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DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE language in which they are used. Any atENGLISH PRONUNCIATION FOR THE METRIC tempt at precise international uniformity for SYSTEM
such words is obviously predestined to failure, DOUBTLESS practically all scientific workers except as this uniformity comes with the favor general use of the decimal or metric general adoption of an international auxiliary system of weights and measures. Obviously language such as Esperanto—and even when
this happens the usage of national ” lanthere are certain unavoidable difficulties, both
guages will probably remain unchanged. psychological and economic, which must be
And while we are about it, in conformity overcome before this end can be attained. It
with the definite trend of modern English seems inconsistent, then, for users of the sys
usage, can we not all agree to drop the “me” tem to add unnecessarily, even in small de
from gram(me), and to write meter rather gree, to the popular prejudice against the
than metre? change.
HOWARD B. FROST Just such an unnecessary minor difficulty
CITRUS EXPERIMENT STATION, is produced by a common American practise
RIVERSIDE, CALIFORNIA in the pronunciation of metric names con
EXTRAMUNDANE LIFE taining the prefix cent-. As a matter of history, it is true, these names came to us from TO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: In SCIENCE for the French; they could just as well, however,
March fourth an eminent astronomer speaks have been taken directly into English from
of the strong probability that intelligent life the Latin and Greek. In most respects these
exists in abundance throughout the universe." words are already, by common consent, fully May I inquire where I can secure any evidence Anglicized; we never employ the French
in support of this statement? I should like to syllabic stress, nor do we use the French
know upon what grounds I may assert that life sound of the p or the į or the second e in
exists anywhere but upon this earth. Secondcentimeter. Why, then, should we ever say
ly, how may I know it is intelligent? And “sänt” (sahnt), approximating the sound
thirdly, how may I know that it exists in in centime, for the straightforward Eng
abundance? The whole assertion savors to me lish “sent” (as in center)? Although this
of newspaper pseudo-science. hybrid pronunciation is (for example) not
HUBERT LYMAN CLARK
WILLIAMSTOWN, Mass., recognized by the Funk and Wagnalls “New
April 11 Standard Dictionary," it is certainly widely prevalent in this country, and it doubtless TO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: On April 4 I adds a little to the unthinking popular had the pleasure of suggesting by letter diprejudice against the metric system as rectly to Professor Hubert Lyman Clark that “high-brow” foreign innovation. The same he read Professor Simon Newcomb's superb considerations apply to the word centigrade, essay of thirteen printed pages on this very which has come into English by the same old subject, entitled “Life in the Universe,” route.
and contained in his volume, “Side-Lights on In various other English words, such as
Astronomy” (Harper and Brothers), pp. 120– cental, centipede, and centenary, cent is regu- 132, 1906. One of Newcomb's concluding senlarly pronounced as in the case of the name tences (p. 132) reads, “It is, therefore, perof our monetary unit. The only excuse for a
fectly reasonable to suppose that beings, not different practise for the metric system is the only animated, but endowed with reason, infact that these words were first used by the habit countless worlds in space.” French. They are truly international words,
W. W. CAMPBELL however, and as a matter of practical con- Mount HAMILTON, CALIFORNIA, venience they should be naturalized in each April 25
asked to name the earliest work on mathematics
published by an American press, he might, after a The Sumario Compendioso of Brother Juan
little investigation, mention the anonymous arithDiez. The earliest mathematical work of
metic that was printed in Boston in the year 1729. the New World. By David EUGENE SMITH. It is now known that this was the work of that 1921. Boston and London: Ginn and Com- Isaac Greenwood who held for some years the chair pany. 65 pages. Price $4.00.
of mathematics in what was then Harvard College.
