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Long life to the moon for a dear noble cratur first investigated the subject as to whether obWhich serves for lamplight all night in the dark, jects become visible by means of something emitted While the sun only shines in the day which by by them, or by means of something issuing from natur
the eye of the spectator.1 Wants no light at all as ye all may remark.
Some of the Greeks conceived vision as due was merely a manufactured story” without
to something (light?) projected from the eye. antecedent, it seems pertinent to remark that They all [some of the Greeks] had a confused this idea of the independence of daylight and notion that as we may feel bodies at a distance by the sun is of great antiquity and somewhat means of a rod, so the eye may perceive them
by the intervention of light. It is very remarkcommon in early civilization.
able that this strange hypothesis held ground for For example, in the Hebrew story of crea- many centuries, and little or no progress was made tion we find:
in the subject till it was established on the au..: God said, Let there be light: and there was
thority of Alhazen in the eleventh century light. And God saw the light, that it was good;
A, D., that the cause of vision proceeds from the
object and not from the eye.2 and God divided the light from the darkness. And God called the light day, and the darkness Aristotle maintained that light was not an he called night. And the evening and the morning emission from any source, but a mere quality were the first day. (Genesis I., 3–5.)
of a medium. This concept appears to be in On the second day God created the land and substantial accord with the first light of the water and on the third day the flora. Not author of Genesis. until the fourth day did God create the sun In spite of the existence of sun worship (Genesis I., 14–18) “ to divide the day from among many savages, it appears that our the night,” “to be for a sign," “ to rule the everyday commonplace concept of the sun as day" and incidentally " to give light upon the the primary source of light is of very recent earth.” Also, God set the “ lesser light (the origin among civilized peoples, and no astonmoon) to rule the night.” It also gave light ishment need be occasioned by finding savages upon the earth. Evidently, the Irishman's who have not grasped it. astronomy” and that of the South American
IRWIN G. PRIEST Indians are in strict and complete accord with WASHINGTON, D, C., the concepts of the author of Genesis. Quite April 20, 1921 clearly, the day was light before the sun was
A SECTION OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION set to rule” it, but the night was dark be
ON THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE fore the moon lighted it. It is not to be
TO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: As one of a presumed that we can attribute any Irish wit
group interested in the formation of a section to the author of Genesis, but it may be that
on the history of science, I would venture to the Irishman was a good orthodox churchman
suggest that the inclusive nature of the desigand, in common with many others, accepted nation
History of Science—is well illusthe scripture as his authority in science.
trated by the use of the word “science" by However, the Indians' concept must have been
the parent organization. Surely a section has of independent origin.
the same right to include historical, philoSeriously, does it not appear that the an- logical, and other sciences, which touch the cients, even in a high degree of civilization, history of science under the designationhad only very vague and confused ideas of the History of Science as the parent organizarelation between light and the sun?
tion 'has in its use of the term. The history Simple as it may appear to us to regard a lu
of science touches diverse fields, and as this minous body as the source of some influence, which, 1 Preston, Theory of Light, 3rd Ed., p. 2. acting on the eye, excites the sense of sight, much 2 Preston, p. 5. doubt appears to have existed among those who 3 Preston, p. 4.
subject becomes more intensely pursued in fight?” It seems likely; and the long line American Universities the contact with philol. from Salamis down, draws to an end. The deogy, anthropology, history, and allied subjects cisive conflicts of the future will be fought by will increase. To group “philological sci- aerial squadrons. ence” with “history of science” is abso- The present volume contains 12 chapters. lutely unnatural; it has an implication, ap- The first deals with Admiralty organization parently, that the history of science is to be and tells of the changes made in 1917. The studied from the philological standpoint. No Admiral believes that specialists (which means one would question that philology does fre- scientific experts) should be part of the staff, quently contribute, but it can hardly be said not just attached. to represent a fundamental method in the history of science.
