium has been secured

150 miles. through the efforts of the above mentioned committee and by the voluntary subscriptions of the

GEOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO CHINA women of the United States for the purpose of A PARTY of six geologists and mining engipresentation to Mme. Marie Curie for free and neers from Minnesota and Wisconsin, includ

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ing Professor W. J. Mead, of the department vard University, in charge of botany; and of geology, W. R. Appleby, of the school of George S. McCarthy, of Woodbury, N. J., mines, University of Minnesota; Professor W. taxidermist. H. Emmons, University of Minnesota; Frank From Antofagasta, the expedition will travel Hutchinson, consulting engineer, Duluth, by way of the Guggenheim mining properties Minn.; L. D. Davenport, mining engineer, to La Paz, Bolivia. From La Paz it will pass Hibbing, Minn.; and W. H. Graigo, mining through unexplored territory, crossing the engineer, recently of South Africa, of the Uni- Andes at an elevation of more than 19,000 feet. versity of Wisconsin, will go to China this Calomar will be used as a base for the expesummer as consulting experts for the South dition. Manchuria Railway company. The party will sail from Seattle early in June and return in SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS October. Professor Mead writes:

THE ROYAL SOCIETY on May 5 elected as The South Manchuria Railway company controls

foreign members Dr. Albert Calmette, of the partly developed iron and coal deposits near Mukdan, South Manchuria. The iron deposits resemble

Pasteur Institute; Dr. Henri Deslandres, of geologically those of the Lake Superior region.

the Paris Observatory; Professor Albert EinThe railway company has employed a group of

stein, of the University of Berlin; Professor technical men familiar with the Lake Superior iron Albin Haller, of the University of Paris; Promining industry to make a thorough investigation fessor E. B. Wilson, of Columbia University, of the Manchurian deposits during the coming and Professor P. Zeeman, of the University of summer and to advise on the best methods of open- Amsterdam. ing up and developing both the iron ore and the coal.

PROFESSOR GEORGE C. WHIPPLE, of the Har

vard Engineering School and the Harvard EXPEDITION TO THE UPPER BASIN OF THE Technology School of Public Health, has been AMAZON

elected an honorary fellow of the Royal SaniAn expedition to the headwaters of the tary Institute of Great Britain. Amazon River, under the leadership of Dr. H.

Dr. Otto Klotz, director of the Dominion H. Rusby, dean of the school of pharmacy of Observatory, Ottawa, has been elected presiColumbia University, will sail for Antofa- dent of Section III. (Mathematical, Physical gasta, Chile, on June 1. The main object of and Chemical Sciences of the Royal Society the expedition, which is financed by the H. of Canada. K. Mulford Company, is the collection of herbs and plants likely to be of use in medicine, but

THE following officers were elected at the studies will be made of the fauna and

annual meeting of the Kentucky Academy of flora of the region.

Sciences on May 14: Dr. Frederick L. Hoffman, statistician and

President, George D. Smith, Eastern Kentucky vice-president of the Prudential Life Insur

State Normal School, Richmond, Ky.

Vice-president, Lucien Beckner, Winchester, Ky. ance Company, will accompany the expedition

Secretary, A. M. Peter, Experiment Station, to make a study of health conditions with a

Lexington, Ky. view to the possibility of the acclimatization

Treasurer, Chas. A. Shull, University of Kenof white men in the region. Other members tucky, Lexington, Ky. of the expedition are: Dr. William M. Mann, Member of Publications Committee, D. W. Marassistant entomologist of the Bureau of Ento- tin, Georgetown College, Georgetown, Ky. mology of the U. S. Department of Agri- Representative in the Council of the American culture, in charge of entomology; Dr. Everett

Association for the Advancement of Science, A.

M. Peter, Pearson, University of Indiana, in charge of ichthyology; Dr. Orland E. White, of the Dr. A. R. Mann, dean of the New York Brooklyn Botanical Garden, representing Har- State Agricultural College at Cornell University, has declined the post of New York UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL State Commissioner of Agriculture, to which

NEWS he was recently appointed by the State Council OFFICIAL announcement is made in Yale of Farms and Markets.

Alumni Weekly of the construction in the imROBERT C. DUNCAN, physicist at the Bureau

mediate future of a new chemical laboratory of Standards, has resigned to accept a position

by Yale University. It will be known as the as technicist for the Bureau of Ordnance,

Sterling Chemical Laboratory and will be Navy Department.

constructed to accommodate all the under

graduate and graduate chemical activities of MR. B. H. Rawl, assistant chief of the Bu

the university. At present the department of reau of Animal Industry, U. S. Department of

chemistry is occupying the two departmental Agriculture, has resigned to take charge of

laboratories, Kent and Sheffield, which are inthe educational work of the California Central

adequate to meet the future growth of the Creameries, with headquarters in San Fran

department. cisco.

A MEMORIAL has been presented to the counDr. W. K. GREGORY sailed for Sydney, New

cil of the Senate of the University of CamSouth Wales, on May 31, to enlist the co- bridge for a syndicate to be appointed to conoperation of Australian museums with the

sider possible alterations in the Mathematical American Museum of Natural History and to

and Natural Sciences Triposes with the object secure material for the Australian Hall of the

of facilitating the acquisition by candidates Museum.

in one subject of a knowledge of the other. MR. W. L. G. JOERG, of the scientific staff of PROFESSOR R. A. DUTCHER of the departthe American Geographical Society of New

ment of biochemistry will leave the University York and editor of its Research Series, left of Minnesota at the end of the school year to on May 21 on a six months' leave of absence become head of the department of chemistry for a trip to Europe on behalf of the society

in the college of agriculture at Pennsylvania to study the present status and tendencies of State College. geography in Europe and to establish closer

PROFESSOR A. D. Ross, professor of matherelations with kindred workers and institu

matics and physics and formerly vice-chantions.

cellor of the University of Western Australia, Dr. H. H. WHETZEL, head of the department Perth, has been elected a member of the govof plant pathology at Cornell University, has erning body of the university. been granted sabbatical leave for the year It is proposed to appoint Professor H. 1921–22. He will sail on June 8 for Bermuda,

Lamb, now in residence in the University of where he is to be associated with the Depart

Cambridge, to an honorary university lecturement of Agriculture of the Islands in plant

ship to be called the Rayleigh lectureship in disease survey and research work. Dr. L. M.

mathematics. Massey will be acting head of the department in the absence of Professor Whetzel.

DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE A BOTANICAL garden, established as part of

THE AURORA OF MAY 14, 1921 Albany's park development program in cooper- A VERY bright auroral display was observed ation with the Albany College of Pharmacy, here on the evening of May 14. The sky was which will contain every plant grown in the overcast until 10 P.M. eastern standard time. state, is included in the new college plans. Ac- As the clouds dissolved, the aurora was noted cording to Dean Mansfield, the garden will be in spite of the bright moonlight. one of the most complete of its kind in the The focus of the display was near the zenith United States and will be arranged after the in the vicinity of the star Arcturus. From plan of the London and Paris botanical parks. that point streamers radiated in all directions,

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