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from all parts of the world, the committee re- California, for the computation of chemical quested the director, Dr. Stephen P. Duggan, constants. to undertake the negotiations between the $300 to H. W. Norris, Grinnell College, Iowa, committee and the French university admin- for the investiga on of the nervous system of istration. The French administration re- the Elasmobranch fishes, and for the study sponded cordially to the offer for the annual of the Ganoid fishes. exchange of a professor. The French have $750 to Preston Edwards, Johns Hopkins selected, for their first representative, Profes- University, for investigations in acoustics. sor J. Cavalier, rector of the University of Toulouse, a well-known authority on metallur

SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS gical chemistry, to come to America this fall, MME. CURIE, accompanied by her two daughand to divide his time during the ensuing aca- ters, arrived in New York City on May 11. demic year, among the seven cooperating in- Last week she visited Smith, Mt. Holyoke and stitutions, nan

amely, Columbia, Cornell, Har- Vassar Colleges. According to the program vard, Johns Hopkins, the Massachusetts In- that has been arranged, she is given this week stitute of Technology, Pennsylvania and a luncheon by the chemists of New York City, Yale.

a welcome by the American Association of The American universities have selected as University Women, and a reception at the their outgoing representative for the same first American Museum of Natural History. On year (1921-22), Dr. A. E. Kennelly, professor Friday President Harding presents her with of electrical engineering at Harvard Univer- a gram of radium on behalf of the women of sity and the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- America. nology.

DEAN ALBERT R. MANN, of the New York

State Agricultural College at Cornell UniverGRANTS FROM THE BACHE FUND

sity, has been appointed head of the New York GRANTS from the Bache Fund of the Na- State Agricultural Department by the reortional Academy of Sciences have been made ganized Council of Farms and Markets. There as follows:

were three candidates—Raymond R. Pearson

and George E. Hogue, who have each held the $500 to C. H. Warren, Massachusetts Insti

office, and Dean Mann. tute of Technology, to defray the expense of chemical analysis in the study of igneous rocks

Dr. R. W. THATCHER, dean of the departfrom Massachusetts.

ment of agriculture and director of the agri$500 to Waldemar Lindgren, Massachusetts

cultural experiment station of the University Institute of Technology, for chemical analyses

of Minnesota for the past four years, has reof samples used in a study of additions and

signed in order to accept the appointment as losses that limestones from Bingham, Utah,

director of the New York State Agricultural

Experiment Station at Geneva, N. Y., effective have suffered in contact metamorphism.

on July 1. Dr. W. H. Jordan, who completes $500 to T. H. Goodspeed, University of California, for photographic records and illustra

twenty-five years of service as director of the

station at Geneva on June 30, retires on that tion, over a period of three years, for a study

date. of Nicotiana in respect of Mendelian inheritance, of quantitative inheritance, of inheri

DR. W. J. Mayo and Dr. C. H. Mayo have. tance of inter-specific hybrids, and of the na

recently received notification that honorary ture of bud variation.

fellowships in the Royal College of Surgeons $1,000 to Frank P. Underhill and Lafayette

of Ireland will be conferred upon them as soon B. Mendel, Yale University, for investigations

as they can attend the ceremony which will be on deficiencies in nutrition.

held in the College Hall. $500 to Gilbert N. Lewis, University of DR. THEODORE HOUGH, dean of the medical department of the University of Virginia, has tion in book form. This will be the only aubeen elected president of the Association of thorized publication of the lectures he will give American Medical Colleges.

during his present visit to the United States. DR. HARRY P. Brown, of the New York The last issue of the Journal of the Elisha State College of Forestry, has declined the po- Mitchell Scientific Society carries an appresition of wood technologist at the Imperial ciation of the work of Dr. J. J. Wolfe (HarForest Research Institute, Dehra Dun, United vard), late professor of biology of Trinity Provinces, India, offered to him by the Secre- College, Durham, N. C. The Biological Club tary of State for India.

of this institution is raising funds and colSIR WILMOT HERRINGHAM, chairman of the lecting books for a memorial library. Committee on Medical Education of the University Grants Committee, and Sir Walter

UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL Morley Fletcher, secretary of the Medical Re

NEWS search Council of London, guests of the Rocke- THE West Virginia legislature has approfeller Foundation, visited the Mayo Founda

priated for the University of West Virginia tion and the Mayo Clinic on April 26 and 27.

