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is no agency equipped to organize the educational work that should be introduced into our colleges and schools, aside from popular education in conservation.

It must be clear to every student of the natural resource problem that 'there is an undertaking in conservation of great magnitude awaiting leadership and organized effort. There is an opportunity and, in my opinion, a duty for the great national organizations of scientific men to join hands in assuming this leadership. They are in a position to bring into harmony the objectives, the policies, and the efforts of those working in the several branches of natural resources. Under their guidance and inspiration there could be assembled the available information regarding our natural resources, and the interpretation of the problems of conservation from the broad viewpoint of the relation of all resources to our national development. The scientific organizations would thus be able to contribute to the formulation of public policies, and to aid in bringing about their adoption. And finally, it would be possible for them through existing agencies to carry out an educational plan for the introduction of appropriate studies in conservation in our schools and colleges, and to forward a far-reaching campaign of popular education.

The appointment of conservation committees by the National Academy of Sciences, the National Research Council, and the Association for the Advancement of Science, and the meeting of these committees for the consideration of joint action, should prove to be the first step in a new leadership that will give power to the conservation movement, with the promise of very large achievement.

In my opinion a very great responsibility rests upon this conference. We have an opportunity to organize the intellectual forces of the country in a movement that will have a profound influence upon the future well-being of the country. Our action may determine the direction the movement may take, and whether it will be effective or lag behind for lack of leadership. A great public interest depends


TION ADDRESS TO MME. CURIE Mme. Curie: It is with an especial satisfaction that I perform the pleasant duty which has been assigned to me to-day. On behalf of the American nation I greet and welcome you to our country, in which you will everywhere find the most cordial reception.

We welcome you

an adopted daughter of France, our earliest supporter among the great nations. We greet you as a native born daughter of Poland-newest, as it is also among the oldest of the great nations, and always bound by ties of closest sympathy to our own Republic. In you we see the representative of Poland, restored and reinstated to its rightful place; of France, valiantly maintained in the high estate which has ever been its right.

As a nation whose womanhood has been exalted to fullest participation in citizenship, we are proud to honor in you a woman whose work has earned universal acclaim and attested woman's equality in every intellectual and spirtual activity.

We greet you as foremost among scientists in the age of science, as leader among women in the generation which sees woman tardily into her own. We greet you as an exemplar of liberty's victories in the generation wherein liberty has won her crown of glory.

In doing honor to you we testify anew our pride in the ancient friendships which have bound us to both the country of your adoption and that of your nativity. We exalt anew our pride that we have stood with them in the struggle for civilization, and have touched elbows with them in the march of progress.

It has been your fortune, Mme. Curie, to accomplish an immortal work for humanity. We are not without understanding of the trials and sacrifices which have been the price of your achievement. We know something of the fervid purpose and deep devotion which in


spired you.

We bring to you the meed of only contribution has been the power of their honor which is due to preeminence in science, united appeal. scholarship, research and humanitarianism. Let me press the analogy a little further. But with it all we bring something more. We The world to-day is appealing to its statesmen, lay at your feet the testimony of that love its sociologists, its humanitarians and its rewhich all the generation of men have been ligious leaders for solution of appalling probwont to bestow upon the noble woman, the un-. lems. I want to hope that the power and uniselfish wife, the devoted mother. If, indeed, versality of that appeal will inspire strong, dothese simpler and commoner relations of life vout, consecrated men and women to seek out could not keep you from attainments in the the solution, and, in the light of their wisdom, realms of science and intellect, it is also true to carry it to all mankind. I have faith to that the zeal, ambition and unswerving purpose believe that precisely that will happen, and in of a lofty career could not bar you from splen- your own career of fine achievement I find didly doing all the plain but worthy tasks heartening justification for my faith. which fall to every woman's lot.

