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A close textured filter paper with the highest speed consistent with the retention of fine precipitates.
Standardized tests for the control of the manufacture of this paper show it superior in these important characteristics to the best imported papers. The ash averages about 0.016 per cent., which for the il cm. size is equivalent to 0.00012 grams per circle.
This paper was developed in the laboratories of Arthur D. Little, Inc., and is made on their experimental paper machine, which is operated with distilled water.
It is the first high-grade quantitative filter paper to be entirely made in the U. S. and, we believe, is destined to rank with Pyrex chemical glassware and Coors laboratory porcelain ware in its importance as an American product for which chemists in pre-war years were entirely dependent on foreign factories.
110 0.7700 .00012
27755. Filter Paper, A.D.L. Double Washed, Quantitative, as above described.
0.1930 0.3100 0.5200 Ash per circle, grams.
.00003 .00005 .00008
'150 Weight per circle, grams.
0.9900 1.4300 Ash per circle, grams...
Sample packets of six 11 cm. circles sent free on request
185 1.9500 .00031
ARTHUR H. THOMAS COMPANY
WHOLESALE, RETAIL AND EXPORT MERCHANTS
WEST WASHINGTON SQUARE
PHILADELPHIA, U. S. A.
THE DUTY OF SCIENTIFIC MEN IN
CONSERVATION 1 The conservation movement of a few years ago crystallized and brought to public attention a great principle, one so far reaching that its real significance and scope are even to-day not generally grasped. Regardless of how the term may be defined, the problem of conservation involves the whole question of the relation of our natural resources to the economic life and upbuilding of the country. We have to do not merely with the prevention of waste and economical use of our resources, but also with the problem of how these resources may render their highest service in building up local communities, maintaining our industries, and contributing to a strong civilization.
We can point to considerable progress in certain features of conservation during the past decade. Scientific men have conducted research of great value that already is resulting in new uses of various raw materials, in more economical methods of handling them, and in improved methods of perpetuating those resources which are renewable; engineers are giving more attention than formerly to the problem of preventing unnecessary losses in the exploitation of raw resources; the more far-sighted leaders of industry have an increasing appreciation of the relation of natural resources to the permanence of their own enterprises. And yet, the conservation principle is making slow headway, when viewed from the larger aspects of the economic needs of the country. The loss through unnecessary waste is still appalling, uneconomic methods in the use and development of various
1 This paper was presented at a joint meeting on April 9, of three Committees on Conservation, representing the National Academy of Sciences, the National Research Council, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
of the resources continue, and the interests been assembled and interpreted in a way to of industries and communities are already in show the real meaning of our resources and many cases jeopardized by the depletion of their conservation to the permanent advancelocal sources of raw material.
ment of our industrial and social life. Among the obstacles to the more rapid ap- Not long ago I asked a prominent leader of plication of the principles of conservation are forestry in Massachusetts if anyone could inignorance and indifference on the part of those form me just what the forests in that state engaged in developing natural resources, un- mean to its permanent economic life; the rewillingness to change old methods, and self- lation of the forests to wood-using industries, ishness of individuals who are willing to sac- their importance in maintaining successful rifice even the interests of their own industry agriculture, their relation to transportation, to to immediate gains. But there are also ob- rural life, and to the labor problem of the stacles of an economic and public character, state. The answer was that no such comprethat are retarding progress. These relate to hensive study had ever been made. In that the character of ownership and control of state as elsewhere, the discussion of forestry natural resources, to the existing organization has centered chiefly about the problem of the of certain of the industries, to problems of production of board feet for the market. The transportation, and in some cases to questions economic aspects of forestry as a land problem of taxation and the relation of the public to have been subordinated or overlooked. Forindustry.
estry concerns the use and development of Scientific research furnishes the foundation nearly one third of the area of the entire of conservation. Education will solve the
country. We have the problem of whether problem of ignorance and indifference. The this vast area shall be of service in building up economic and political obstacles, however, can and maintaining permanent rural communiusually be overcome only through action by ties, with all the resulting benefits to the state the public. Thus it is that those who are and to the nation. When our forest problem engaged in promoting the principles of con- is studied in its relation to the concrete ecoservation in their respective fields are urging nomic needs of the localities where the relegislation in the federal Congress and in state sources are located, it takes on a new aspect, legislatures, seeking public aid for private
it reveals a more alarming situation than if it owners of resources and for the industries,
concerned only the question of a supply of public cooperation in marketing and distribu- specified products, and it calls for different tion, public action in road building and other considerations in public policy. transportation problems, and in some in- Our economic studies of natural resources stances public control over the basic resources have thus been too restricted in their viewthemselves, over their exploitation, or over the point, often overlooking aspects of great imdistribution of their products.
portance in formulating policies. This is In studying the situation in the different
especially true where the service of one natural fields of conservation, I have been increasingly resource is dependent upon the development impressed by the inadequacy of the available
and right handling of another. It is the geninformation about the different resources in eral rule that a state or a locality is not built their relation to the problems of our national up on the basis of a single resource. Its ecodevelopment. This may be surprising in view nomic prosperity depends upon many branches of the extensive research in different branches of industry using various resources some of of science, and the large amount of reliable which are obtained locally. A permanent indata in regard to the quantity of the various dustrial organization depends upon the right resources, their basic qualities, their possible handling of all the various natural resources. uses, and the general requirements of Ameri- The development of one may be dependent can industry. Yet this information has not upon others; the destruction of one may retard or entirely prevent further progress in You have doubtless, most of you, visited the the region. No better example of this prin- Landes district of southwestern France. This ciple can be found than agriculture and for- is an extensive sandy plain, presenting condiestry. In many regions the forest is essential tions similar in many respects to the coastal to permanent agriculture. Where the land is plain of our South. The original pine forests largely of high quality, agriculture can be car- were destroyed, and the whole region remained ried on as an independent enterprise; where for many years in a backward condition. Prior poor land predominates, successful agriculture to the middle of the last century this whole depends upon the development of other nat- area, through the initiative and cooperation of ural resources in the region. It was the for- the government, was reforested. The direct est and the forest industries that made farm- result was that the tillable lands, often in small ing possible in many of our lean-land regions. areas, were cultivated and a prosperous rural When the forest was destroyed, and the lum- organization built up. The farmers were able ber and auxiliary industries moved out, the to devote a part of their time to logging, to farms were abandoned or continued under turpentining, and to work in the mills. All great difficulties. The forest is often re- of the land is in use, furnishing several regarded only as a temporary cover which is to sources that altogether support an astonishbe removed to make way for agriculture or ingly large population. other industrial use of the ground.