If he should search the records still farther back, Those who are interested in the earlier
he might come upon the American reprint of mathematical developments only in so far as
Hodder's well-known English arithmetic, the first it can be shown that these developments have text-book on the subject, so far as known, to appear contributed directly to the present extent of in our language on this side the Atlantic. our mathematical knowledge will find little
As some “student of the history of educato interest them in the present small volume. tion" may be assumed to have read the “Rara It is not claimed that this volume exhibits Arithmetica ” and noted that on page 286 any decided step forward in mathematics or
thereof the work under review was called “the that it exerted a great influence on later works first arithmetic printed in America” it seems devoted to the same subject. There are, how strange that such a student should have been ever, many mathematicians and historians who overlooked while the said preface was written. will doubtless be very glad to have an oppor- One is perhaps still more surprised to find tunity to read in their own language the ex- that such an intelligent student was also overcellent translation which Professor Smith has looked when Professor Smith prepared the arhere provided of what seems to be “ the earl- ticle relating to the book under review for the iest mathematical work of the New World." last January number of the American Mathe
It is desirable that the student of the his- matical Monthly as well as when he read a tory of arithmetic should be able to consult paper before an intelligent audience during original sources. By the publication of the the recent meeting of the American Associa“Rara Arithmetica ” about a dozen years ago tion for the Advancement of Science at and by the publication of the present volume Chicago. On both of these occasions the subProfessor Smith has rendered very valuable stance of the part of the preface quoted above service to those who desire to consult such was given without any reference to the fact sources. The historical notes which appear that one of the most interesting elements in these works are exceedingly valuable even relating to the subject under consideration had if they are often less extended than might been noted a dozen years earlier in the “Rara appear desirable. In the present volume two Arithmetica." pages or less of such notes relate to each of The emphasis on this oversight in such a the following four subjects: The Mexico of public place seems to be justified by the facts the period, printing established in Mexico, that this emphasis may tend to lessen the general description of the book, and nature danger that readers of the book under review of the tables.
will be misled as regards an interesting hisAn important oversight should be noted torical fact, and that one could not condemn here in order that the reader may not be mis in too strong terms one of the motives which led in regard to the time when the book under might possibly be ascribed to the translator review, which was first published in 1556, and editor by the reader after discovering that became known to American educators. To he had been misled by the statements quoted establish the fact that the reader is seriously above. Being forewarned such a reader is exposed to misconception as regards the point more likely to attribute these statements to in question and also on account of the interest an astounding oversight by an unusually which these statements may command, we painstaking and careful writer. quote the first three sentences of the preface. Tables make up the greater part of the
If the student of the history of education were original work but as they are no longer of
any importance only one page is shown in The work marks an epoch in its field and facsimile in the present edition. The rest of 18 written with a breadth of view worthy of the text is reproduced on the left hand pages the fundamental importance of the sedimenwhile the translation appears on the following tary rocks in the interpretation of the history pages. The last six pages are devoted to of the earth. The author not only stands algebra, chiefly relating to quadratic equa- alone in the extent and thoroughness of his tions, and, in closing, the author states that monographic investigations in this field, but he wished to set down the things which are as the successor of Élie de Beaumont, Fouqué necessary and familiar in this kingdom.” The and Michel-Lévy at the Collège de France formula near the bottom of page 37 is not he is, so far as the reviewer knows, the only clearly stated. Professor Smith's name is a person occupying a chair devoted entirely to sufficient guarantee that the work is in an the teaching of the petrology of sedimentary attractive form.
rocks. On his inauguration the name of the
G. A. MILLER chair he occupies was changed from “ Chair UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS
of the Natural History of Inorganic Bodies,"
to Chair of Geology," but it might well Introduction à l'étude pétrographique des have retained its old name, for as he says in roches sédimentaires. Par M. LUCIEN
his inaugural address, “ The science of the CAYEUX. Mémoires pour servir à l'explica- sedimentary rocks is and will remain for us tion de la carte géologique détaillée de la a natural history of the ancient and modern France. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale 1916. sediments." It is the treatment from this Quarto, 1 vol. text, pp. viii + 524, 80 point of view and the enthusiasm and wide figures; 1 vol. LVI plates.