$400,000 for a chemistry building; $300,000 ARNOLD WILLIAM REINOLD, F.R.S., for thirty- for a gymnasium and $100,000 to complete the five years professor of physics at the Royal law building. Naval College, Greenwich, died on June 19,

The will of Mrs. William L. McLean, wife aged seventy-eight years.

of the publisher of the Philadelphia Evening DR. JAMES Law, director emeritus of the Bulletin, leaves $100,000 to Princeton UniverNew York State Veterinary College, Cornell sity in memory of her son Warden McLean, University, died in Springfield, Mass., on of the class of 1912, who was killed in the May 11, aged eighty-three years.

DR. MICHAEL IDVORSKY Pupin, professor of The inauguration of Dr. Ernest Fox Nichols electro-mechanics at Columbia University, as president of the Massachusetts Institute of addressed the meeting of the Columbia Chap Technology will take place on June 8. Ad- . ter of Sigma Xi on May 4. He spoke on dresses will be made by Governor Cox, Dr. "Progress in physics in the last decade.” This Elihu Thomson, President A. Lawrence Lowwas the first of a series of annual lectures on ell and Professor H. P. Talbot, followed by the “The Progress of Science."

inaugural address of Dr. Nichols. DR. T. WINGATE TODD, Payne professor of DR. JOHN HOWLAND, professor of pediatrics anatomy in the Medical School of Western at the Johns Hopkins Medical School, director Reserve University, will deliver in June five of the Harriet Lane Home and pediatrician special lectures at the University of Ghent, in chief of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, has Belgium, on "The growth and metamorphosis been offered the professorship of children's of the skeleton.” The lectures are supported diseases in the Medical School of Harvard by the Hoover Foundation provided by the University. funds remaining after the Commission for the Relief of Belgium had finished its activi- DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE ties.


THE CONTROL OF APPLE BLOTCH PROFESSOR ALBERT EINSTEIN, who delivered a series of five lectures on the theory of rela- DURING the progress of investigations on tivity at Princeton University during the week apple blotch (Phyllosticta solitaria E. & E.) beginning on May 9, has arranged with the new and noteworthy facts concerning this imPrinceton University Press for their publica portant disease are gradually coming to light.


Of particular concern, from the practical effect upon the mycelium of the organism viewpoint, is the effect of dormant lime sul ramifying throughout the cortical tissue befur and copper sulphate sprays upon the neath. The toxic effect upon the spores is pycnospores lodged in the pycnidia and des- very striking after the first rain following tined to function after petal-fall.

the dormant spray. Dilutions of lime sulfur Wallace in his official reports and Douglas of 1-3, 1-6, 1-6, and 1-8, were given their have repeatedly published the statement that trial and all were similarly toxic to the spores a very strong solution of lime sulfur, applied in the pycnidia, but it appeared that dilutions before the buds begin to swell, perfectly con- somewhat stronger than 1-8 were more effitrolled this disease and that the summer . cient. A dilution of copper sulphate (1-6) sprays, consequently, were unnecessary. The produces similar toxic effects. Scalecide prowriter disagrees with their views, but has dis- duces none at all. covered from field and laboratory experiments As was mentioned above, a new infectious and obervations, the scientific explanation of area advances from the initial canker in the partial control by the dormant sprays applied spring. It follows, therefore, that the dorlate.

mant spray exercises but very little control The infectious surface of an apple blotch upon the season's infection of the young canker in the first season of its functional apples and new growth. activity consists of two distinct portions:

E. F. GUBA first, that portion which develops from a

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS single infection, becoming apparent in late

CROWS AND STARLINGS summer and ceasing its active growth upon the appearance of cold weather; second, that

TO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: Last fall at porton which advances from the initial canker