In the Army there is, except in regard to artilHistory of science, using science with the lery, little specialization. The training received inclusive meaning as in the title A. A. A. S., by an officer of any of the fighting branches of the is surely the proper name for the new section Army at the Staff College may fit him to assist in now under way.
the planning and execution of operations, provided Louis C. KARPINSKI.
due regard is paid to questions of supply, transport, housing, etc. This is not so in the Navy.
He proceeds to show that naval officers are SCIENTIFIC BOOKS
quite a different order of being from land The Crisis of the Naval War. By Admiral of officers. Further discussion of this view may
the Fleet, VISCOUNT JELLICOE OF SCAPA, be omitted here. But the Admiral preaches G.C.B., O.M., G.C.V.O. 259 pages; 8 plates, sound gospel, so far as men of science are oon6 charts and appendices. George Doran Co. cerned, when he says: 1921.
Human nature being what it is, the safest proThis is a companion volume to Admiral
cedure is to place the specialist officer, where his Jellicoe's “ The Grand Fleet, 1914-1916”
voice must be heard, that is, give him a position on
the staff. which was reviewed in these columns. The meeting in battle of the fleets of Great Britain
Some rather forceful remarks follow to the and Germany was in its essence, a try-out of
effect that various divisions are not to work scientific methods of annihilation, as developed in water-tight compartments, but must be in by the leading scientific nations of the world. close touch with one another. It was said of the earlier volume that the book We notice that in the Admiralty reorganimight aptly carry as a sub-title “Science zation, Afloat up to 1916."
The well-known electrical consulting engineer The present volume gives developments dur- . ., has consented to serve as director of Experiing 1917. It is not the story of a great fight ments and Research, at the Admiralty-unpaid. like Jutland; but of undersea warfare, in We italicize one word and refrain from comwhich the submarine, like an assassin, struck ment. from behind or below. Warfare on the sea had' Chapter II. gives the general features of changed materially; and battleships needed the Submarine Campaign in the early part of screening from torpedo and mine, equally 1917. We are let in on certain state secrets; with transport and merchantman. One may well ask at this point, “Was Jutland” (in
“Experienced British officers aware of the ex
tent of the German submarine building program, some respects the greatest naval battle ever fought; but on the whole the least decisive and
and above all aware of the shadowy nature of our
existing means of defense against such a form of most unsatisfactory) “ the last great sea
warfare” realized that the Allies were faced 1 SCIENCE, N. S., Vol. L., No. 1279, pp. 21-23, with a situation fraught with the very gravest July 4, 1919.
Throughout the chapter and also in later their arduous and perilous work was carried out. chapters we are given clearly to understand These fine seamen though quite strange to the that the enemy submarine campaign was the
hazardous work which they were called upon to gravest peril which ever threatened Great
undertake quickly accustomed themselves to their Britain.
now duties; and the Nation should ever be full of
gratitude that it bred such a race of hardy, skilChapter III. tells of Anti-Submarine Opera
ful and courageous men as these who took 80 tions; and while the volume lacks a dra
great a part in defeating the greatest monace with matic climax, like Jutland, the reader whose
which the Empire has ever been faced. blood runs faster because of heroic deeds, can find in this chapter stirring records of courage
The references to the American Navy, and
in particular to Admiral Sims, are most comand defiance to the end, by the officers and men
plimentary. The laying of the mine barrage on decoy ships, drifters, trawlers and mine
from Scotland to Norway indicates how far sweepers. Chapter IV. describes the Introduction of
modern warfare at sea has changed since the
days when Captain Maban wrote his treatise the Convoy System. There were not enough
on “ Sea Power." destroyers to give adequate protection. Re
· In the future, the seaplane, greatly develquests for protection came from every quarter, but “the vessels wanted did not exist."
oped of course from its present stage, will be At the end of February, 1917, the enemy had
the effective unit, both in offense and defense.