personal experience which the author brings It is a curious fact that although Sorby, to it that gives to a book which one might the father of modern petrography, was espe- expect to find dry and technical a freshness, cially interested in sedimentary rocks, those interest, and charm that make it fascinating who followed him, with the exception of a reading. Furthermore, the book is so full of small but persistent succession of workers in original observations drawn from the writer's his own country, almost abandoned them in
many years of study that no student of sedifavor of the igneous rocks. The author of mentary rocks, be he petrographer or merely the book under review has elsewhere sug- stratigrapher, can afford to leave it unread. gested that this was perhaps due to the lure The work is divided into two parts. The of greater mystery in the igneous rocks and first deals with methods of analysis of sedito the lack of knowledge, before the Chal- mentary rocks, the second with the diagnostic lenger expedition, about the sediments of to- characters of the constituents, which fall into day. The reviewer has always been inclined two groups—the minerals and the remains of to attribute the preference for the study of organisms. igneous rocks to their greater and more ob- The first part is refreshingly free from vious diversity, which made it easier to find pedantry or love of technique as an end in something new in them and gave them a itself, though the artist's pleasure in some greater esthetic attractiveness. Whatever the refined and delicate method often finds cause the present work will be the most expression. Methods of handling rocks of powerful influence that has yet been brought different types according to their induration to bear in changing that tendency. Indeed, or susceptibility to attack by acid are disin French-speaking countries Cayeux's in- cussed, but the possible complexity of the fluence is already very manifest. If the procedure appropriate to any individual rock beauty of the sedimentary rocks has been and the need of adapting the methods used considered inferior the enthusiasm of the to the particular rock and to the object of author will surely correct that impression. the investigation are pointed out. Quantita
tive results are sought, but the difficulties of rocks. Needless to say, specific determinaobtaining them are recognized and the use- tions of organisms are not the purpose of a fulness of quantitatively expressed results treatise on petrography. But here, too, the that may not be accurate in themselves but problem of past environment as recorded by still may permit of valuable comparison with the remains, both as remnants of once living one another, is admitted. The reader feels organisms and as mineral substances, is the throughout no impulse on the part of the object of study. This part therefore deserves author to fix standards but merely that desire the attention of paleontologists as well as to give help, out of his own rich but pain- of petrographers and stratigraphers. . fully accumulated experience, which led him Vivified throughout by the author's own to prepare the book. Any one who comes to experience the work must lack that perfect this book for a rigorous method that will completeness that would assure it against enable him to turn out orthodox studies of being found defective in the treatment of sedimentary rocks will be disappointed, but some special topics or methods that may be those who want to help in advancing the in favor with individual readers. borders of knowledge about this subject will reader will surely be glad to accept these find guidance and inspiration. The methods omissions for the sake of the vigor and of analysis are grouped under three heads- readibility that go with them. American physical, microchemical and chromatic. The petrographers, for instance, will be struck by physical analysis includes different processes the absence of any discussion of the use of sometimes grouped in this country under liquids of known indices of refraction in the mechanical analysis, and the preparation of determination of minerals. But as compenthin sections which in dealing with weakly sation they may profit by adopting some of bound sedimentary rocks often calls for spe- the elegant microchemical tests described, cial methods. The demonstration of the ease which have the advantage that they can often of application and delicacy of microchemical be applied directly to the thin section and do analyses is one of the outstanding features not require the disintegration of the rock. of the book. Under chromatic analysis the Likewise the suggestions given on pages 305 to author discusses various methods of staining. 309 for the determination of minerals by In the discussion of all these methods he their general appearance may be a valuable selects, weighs, evaluates and contributes on antidote to the habit into which the devotee the basis of his own experience, without at- of “index liquids” is likely to fall, of resorttempting any formal completeness.
ing to his liquids in blind routine, just as the Perhap Cayeux's greatest achievement is man with the slide rule habit gets out his the interest he is able to give to his dis- machine to find the product of 2 X 2. cussion of the minerals of sedimentary rocks, The physical quality of the book is worthy of which of course he considers only the more of its subject matter, and it is a fact for concommon, both essential and accessory. It is templation and an honor to the fine French in this part of the book that his treatment of scientific spirit, exemplified by the entire the subject as natural history is illustrated work, that it bears the date 1916. in the most novel and interesting way. The
MARCUS I, GOLDMAN individual mineral is to the author a record U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY of environments-of the environment in which it originated and of those through
SPECIAL ARTICLES which it subsequently passed-and it there- NOTES ON THE OCCURRENCE OF GAMMERUS fore contributes to the reconstruction of the LIMNAEUS SMITH IN A SALINE HABITAT history and geography of the past.