Devon, Pennsylvania, a man shooting blackthe following spring, approximately two weeks

birds also wounded a starling, which fell on after the buds burst open, and which becomes

the grass and which he could not find. dotted with pycnidia, with mature pycno

Shortly afterwards several crows were seen spores, simultaneously with the advance of the

diving at something in the grass and then canker. The first portion is the initial canker

lighting and running through the grass after and bears pseudo-pycnidia. The contents of

it. Upon his going towards them to see what the pseudo-pycnidia are completely or par

they were doing, they all flew away, one of tially differentiated into spores by the time

them carrying the starling in its bill, and it is customary to apply the dormant spray.

landed on the walk in a neighboring place, Furthermore, the epidermal covering over the

where the crows gathered round the starling pycnidia is ruptured, exposing the pycnidial

and proceeded to peck at it. He followed wall. The season's young fruits and new

them and scared them, and the crows flew growth are, therefore, subject to two distinct

away, abandoning the starling, which was sources of infection from the young blotch

nearly dead. cankers.

I have never before known of crows carryA dormant spray of lime sulfur applied as

ing off as large a bird as a starling, though the buds begin to swell actually kills the

I have seen one carrying off from the nest a spores and sporidal layer within the differen

young robin nearly ready to fly, and of course tiated pseudo-pycnidia but has absolutely no

they kill many young robins and other young

birds of smaller size. 1 Wallace, F. N., 9th Annual Report Indiana

F. R. WELSH State Entomologist, 1915–16, pp. 51, 54.

2 Douglas, B. w., “War and the Fruit Grower,Country Gentleman, September 14, 1918;

THE SYNCHRONAL FLASHING OF FIREPLIES “Fruit Diseases of 1919," Country Gentleman, . DURING a trip in Siam, a distinct flashing of April 17, 1920.

fireflies in unison was observed. The observa.


tions were made during the evenings of June

He enjoyed to a remarkable degree 5 and 6, 1920, from a house boat on the the confidence of the Emperor Franz Josef. Tachin River, in the district of Sarm Prarm, Through a special permit from the imperial Nakorn Chaisri, Siam. A distinct flashing of palace I was permitted under his guidance to dark and light was observed. A whole tree of visit the castle with all of its belongings in flies would flash all together at regular inter- which the heir to the throne was murdered vals of, by count with a watch, between 105 a few years before. and 109 flashes a minute.

i I was particularly struck with the amity Frequently entire trees filled with fireflies and friendship shown him by the people with are observed at the College of Agriculture, whom he worked. As a host he was the esLos Baños, Laguna, Philippine Islands and it sence of geniality and at the same time of was at first thought by the writer that an simplicity. I carried letters to him on my extremely rapid flashing in unison took place. first visit from friends in Harvard who knew After, however, observing the distinct flashing him when he was a resident of Cambridge. in unison of the fireflies in Siam it can be He had a great admiration for this country stated with certainty that no such synchronal and he numbered many personal and profesflashing took place at Los Baños.

sional friends on this side of the water. While Determinations made by H. E. Woodworth, war broke up all political and many social reof the College of Agriculture, Los Baños, on lations with Germany and Austria, I feel fireflies from Siam, showed these flies to be quite certain all the personal friends of Dr. of the genus Calaphotia. Professor Wood- Steindachner on this side remained loyal to worth states that the firefly at Los Baños is of him through his later years of sorrow and disthe same genus, but of a different species. tress, due to the exigencies of the war. The Neither species has been determined.

grief for him as a friend is more poignant OTTO A. REINKING than the regret of his loss to science. COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE,




Chemische Krystallographie. By P. GROTH. TO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: I read with Leipzig, Wilhelm Engelmann. Vol. I., 1906; much interest the article of Dr. Jordan on

II., 1908; III., 1911; IV., 1917; V., 1919. Franz Steindachner. I had the great pleasure