With perhaps more truth the words of the 130 submarines of all types in home waters
Admiral regarding specialized training will and 20 in the Mediterranean.
hold for officers of the Air Service A very serious situation followed the sink
ALEXANDER MOADIE ing of 60 many tankers or fuel oil ships. These vessels of great length and slow speed presented the easiest of targets for a torpedo
Diseases of Economic Plants. By F. L. from a submerged submarine. The reserve of
STEVENS. New York, The Macmillan Com
pany. oil became so perilously low that directions were issued limiting the speed of warships
This is a revised edition of a former work burning oil.
under the same title by Stevens and Hall. Other chapters describe the effect of the
It will be welcomed not only by the proentry of the United States, the Patrol Craft
fessional botanists, but also by a very large and Minesweeping, Production at the Admir
number of teachers, county farm demonalty-and the Future.
strators and others who are finding plant The impression left on the reader is that the pathology a subject of increasing interest and big fleets, big guns and big ships were to a
importance. The importance of plant diseases
and the very rapid progress of plant pathology certain degree side-tracked; and that the smaller units did most of the work and were
makes frequent revision of a work of this the effective factors in winning the war. The
kind imperative. The general plan of the Admiral clearly indicates this in an eloquent
work is very similar the iginal edition
but is somewhat enlarged and has been passage on page 188.
brought up to date. The author pays a I regret very deeply that in spite of a strong pleasing tribute to our American workers by desire to undertake the task, I have neither the information nor the literary ability to do justice
inserting the pictures of Farlow, Burrill, to the many deeds of individual gallantry, self
Halsted, Bessey, Atkinson and E. F. Smith, sacrifice and resource performed by the splendid
who are so well known to all students of officers and men who manned the small craft. No mycology and plant pathology. words of mine can adequately convey the intenso The discussions are arranged with reference admiration which I felt and which I know was to the crops on which the diseases occur. The shared by the whole Navy for the manner in which diseases are grouped mostly with reference to
the crops on which they occur and are sub- mosome as being of the X-O type but recent divided into diseases of major and minor investigations in this field by the author inimportance. This arrangement is especially dicate that the X-Y type of chromosome may serviceable to those who are not specialists on be more common than is generally thought plant diseases. The descriptions of the symp
In the opossum, an animal for which the toms are brief, clear and very readable. There
X-0 type of sex-chromosome has been de is no attempt whatever to discuss the organ
scribed, the writer finds a typical X-Y sexisms which are the causes of these diseases
chromosome complex. Both the X and Y combut references are given to some of the more
ponents may be recognized in spermatogonial important publications. Each disease is desig
and somatic divisions because of their disnated by its common name; the scientific
tinctive size. In the first maturation division name for both the imperfect and the perfect
the X and Y elements segregate apart to stages, where known, are placed in parenthesis. The book also contains chapters on
opposite poles of the cell, and in the second
maturation division both divide equationally. the history of the subject, damages due to
Hence half of the sperm carry an X and half plant diseases, prevention and cure, general diseases which attack a large number of
carry a Y chromosome. crops, fungicides and soil disinfection. The The diploid chromosome number for both chapter on cost of spraying which was in the the male and female opossum is 22, and not first edition is very properly omitted since 17 or 24 as concluded by previous investithis is a varying factor dependent on cost of gators. materials and labor.
In the testes of both the white man and the The work is intended primarily as a text- negro I have found in the first spermatocytes book and it will prove of great service to all a chromosome pair which is similar in appearteachers of plant pathology. Possibly its ance and behavior to the X-Y chromosome of greatest value lies in the brief, clear descrip the opossum. The two members of this pair, tions which are of such great importance in in the human, representing the X and Y making diagnoses of diseases in the field. The
components, are unequal in size; they segrestudent of mycology will also find it an
gate apart in the first maturation division just important supplement for his work on eco
as in the case of the opossum. nomic forms. The horticulturists, nursery- It will be of general interest to biologists men, county farm demonstrators, progressive
to know that the diploid number of chromofarmers and in fact all others who are
somes for man is very close to the number interested in the applications of agriculture
(47) given by Winiwarter.?