The capacities of various organisms for The last part of the book deals with the
withstanding relatively wide ranges of environremains of organisms as constituents of the mental conditions has received considerable attention at the hands of physiologists and clear water at the bottom. It was noted that students of animal behavior, and is a problem a number of the animals were very slightly which must ultimately be considered in pigmented, apparently indicating that in the greater detail by ecologists, students of geo- semi-darkness of the pool they were approachgraphic distribution and organic evolution. ing cave conditions. In all instances, howThe purpose of this note is merely to call
eyes were fully pigmented. The attention to the occurrence of Gammerus presence of the Gammerus led to the assumplimnaeus Smith, normally a fresh water? tion that the water was non-saline and we species, in a peculiar and rather saline
were preparing to replenish our water bag habitat. 3
when taste showed it to be distinctly brackish. In the summer of 1920 the writers visited
A sample of the water was therefore taken the Ice Spring Craters lava field of the Sevier in a clean Mason fruit jar from which it was Desert in the ancient Lake Bonneville basin afterwards transferred to citrate bottles for described in detail by Gilbert. On climbing shipment to the laboratory. The water had down into the old lava vents of the Terrace
a freezing point lowering of 0.410° C., indicrater we were surprised to find a small cating an osmotic concentration of 4.94 crustacean abundant in the small pool of atmospheres and an electrical conductivity of
1 We are indebted to Mr. Waldo L. Schmitt, as- .0138 reciprocal ohm. The hydrogen ion consociate curator of marine invertebrates in the U. S. centration of the water (determined electroNational Museum, for the determination of the
metrically) was Ch=0.409 x 10-7=pH7.388. species. The specimens are in the National Mu
Analysis showed the following composition. seum, 2 The key to the taxonomic and distributional
Grams per Liter literature is furnished by Weckel's paper on the Total solids (at 110°).. 8.5666 fresh water Amphiopoda of North America (Proc. Total solids (at 210°).. 8.1467 U. S. Nat. Mus., 32: 42–44, 1907), and individual Total solids (ignited).. 7.6400 citations need not be given here. The species was C0,7 first dredged in Lake Superior. It has been taken HCO3
0.2187 near Long's Peak, Colorado, at an elevation of 9,000 feet; from a cool spring, Fire Hole Basin;
Mineral Analysis from Shoshone Falls, Idaho; Flathead Lake, Montana; and from the Yellowstone National Park. It is reported from Font Wingate, N. M., and from
0.94 the Wasatch Mountains and Salt Lake City, Utah.
0.04 It is impossible to determine from the records
4.33 whether all the localities were fresh water habitats,
3.35 but that it is typically a fresh water form can ad
25.85 mit of no possible doubt. It has been taken from
3.99 the stomachs of trout from brooks near Marquette,
17.36 8 The genus Gammerus has species which occur
1.41 in more or less saline coastal habitats and in non
101.93 saline inland waters.
+ Gilbert, G. K., “Survey West of the 100th 6 There was apparently considerable organic matMeridian,' " Vol. 3, pp. 136–144; also “Lake ter in solution. This could easily be derived from Bonneville,” Monographs U, S. Geol. Survey, I., bat guano which was observed on the lava ledges pp. 320–325, 1890.
surrounding the pool. 5 The lava vent is a circular tube, at one side of 7 Carbonates and bicarbonates were determined the wide crater, about 12 feet in diameter inclined by the titrametric method proposed by Scales 10° or 15o from the vertical. It can be explored (SCIENCE, N. S., 51, p. 214, 1920). for about 25 feet when progress is stopped by 8 Calculated from bicarbonate data according to water.
the formula 2RHCO, + heat=R2CO3 +00, + H,O.
Per Cent. of