In testimony of the affection of the AmeriA number of years ago a reader of one of can people, of their confidence in your scienyour earlier works on radioactive substances tific work, and of their earnest wish that your noted the observation that there was much di- genius and energy may receive all encouragevergence of opinion as to whether the energy ment to carry forward your efforts for the adof radioactive substances is created within vance of science and conquest of disease, I those substances themselves, or is gathered to have been commissioned to present to you this them from outside sources and then diffused little phial of radium. To you we owe our from them. The question suggested an answer knowledge and possession of it, and so to you which is doubtless hopelessly unscientific. I we give it, confident that in your possession it have liked to believe in an analogy between the will be the means further to unveil the fascispiritual and the physical world. I have been nating secrets of nature, to widen the field of very sure that that which I may call the radio- useful knowledge, to alleviate suffering among active soul, or spirit, or intellect-call it the children of man. Take it to use as your what you choose-must first gather to itself, wisdom shall direct and your purpose of serfrom its surroundings, the power that it after- vice shall incline you. Be sure that we esteem ward radiates in beneficence to those near it. it but a small earnest of the sentiments for I believe it is the sum of many inspirations, which it stands. It betokens the affection of borne in on great souls, which enables them one great people for another. It will remind to warm, to scintillate, to radiate, to illumine you of the love of a grateful people for yourand serve those about them. I am so sure self; and it will testify in the useful work to of this explanation for the radioactive per- which you will devote it, the reverence of mansonality that I feel somehow a conviction that kind for one of its foremost benefactors and science will one day establish a like explana- most beloved of women. tion for radioactivity among inanimate substances.

HENRY PLATT CUSHING Perhaps, in my innocence of science, I am The death of Professor Cushing in the airily rushing in where scientists fear to tread. month of April last at his home in Cleveland, But I am trying to express to you my convic- has already been announced in these columns. tion that the great things achieved by great His colleagues on the Geological Survey of minds would never have been wrought with- New York wish to pay the following brief out the inspiration of an appealing need for tribute to his friendship and worth. His scithem. That appeal

spiration to entific work is a part of the enduring records successful effort, and success in turn enables of the survey with which he was associated for the outgiving of benefits to millions whose twenty-eight years. His name will be forever

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associated with the scientific exploration of the Adirondack Mountains, the most picturesque part of the State of New York, the great playground of the people of this and other states. In 1893 Cushing, with James F. Kemp and C. H. Smyth, Jr., entered this difficult field for the purpose of intensive investigation of its geological structure. For more than one generation it had been a common remark among intelligent people that the Adirondacks were “ the oldest rocks on earth," but except in broadest features their structures were not understood or the relations of their mountain-making rock masses, one to another, comprehended. Professor Kemp, conceiving the importance of a systematic attack on this resistant field where geological information had lagged so far behind the rest of the state, brought together this little trinity of workers under the auspices of the state survey and its joint activity continued for many years; and though the attack eventually became a desultory one by two of the three, Cushing's part went on without interruption. He was a fine geologist in a difficult field, keen, patient, with the factors of his problem fully in hand; an excellent petrologist with a perfectly competent understanding of the dynamics of the Precambrian rocks. His grasp of the complicated Precambrian history of New York and the succession of events composing it finally enabled him to tell the story in his “ Geology of the Northern Adirondacks." From the beginning of his field work in New York Professor Cushing showed that he was quite as competent to carry on the work in the unaltered sedimentary rocks, even in the intensive way which present requirements demand. He was a manly, frank, open-hearted and devoted student of his science, who challenged respect for his work and engaged the deep attachment of those who were admitted to his friendship.


or by the aid of antiquated methods which led to quite erroneous conclusions. An assemblage of crystalline limestone, quartzites, , schists and gneisses was clearly of sedimentary origin, while certain massive rocks were as clearly igneous. There were also extensive areas of gneisses and schists of doubtful origin. To determine the origin of these rocks, together with the structural and age relations of the various formations, was the fundamental problem. Working at first in the northeastern part of the region, Cushing had to deal mainly with rocks that proved to be igneous, and he was able to establish not only their origin but also, to a large extent, their time relations, and particularly that of the very extensive anorthosites and syenites. The work was later extended to the southern edge of the Adirondacks and, finally, to the northwestern part, his last paper being a report on the Gouverneur quadrangle, now in press.

