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tive results are sought, but the difficulties of rocks. Needless to say, specific determinaobtaining them are recognized and the use- tions of organisms are not the purpose of a fulness of quantitatively expressed results treatise on petrography. But here, too, the that may not be accurate in themselves but problem of past environment as recorded by still may permit of valuable comparison with the remains, both as remnants of once living one another, is admitted. The reader feels organisms and as mineral substances, is the throughout no impulse on the part of the object of study. This part therefore deserves author to fix standards but merely that desire the attention of paleontologists as well as to give help, out of his own rich but pain- of petrographers and stratigraphers. fully accumulated experience, which led him Vivified throughout by the author's own to prepare the book. Any one who comes to experience the work must lack that perfect this book for a rigorous method that will completeness that would assure it against enable him to turn out orthodox studies of being found defective in the treatment of sedimentary rocks will be disappointed, but some special topics or methods that may be those who want to help in advancing the in favor with individual readers. But every borders of knowledge about this subject will reader will surely be glad to accept these find guidance and inspiration. The methods omissions for the sake of the vigor and of analysis are grouped under three heads- readibility that go with them. American physical, microchemical and chromatic. The petrographers, for instance, will be struck by physical analysis includes different processes the absence of any discussion of the use of sometimes grouped in this country under liquids of known indices of refraction in the mechanical analysis, and the preparation of determination of minerals. But as compenthin sections which in dealing with weakly sation they may profit by adopting some of bound sedimentary rocks often calls for spe- the elegant microchemical tests described, cial methods. The demonstration of the ease which have the advantage that they can often of application and delicacy of microchemical be applied directly to the thin section and do analyses is one of the outstanding features not require the disintegration of the rock. of the book. Under chromatic analysis the Likewise the suggestions given on pages 305 to author discusses various methods of staining. 309 for the determination of minerals by In the discussion of all these methods he their general appearance may be a valuable selects, weighs, evaluates and contributes on antidote to the habit into which the devotee the basis of his own experience, without at- of “index liquids” is likely to fall, of resorttempting any formal completeness.

ing to his liquids in blind routine, just as the Perhap Cayeux's greatest achievement is man with the slide rule habit gets out his the interest he is able to give to his dis- machine to find the product of 2 X 2. cussion of the minerals of sedimentary rocks, The physical quality of the book is worthy of which of course he considers only the more of its subject matter, and it is a fact for concommon, both essential and accessory. It is templation and an honor to the fine French in this part of the book that his treatment of scientific spirit, exemplified by the entire the subject as natural history is illustrated work, that it bears the date 1916. in the most novel and interesting way. The

MARCUS I. GOLDMAN individual mineral is to the author a record U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY of environments-of the environment in which it originated and of those through

SPECIAL ARTICLES which it subsequently passed and it there- NOTES ON THE OCCURRENCE OF GAMMERUS fore contributes to the reconstruction of the LIMNAEUS SMITH IN A SALINE HABITAT history and geography of the past.

The capacities of various organisms for The last part of the book deals with the withstanding relatively wide ranges of environremains of organisms as constituents of the mental conditions has received considerable attention at the hands of physiologists and clear water at the bottom. It was noted that students of animal behavior, and is a problem a number of the animals were very slightly which must ultimately be considered in pigmented, apparently indicating that in the greater detail by ecologists, students of geo- semi-darkness of the pool they were approachgraphic distribution and organic evolution. ing cave conditions. In all instances, howThe purpose of this note is merely to call

ever, the eyes were fully pigmented. The attention to the occurrence of Gammerus

presence

of the Gammerus led to the assumplimnaeus Smith, normally a fresh water tion that the water was non-saline and we species, in a peculiar and rather saline

were preparing to replenish our water bag habitat.

when taste showed it to be distinctly brackish. In the summer of 1920 the writers visited