4,443 pages, with 3,342 figures; 8vo, cloth. of visiting Dr. Steindachner twice; once in All persons interested in crystallized sub1878 and again twenty years later in 1898. stances will be delighted to know that this He was living in the simple way described by monumental work, in the preparation of which Dr. Jordan on the occasion of both my visits. Professor Groth spent several decades, has His maiden sister at that time, however, was

been finally completed. Notices of the publiliving and was keeping house for him in a per- cation of the first three volumes have already fectly simple manner.

appeared in SCIENCE.1 Vol. IV. was issued in I do not wish to speak of Steindachner's

1917 and Vol. V. late in 1919. great achievements in ichthyology. I want According to the original plan it was to add my little tribute to his value as a thought that all the available material could friend. The simplicity of his life, the won

be conveniently published in four volumes; derful clarity of his character and his de- the first two to be devoted to inorganic, and the votion to his friends make him almost as re- last two volumes to organic compounds. The renowned as his achievements in the investiga- aromatic organic compounds, however, proved tion of fishes. At the time of my last visit to be much more numerous than had been he had achieved the full distinction of head 1 Vol. XXV., 143-144; Vol. XXVIII., 843; Vol. superintendent of the Royal Imperial Mu- XXXIII., 253.

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anticipated, so that two large volumes have seventy days than it is to feed for forty or been necessary to describe them. These two fifty days with peanuts alone, then to finish volumes contain 1,846 pages and 1,783 figures. with other feeds. In these volumes the treatment used in the To determine whether an animal in starvothers has been followed.

ing uses the liquid fat more rapidly than it Chemists and crystallographers, the world does the solid fat, rabbits were fed on peanuts over, are greatly indebted to Professor Groth and alfalfa for six weeks. One of the rabbits for this most important reference work, which was killed at the end of the feeding period is a critical survey of all the crystallized mate- and the others were killed after starving rial described thus far. As is generally three, five and seven days. The iodine numknown, Professor Groth has devoted his life bers of the kidney fat and the back fat were to problems in chemical crystallography. He determined. Two series of rabbits was the founder of and for many years the treated in this way but the results of the last editor of the Zeitschrift fuer Krystallographie series only will be given. und Mineralogie. Hence, he was peculiarly fitted to undertake this very difficult and timeconsuming task.










Iodine Number
of Back Fat

Iodine Number of

Kidney Fat

Rabbit No.



The per cent. of the livers extracted by THE CHANGE IN THE FAT OF PEANUT-FED

ether, were rabbit 1, 8.15, rabbit 2, 17.04 RABBITS

rabbit 3, 19.18, rabbit 4, 20.09. It was exIn the course of our investigation of the pected that the ether extract of the livers soft pork of peanut-fed hogs it occurred to would increase in starvation and it was me that if an animal in starving used its thought that the iodine number of this exliquid fat first, this would make it pos- tract would increase but in this last we were sible to overcome the softness of the pork on disappointed as the iodine number was pracpeanut-fed hogs. If the animal used the

tically constant, showing the values from 98 liquid fat first in starving it would be reason- to 104. able to suppose that if both liquid and solid

Our results indicate that the liquid fat fat were fed at the same time he would use

of an animal during starvation is used more a greater proportion of the liquid fat to meet rapidly than the solid fat, that the liquid the energy requirements of his body. Then

fat of the back or subcutaneous fat is used it would be possible to attack the soft pork more rapidly than that of the kidney. It is problem in two ways. One would be to feed

our intention to repeat this work, beginning peanuts alone for forty or fifty days then in about a month, using pigs instead of starve the hog for some eight or ten days so rabbits. as to remove the liquid fat as much as pos

S. T. DOWELL sible, and afterwards finish the feeding with OKLAHOMA AGRICULTURAL other feeds. The other way would be to feed EXPERIMENT STATION, the peanuts not alone for forty or fifty days

STILLWATER as is the custom but to feed them with some feed that would produce solid fat and in this

THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MAM. way the animal would use a greater percent

MALOGISTS age of the soft fat that was fed than he would The third annual meeting of the American otherwise. We got some results this past Society of Mammalogists was held in the spring which indicated that it is much better United States National Museum, Washington, to feed the hogs peanuts with other feeds for D. C., May 2-4, 1921. Officers elected for the

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