In this district he came in contact with extensive areas of the Grenville sedimentary series, and worked out in detail their relations to the granites, syenites and gabbros. In this work he emphasized the relatively slight erosion of the crystalline rocks as compared with districts to the east, with the resultant partial, or complete, survival of the roofs of batholiths. In the course of these years of field and laboratory study he gathered a great mass of data which afforded the basis for important papers dealing with differentiation, assimilation, and other petrologic problems. In this work he was greatly aided by a series of highly accurate analyses of rocks made for him by his friend, Dr. E. W. Morley.

One can not look over Cushing's publications on the Adirondack region, even casually, without being impressed by the great volume of work represented, and the wide range of problems treated. The more carefully his papers are studied, the more evident is the wealth of accurate observation and carefully reasoned conclusions contained in them. They constitute a brilliant record of achievement in a difficult field of research.


WHEN Cushing began his work in the Adirondack region in 1893 the pre-Cambrian rocks, excepting the area in which Kemp was working, had been studied only very locally

Although Professor Cushing was primarily

consist largely of the thinner, near-shore edges interested in Precambrian lithology and stra

of a great number of formations, and that tigraphy, he was led into stratigraphic inves- there is a great lack of correspondence betigation of the Paleozoic formations by his tween the formations on the different sides. work along the margin of the Adirondack mas

This conclusion found its expression in a sive and his desire to read the history of this more refned distinction and correlation of region from the overlapping and surrounding formational units in the Paleozoic rocks surPaleozoic rocks. He was a pioneer in this rounding the Adirondacks. work, and by his method of carefully noting Cushing's stratigraphic work has left its and comparing the lithologic characters, rela- indelible impress upon the elaboration of the tive thicknesses and amounts of overlap on

geologic history of New York. He was equally the Precambrian, as well as the fossil con

keen and enthusiastic in studying the lithotents of the various Paleozoic formations, he logic and structural, as well as the stratiwas able to trace the unequal emergences and graphic and faunistic characters of the formasubmergences of the different sides of the tions; and those who had the good fortune to Adirondack massive.

be associated with him in the field will never He began at the northeast corner of the forget his vigorous sterling character, cautious Adirondacks, in Clinton county, where he and fair weighing of all evidence, and his fine early recognized the great thicknesses of the sense of humor. Potsdam and Beekmantown formations and

R. RUEDEMANN their thinning westward and southward, implying the more rapid and steady subsidence

SCIENTIFIC EVENTS of the northeastern part of the Adirondacks

AN ENGLISH HOSPITAL FOR NERVOUS in Late Cambrian and Early Ordovician time.

DISORDERS Then at the southwest corner he found the We learn from the London Times that Sir successive overlap of the Ordovician forma- Ernest Cassel has given £225,000 to found and tions, notably of the Beekmantown and Tren- endow a hospital or sanatorium for the treatton, upon the comparatively even Precambrian ment of functional nervous disorders, and the floor and thus inferred a relatively even sink- King and Queen have consented to become paing of this side of the Adirondacks in Early trons of the new institution. Sir Ernest Casand Middle Ordovician time, interrupted by sel has purchased a fine mansion and park in an elevation in Chazy time.

ideal surroundings at Penshurst, Kent, for the In the “ Geology of the Northern Adiron- purpose. The house, which has been recondack Region ” the Paleozoic history of the structed, will accommodate about 60 patients, Adirondacks is for the first time treated logic- and was opened on May 23. ally by a comparison of the Paleozoic deposits By the term “functional nervous disorders” on all four sides. This work also showed will be understood those common but complex Cushing where correct data were still lacking and distressing conditions which are not the for a more comprehensive treatment of his direct outcome of organic disease. Among subject. These data were supplied by his such may be named neurasthenia, nervous later work (jointly with Ulrich and Ruede- break-down, loss of power not associated with mann) on the Paleozoics of the Thousand evident structural changes, together with Islands (northwest corner), Saratoga Springs those manifold kindred troubles which are (northeast corner) and Ogdensburg (north loosely termed "nervous." Largely the result side) regions. It was his intention to con- of the stress and turmoil of modern life, they tinue the work in the Watertown region to- are unfortunately of great frequency and are gether with Ruedemann. Jointly with these accompanied by much suffering, and followed, co-workers he reached the conclusion that the not uncomi