A sample of the water was therefore taken the Ice Spring Craters lava field of the Sevier in a clean Mason fruit jar from which it was Desert in the ancient Lake Bonneville basin

afterwards transferred to citrate bottles for described in detail by Gilbert.* On climbing shipment to the laboratory. The water had down into the old lava vents of the Terrace a freezing point lowering of 0.410° C., indicrater we were surprised to find a small

cating an osmotic concentration of 4.94 crustacean abundant in the small pool of atmospheres and an electrical conductivity of

1 We are indebted to Mr. Waldo L, Schmitt, as- .0138 reciprocal ohm. The hydrogen ion consociate curator of marine invertebrates in the U. 8. centration of the water (determined electroNational Museum, for the determination of the

metrically) was Ch=0.409 x 10-7=pH7.388. species. The specimens are in the National Mu

Analysis showed the following composition. seum. 2 The key to the taxonomic and distributional

Grams per Liter literature is furnished by Weckel's paper on the Total solids (at 110°).. 8.5666 fresh water Amphiopoda of North America (Proc.

Total solids (at 210°).. 8.1467 U. 8. Nat. Mus., 32: 42-44, 1907), and individual Total solids (ignited).. 7.6400 citations need not be given here. The species was CO7

none first dredged in Lake Superior. It has been taken HCO3

0.2187 near Long's Peak, Colorado, at an elevation of 9,000 feet; from a cool spring, Fire Hole Basin;

Mineral Analysis from Shoshone Falls, Idaho; Flathead Lake, Mon

Per Cent, of tana; and from the Yellowstone National Park.

Grams

Total Solids per Liter

(Ignito It is reported from Fort Wingate, N. M., and from

SiO,

0.0720

0.94 the Wasatch Mountains and Salt Lake City, Utah.

Fe2O3A1,0,

0.0030

0.04 It is impossible to determine from the records

Ca

0.3305

4.33 whether all the localities were fresh water habitats,

Mg

0.2560

3.35 but that it is typically a fresh water form can ad

Na

1.9750

25.85 mit of no possible doubt. It has been taken from

K

0.3050

3.99 the stomachs of trout from brooks near Marquette,

01

3.4120

44.66 Mich.

1.3260

17.36 3 The genus Gammerus has species which occur

C0,8

0.1075

1.41 in more or less saline coastal habitats and in non

Total

7.7870

101.93 saline inland waters. 4 Gilbert, G. K., “Survey West of the 100th

6 There was apparently considerable organic matMeridian," Vol. 3, pp. 136–144; also “Lake

ter in solution. This could easily be derived from Bonneville,” Monographs U. S. Geol. Survey, I., bat guano which was observed on the lava ledges pp. 320–325, 1890.

surrounding the pool. 5 The lava vent is a circular tube, at one side of 7 Carbonates and bicarbonates were determined the wide crater, about 12 feet in diameter inclined by the titrametric method proposed by Scales 10° or 15° from the vertical. It can be explored (SCIENCE, N. S., 51, p. 214, 1920). for about 25 feet when progress is stopped by 8 Calculated from bicarbonate data according to water.

the formula 2RHCO, + heat =R200, +00, + H,0.

SOA

Per Cent.
of Total

Hypothetical Inorganic Composition of the Solution AN EYELESS DAPHNID, WITH REMARKS ON

THE POSSIBLE ORIGIN OF EYELESS CAVE Grams per Liter

ANIMALS Na Sio,

0.1460

1.84 Ca(HCO),

0.2913

3.68 DURING the past nine years vast numbers of Caso,

0.8780

11.08 Cladocera of several species have been reared MgSo.

0.8855

11.18

in the writer's laboratory. For one purpose MgCl,

0.3023

3.81

or another many thousands of these have been KCI

0.5875

7.42

examined with the microscope. About a year NaCle

4.8330

60.99

ago was found the only marked aberration of Total

7.9236

100.00

the eye structure which has been noted. This The Terrace crater, and indeed all of the

was a Simocephalus without any trace of an craters of the Ice Spring Craters group, is un

eye. questionably post-Bonneville in origin. There

Unfortunately this individual was disis no trace of wave work on the outer slopes

covered among the small number just killed of the craters such as are so conspicuous on

for use in making some permanent slide Pavant Butte to the north, and neither lacus

mounts. The killing of this individual was trine sediments nor evidences of subaqueous

unfortunate in that a Cladoceran when killed erosion appear on the surface of the evidently

becomes somewhat opaque while the live anirecent lava fields as they do on the Fumarole

mal is so transparent that internal structures Butte lava field to the northwest.