In my own will find it an extremely useful reference
material the counts range from 45 to 48 apbook.
parent chromosomes, although in the clearest The mechanical make-up of the work is
equatorial plates so far studied only 46 chrogood except for the crowded arrangement of
mosomes have been found. Before a final the bibliography which would lead any one
conclusion is made on the exact number it is who uses it to fear that the supply of paper is exhausted.
desired to make a careful study of a large MEL T. Cook
number of division plates. There can be NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL
absolutely no question, however, but that the EXPERIMENT STATION
diploid number of chromosomes for both the
white man and the negro falls between 45 and SPECIAL ARTICLES
48. With the X-Y type of sex-chromosome we THE Y-CHROMOSOME IN MAMMALS
1 The writer's work now in press. The majority of workers on mammalian 2 Winiwarter, H. von, 1912, Arch. de Biol., spermatogenesis have described the sex-chro- Vol. 27.
may expect an even number, that is, either 46 eral business meeting held Tuesday morning, or 48.
April 26, Charles F. Chandler and William H. My material to date includes the testes of Nichols were unanimously elected honorary one white man and of two negroes. All indi- members of the society. The chief public adviduals were castrated because of self abuse, dress was given at Convention Hall on Wedat one of the Texas state institutions. The nesday evening, April 27, by Charles F. testes were removed with the use of local Chandler, on Chemistry in the United anæsthetics and immediately preserved in States.” At the general meeting on Tuesday. Bouin's fluid, to which chromic acid and urea afternoon, the following general papers were had been added. In less than a minute after presented: removal from the body the germ-cells were
“Ammono carbonic acids," by E. C. Franklin. being bathed in the fixing fluid. The preser
“The measurement of color," by C. E. K. vation thus obtained is very satisfactory.
Mees. In view of the uncertainty which has ex- “Blue eyes and blue feathers,” by W. D. isted regarding the chromosome number in Bancroft. man, the author will gladly send samples of "Surface Films as Plastic Solids,' " by R. E. this human material to any experienced
Wilson. cytologist in order that the latter may verify
"The relation between the stability and the for himself the correctness of the chromosome
structure of molecules,” by Irving Langmuir. counts given. The complete spermatogenesis
“Ionization of electrolytes," by G. N. Lewis. of man is being reworked by the writer at the The following divisions and sections met: present time and his results will be published
Divisions of Agricultural and Food Chemisin the near future.
try, Biological Chemistry, Chemistry of MeTHEOPHILUS S. PAINTER
dicinal Products, Dye Chemistry, Industrial
and Engineering Chemistry, Organic ChemUNIVERSITY OF TEXAS,
istry, Physical and Inorganic Chemistry, RubAUSTIN, TEXAS
ber Chemistry, and Water, Sewage and Sani
tation; Sections of Cellulose Chemistry, PeTHE ROCHESTER MEETING OF THE
troleum Chemistry and Sugar Chemistry and AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY
Technology. Further details of their meetings The sixty-first general meeting of the will be found in the May issue of the Journal American Chemical Society was held at
of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. Rochester, N. Y., from April 25 to April 29, Tuesday evening was given up to dinners inclusive. The council meeting was held on and gatherings of various colleges and fraterApril 25, the general meeting on the morning nities. On Thursday evening the good fellowand afternoon of the twenty-sixth, divisional ship meeting, complimentary to the members meetings all day Wednesday and Thursday, of the Rochester Section, consisted of a dinand excursions on Friday. Full details of the ner in the Bausch and Lomb dining hall, folmeeting and program will be found in the lowed by a varied and interesting program May issue of the Journal of Industrial and consisting of music, vaudeville entertainment, Engineering Chemistry. The registration was motion pictures of the convention itself and 1,139, and 1,270 sat down to dinner at the good prominent members thereof, and a film shown fellowship meeting.
for the first time, picturing the operations of General public addresses were given by the Eastman Kodak Company. The scientific Senator James W. Wadsworth, Jr., on Some program was the most extensive ever presented Problems of National Defense,” and by Con- before a meeting of the American Chemical gressman
Nicholas Longworth, on - The Society and consisted of 280 papers. American Chemical Industry and its Need for
CHARLES L. PARSONS, Encouragement and Protection.” At the gen