I am in sympathy with the efforts to attract It is assumed that settlement will take place settlers to the South and other cut-over land after the forest has been destroyed. Precisely districts. I am in sympathy with the plans for this situation exists in the pine region of the public cooperation in land classification. I South. The forests are being cleared away am in sympathy with public encouragement of with great rapidity, with almost no effort to systematic establishment of farm colonies, even replacement. Every tree is cut that will make with public help as is successfully done in a log, including the young timber that has California. But first of all we must stop the grown since the Civil War; and many thou- wasteful destruction of the very resources that sands of acres of small trees 25 years or so are necessary to make such settlement work of age, are turpentined under methods that successful. And that can be done only by a will kill them within a few years. The own- recognition of the interrelation of the probers then undertake to dispose of the lands for lems of the various resources, and the working farming. The public is appealed to for co- together of all of them to the common end of operation in attracting settlers, and to estab- building up the country. lish colonies of farmers upon these devastated Many other illustrations could be given of
If this land were of the character of two or more resources which are interdepenthat in the Mississippi and Ohio valleys, the dent and whose problems of development and effort would be more successful. But only a conservation cannot be considered separately part of the land is fertile, and that is inter- without loss. Forestry and stock-raising, mixed with light soils suited only to tree farming and mining, agriculture and mining, growth. The raising of live stock will help forestry and recreation, wild life conservation this situation to some extent, just as it was a and grazing, water resources and forestry, great factor in the early settlement of Vir- water power, oil and coal, are a few examples. ginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, and other states. Oftentimes too there is a failure to consider But in the long run it will be the forest, grow- the larger aspects of resource development in ing on the poor soils, that will supplement the planning and building of highways. farming and stock raising and, by affording Transportation is one of the largest factors additional opportunities to the farmer and by in removing the economic obstacles to successsupporting local forest industries, will make ful conservation. In the past great sums have the settlement successful and permanent. been expended on unwisely planned roads. Every public officer charged with selecting road built up a rural organization. In many cases routes, is subject to enormous pressure to build this has broken down or its character has been specific roads in aid of special industrial changed. The building up of a sound rural groups or individual interests.
civilization on a permanent basis depends first brought home to me when, during my service of all on how we work out the new problems of as head of the Forest Service, we inaugurated handling our natural resources. a large enterprise of public highways in the I would not in any degree minimize the National Forests. In working out a policy of problem of conservation as it relates to the public highways the selection of projects and supply and distribution of raw materials for planning of the roads were based upon studies our various industries. The need of conserof all the various natural resources and of the vation from this aspect has been borne in upon local economic needs. Every road was to ren- our industries by the artificial shortage creder its highest service in aid of resource de- ated by conditions growing out of the war. velopment, in building up and maintaining
Less appreciated is the relation of conservapermanent communities; and in this we did tion to the welfare of the localities where the not overlook the encouragement of outdoor natural resources occur, and it is for that rearecreation through conserving the scenic val- son that I have to-day laid stress upon that ues along the routes.
special feature. One of the most important problems before The efforts in conservation to-day are scatour country to-day is to preserve and build up tered among a large number of institutions, a strong rural civilization. Every one at all organizations, and individuals. There is a familiar with our economic history appreciates lack of unified purpose and direction in the the influence on our physical prosperity and movement. Workers in separate fields fail upon the moulding of American character of to give adequate consideration to the bearing the existence of a vast public domain contain- of the problems of other resources upon their ing a wealth of natural resources of great va
Oftentimes there is an actual conflict riety and readily available for use.
of interests in the use and development of through this surplus of resources that there was two or more resources that is not being addeveloped among our people the qualities of justed and is leading to public injury. In the individuality, initiative, and self-reliance. field of public policy many proposals are beOur national strength lies in having a great ing made, each perhaps with a good purpose, number of small land proprietors, of small which are not in harmony as to principle and entrepreneurs in all industries, an army of often are in conflict, with resulting confusion men dependent upon their own individual ef- to the public and frequent failure to secure forts rather than upon mass organization. It the legislation requested. is for this reason that we are seriously con- To-day there is no central agency, governcerned by the movement away from the coun- mental or otherwise, that is considering our try to the industrial centers, and by the in- natural resources as a whole in their relation crease of ratio of the industrial to the rural to our economic, industrial, and social develpopulation. Our public domain is now but a opment. There is no leadership in conservafragment and is no longer available as a factor tion in its larger aspects, that defines objecin assimilating the great number of aliens that tives, assembles and interprets the basic data are flocking to our shores. The resources that regarding our resources, works out the princan readily be developed by the individual are ciples of harmonizing conflicting interests in approaching exhaustion; the surface cream of resource development, that furnishes, in short, our natural wealth has been skimmed off. the economic background for conservation and
We still possess vast resources, but their de- the principles that must underlie the public velopment involves new problems. The proc- action necessary to make our natural reess of exploiting the more accessible resources sources render their best service; and there