can be clearly distinguished. Nor was the The depth of the vent of the Terrace crater

differentiation so good in the completed is 260 feet below its general rim and 220 feet

mount as in a live animal. It was clear howbelow the sill of the last outflow. The prob- ever both in the freshly killed specimen and lem of the original introduction of Gammerus

in the mount that not only the eye pigment into the small pool of water occupying the but the entire eye structure was lacking. The bottom of this crater is that of the transpor- ocellus was present and normally pigmented. tation of small crustacean species or their While it is not quite demonstrated in the eggs in general. The point of physiological mounted specimen it is probable that the optic interest is the occurrence of this species, ganglion is normally developed in the eyeless hitherto reported from non-saline waters, in individual. water of this concentration.

It is a source of keen regret to the writer Ross AIKEN GORTNER, that this eyeless individual was not discovered Division of Agricultural Biochemistry, Uni

alive so that offspring could have been obversity of Minnesota,

tained from it and light thrown on the naJ. ARTHUR HARRIS,

ture of the peculiarity, whether of genetic

consequence or merely an accident in developStation for Experimental Evolution, Car

ment. No eyeless individuals were found negie Institution of Washington

among sibs and many offspring of sibs of 9 An average value based on NaCl contents of this eyeless individual. This fact however 4.8790 gr, calculated from residual Na and 4.7870 does not convince one that eyelessness in this calculated from residual C1. The difference of

case may not have been inheritable, since in 0.092 gram per liter is within experimental error

these prevailing parthenogenetic forms there when one remembers that the above calculations are

is no chromatic reduction in the maturation purely empirical and also when one considers that in some instances the actual analytical values, and

of the egg and hence no segregation of charconsequently accompanying experimental errors,

acters is expected. If the eyeless condition were multiplied by 50 to bring the calculation to a of this individual were due to a mutation its liter basis.

descendants should have been eyeless, but unless the mutation occurred in a cell generation mander larvae and as have been found in earlier than that in which the egg itself was other experimentally treated material. Of differentiated no other germ cells of the course in such cases one does not in general parent or collaterals of the eyeless individual (Guyer's rabbits possibly form a notable excepshould bear the factor for eyelessness.

tion) anticipate any degree of inheritance Observation of the occurrence of an eyeless whatever, even if the abnormal individuals mutant and the transmission of this char- were viable and capable of producing young. acteristic would be of great interest as bear- In the case of this eyeless daphnid however ing upon the probable origin of eyeless cave there were embryos in the brood chamber and animals. As is well known, many cave ani- there seemed every reason to believe that it mals, particularly crustaceans, are without possessed the normal capacity for producing eyes or have extremely degenerate eyes.

young It has been suggested that such cave forms

ARTHUR M. BANTA may have arisen by “orthogenesis” (many small mutations) or, by implication, possibly THE EASTER MEETING OF THE AMERby a single large mutation.1

ICAN MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY Eyelessness in these forms is associated

AT CHICAGO with lack of body pigment. Pigmentless ani- THE sixteenth regular Western meeting of the mals, such as cave amphipods for example,

American Mathematical Society was held at the may suffer deleterious effects if they come

University of Chicago on Friday and Saturday, under the influence of the actinic rays of

March 25 and 26, 1921. The meetings were at

tended by over sixty persons, among whom were sunlight. Such animals are conspicuous and

fifty-three members of the society. an easy prey to their natural enemies. In so

The session of Friday afternoon was devoted far as a general vision may aid such organ

to a lecture by Professor Dunham Jackson on isms in reaching a suitable locality for secur- The general theory of approximation by polying food eyeless individuals are at a disad- nomials and trigonometric sums. vantage in the open in competition with eyed It was voted at this meeting that the Christmas individuals. On the other hand in caves and meeting of the Chicago Section be held in Tosimilar situations they are shielded from ronto, in affiliation with the Convocation week light, are not rendered conspicuous by their

meetings of the American Association for the Adwhiteness and are at no disadvantage in com

vancement of Science.