mmonly, by disastrous mental and Paleozoic rocks which rim the Adirondacks physical consequences. Subjects of these disorders often become incapacitated and remain untrammeled use by her in experimentation and in so for want of the particular treatment they

pursuit of science, require. For such treatment scarcely any fa

Now, therefore, in consideration of the object

above set forth and in order that the fullest scicilities exist at the present moment. To say

entific use may be made of such material, the that a condition is merely due to nerves

said executive committee of the Mme. Curie Fund, has been almost equivalent to saying that it

as representing the subscribers thereto, does hereby calls for nothing beyond rest and change. give, grant and transfer to Mme. Marie Curie the These disorders are, however, amenable to said gram of radium, to be used and applied by medical treatment under favorable conditions, her freely and in her discretion in experimentation and it is to provide such means of cure and

and in the best interests of science by herself perfurther to expand and elaborate them that the

sonally, or under her direction or through such

agencies, assistants and successors as she may present institution has been founded.

nominate, and in the confident expectation that The hospital is primarily intended for those

Mme. Curie will take measures as will insure the members of the educated classes who are un- continued use of the said material for the purable to meet the heavy expenses associated poses stated, in case of her withdrawal from activi. with care and treatment in a nursing home. ties or other disability through such persons as she The upkeep of the institution and the treat- may adjudge best qualified for the purpose. ment of the patients have been largely pro

RUINS IN THE UPPER CANADIAN VALLEY vided for by the generosity of the founder,

In March and April, Messrs. W. K. Moorebut a charge will be made to each patient as

head and J. B. Thoburn travelled through the a contribution to his or her maintenance. The members of the general committee,

Upper Canadian valley and the Panhandle of

Texas and eastern New Mexico, continuing under the chairmanship of Sir Ernest Cassel, are Sir Robert Hudson, Sir Courtauld Thom

the explorations begun last spring in that son, Sir Felix Cassel (the trustees of the

region. They discovered that the small buildfund), and Mrs. Joshua, together with the

ings and house foundations which are supmembers of the medical committee, Miss

posed to have marked the beginning of the

Pueblo-Cliff Dweller culture extended through Aldrich-Blake, M.S., Dr. Farquhar Buzzard,

New Mexico to the foot of the continental Sir Maurice Craig, Lord Dawson, Professor

divide. In the Mora valley they found seven J. S. Haldane, Dr. Henry Head, Dr. A. F. Hurst, and Sir Frederick Treves. Dr. T. A.

or eight small ruins and one L-shaped struc

ture 200 x 150 feet which were distinctively Ross, who has had a wide experience of dis

Pueblo. On the surface, and by means of exeases of the nervous system, has been appointed medical director.

cavation, broken pottery of black and white

design was found. This was archaic Pueblo, THE GIFT TO MME. CURIE

the earliest type. In Ute and La Cinta can

yons were found rock shelters and caverns The deed of gift, which accompanied the

which had been inhabited by Indians. Many gram of radium presented to Mme. Curie by

more petroglyphs were also discovered. President Harding on May 27 reads:

The results of this expedition are said to This agreement, made this 19th of May, 1921, confirm the observations made last year to the between the Committee of Women of the Marie

effect that a new field in American archeology Curie Fund, of 3 Macdougal Street, New York

has been opened and that Indian remains exCity, and Mme. Curie, of Paris, France, wit

tend through a territory approximately 250 x nesseth:

150 miles. WHEREAS a gram of radium has been secured through the efforts of the above mentioned com

GEOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO CHINA mittee and by the voluntary subscriptions of the women of the United States for the purpose of A PARTY of six geologists and mining engipresentation to Mme. Marie Curie for free and neers from Minnesota and Wisconsin, includ

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