A dinner at which forty-seven persons wero petition for food. It would seem that they

present was held at the Quadrangle Club on Fri. have become segregated in caves and other

day evening. retired situations because they can survive

At the sessions of Friday and Saturday forethere and are unable to do so elsewhere.

noons, the following papers were presented: The occurrence in Drosophila of a "bar

1. I. J. Schwatt, “On the expansion of powers eyed ” mutant (eye much reduced in size and

of trigonometric functions." in effective elements) and

eyeless”

2. I. J. Schwatt, “On the summation of a trigomutant (in most cases not really eyeless but

nometric power series." eyes more or less rudimentary) lends credence 3. W. B. Ford, "A disputed point regarding the to the theory that eyeless cave animals, or

nature of the continuum." such animals with very defective eyes, may

4. Mayme I. Logsdon, “The equivalence of pairs have arisen as the result of mutations. One

of hermitian forms." does not however lose sight of the fact that

5. C. C. MacDuffee, “Invariants and vector co

variants of linear algebras without the as. the eyeless daphnid mentioned may have

sociative law.' arisen from a disturbance in development

6. E. J. Wilczynski, “Some projective generalisuch as the writer has seen in eyeless sala

zations of geodesics.” 1 Banta, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 7. W. L. Hart, “Summable infinite determiPublication No. 67, 1907.

nants."

an

Expenditures
Dues remitted to Permanent
Secretary's office

$141.00
Supplies

18.00
Salary, 1920

825.00
Salary, 1919

75.00
Office assistance

300.00
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January 1, 1921, Cash balance...

$847.30

2. BALANCE SHEET, DECEMBER 31, 1920

Assets

8. H. Blumberg, New properties of all func-

tions."
9. E. B. Van Vleck, “On non-loxodromic substi-

tution groups in n dimensions."
10. G. A. Miller, “An overlooked infinite system
of groups of order pq?, p and q being prime

р
numbers."
11. L. E. Dickson, “Fallacies and misconceptions

in diophantine analysis.'
12. L. E. Dickson, “A new method in diophantine

analysis.
13. T. H. Hildebrandt, “On a general theory of

functions-preliminary communication.'
14. A. Dresden, “Some new formulæ in combina-

tory analysis."
15. J. B. Shaw, “Generational definition of linear

associative hypernumbers."
16. J. B. Shaw, On Hamiltonian products—Sec-

ond paper."
17. F. E. Wood, “Congruences characterized by

certain coincidences."
18. E. P. Lane, “A general theory of con-

gruences.'
19. J. Eiesland, “The group of motions of an

Einstein space.
Professor Schwatt's papers were presented by
Professor Dunham Jackson; Mr. MacDuffee was
introduced to the society by Professor L. E.
Dickson and Professor Wood by Professor Wilc-
zynski; the papers of Professors Miller and Lane
were read by title. Professor Bliss, president of
the society, presided at the meeting of Friday
afternoon. The other sessions were presided over
by Professor R. D. Carmichael, chairman of the
Chicago Section, relieved on Saturday by Pro-
fessor Dunham Jackson, vice-president of the so-
ciety.

ARNOLD DRESDEN,
Secretary of the Chicago Section

[blocks in formation]

THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR
THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE

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208.50
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76.25 $1,687.42
These disbursements have been

made from funds derived

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CALENDAR YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31, 1920
January 1, 1920, Cash balance..

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