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at the Pribilof Islands in the Bering Sea, and Certain fishes that habitually browse around the presumption is that the bryozoa are from lodges, rocks, wharves, etc., and which have the same locality. The food records are as teeth adapted for cutting off and crushing the follows:
shells of their prey, are known to include Crisia sp., from stomachs of the king eider
Bryozoa in their diet with some regularity. and of two Pacific eiders, St. Paul I.
, Thus, the cunner, Tautogolabrus adspersus, Alaska, January 29 and 30, 1918.
and the blackfish or tautog, Tautoga onitis,
feed on bryozoa along with other hardshelled Menipea pribilofi Robertson, from stomach of organisms. (See Sumner, Osburn and Cole,
king eider, St. George I., Alaska, January “Biological Survey of the Waters of Woods 30, 1918.
Hole and Vicinity," Bull. U. S. Bureau of Myriozoum subgracile d'Orbigny, from stomach Fisheries, Vol. XXXI., Part 2, 1911.) The
of king eider, St. George I., Alaska, May 3, kingtish, Menticirrhus saxatilis, also has been 1917.
known to feed on bryozoa. The writer has
observed Bugula turrita Desor and Lepralia Cellepora surcularis Packard, from stomachs
pallasiana Moll among the stomach contents of the Pacific eider, St. Paul I., Alaska,
of the puffer or swellfish, Spheroides macuMch. 21, 1915, and from the king eider, St.
latus. On one occasion a couple of young Paul I., Alaska, December 13, 1914 and
puffers were placed over night in a finger January 29, 1918.
bowl containing some colonies of the EndoThe amount of material in each case was proct, Barentsia major Hincks, and the next small. The Crisia colonies broken morning it was discovered that the puffers scraps and undeterminable as to species be- had returned my kindness in keeping them cause of the lack of ovicells, though the gen- alive a few hours longer by eating the heads eral appearance was that of the common C. off of the most of the Barentsia. I have seen denticulata Lamarck. Myriozoum subgracile a considerable mass of Bugula turrita taken was represented by a branched portion 9 mm. from the stomach of a smooth dogfish, long by 3 mm. thick, and Cellepora surcularis Mustelus canis, and on several occasions have by irregular nodules 4 to 12 mm. in greatest had referred to me for identification, nodules diameter.
of Smittina trispinosa nitida Verrill and In all cases the animal matter seemed to Schizoporella unicornis Johnston, from the have been digested out, leaving only the stomachs of sharks. In one case the colony chitinous or calcareous matter of the ectocyst. was half as large as my fist. Aside from the fact that they were consider- Bryozoa often grow in the greatest profuably broken up, the specimens were in good sion, covering piles, rocks, shells, seaweed, condition for study, being as clean as though etc., with growths so dense that they may they had been treated with Javelle water. As entirely obscure the objects to which they are Dr. Nelson suggests in a letter, it is probable attached. At Woods Hole, Mass., during the that the ducks ate the Crisia and Menipea summer of 1919, observations were made on incidentally with other food, as these small Bugula turrita, growing on the rock wall of branched species often grow attached to other the Bureau of Fisheries dock, and on Lepralia organisms. The Myriozoum and Cellepora be- pallasiana, encrusting the piles and timbers ing nodular, may have been swallowed in lieu under the Coast Guard dock. Though in both of pebbles.
cases the substratum was practically covered In general the bryozoa must afford com- by the bryozoa and there were many other paratively little nutriment, as the indigestible animals present, very few of the colonies portion is so large, yet an animal pressed for showed injury of any sort. In nearly every food might be able to eke out an existence on case the colony form was perfect. It has been theni.
my experience in many years of dredging that bryozoa colonies are usually complete, unless species of insects, representing the chief broken during dredging operations.
orders. The ash was analyzed for copper, on The bryozoan individual is always small, the supposition that the copper present serves being rarely half as large as a pin head, but as the nucleus of a respiratory pigment, the colonial mass is often of sufficient size namely hemocyanin. In every case the ash to render them desirable as food for numerous reacted positively for copper with several reorganisms, were it not for the fact that in agents. The amount of copper present in innearly all cases they are well protected by sect blood is nearly proportionate to that presheavy chitinous or calcareous walls. Only ent in crayfish blood, which was used as a those animals provided with strong incisorial control. teeth or which can swallow the colony whole, In addition to insects and crayfish, other can utilize them. Predaceous worms and Arthropods were incinerated, including sevother invertebrates probably are unable to eral species of plankton Crustacea, spiders, feed on them to any extent, for in addition daddy long-legs, and centipeds. In all cases to its shell, the bryozoan is so highly irritable copper was found. As representatives of to tactile stimuli that it retracts into its shell other phyla Volvox, Lumbricus, Ascaris, with great rapidity at the slightest touch. snails and slugs, and the blood of garter Possibly some of the softer-bodied ctenostomes
snakes and human blood were incinerated. may serve as food for other invertebrates, but Of these all but the vertebrate blood reacted observations on this point are apparently positively to tests for copper. As a matter of lacking.
fact, the snake blood also appeared to show It should be added that the statoblasts of a minute trace of copper, but as the reaction the freshwater bryozoa are often eaten by
developed with only one of the reagents used, young fishes. During a survey of the fishes
and then only after several hours under alcoof Ohio, made during the past summer, stato
hol vapor, this particular experiment is inconblasts of Pectinatella and Plumatella were
clusive. found among the stomach contents of the
The foregoing results indicate that the eleyoung of the large-mouth black bass, Microp- ment copper has a wider distribution in living terus salmoides, the crappie, Pomoxis annu
organisms than heretofore accepted. Its funclaris, the blue-gill sunfish, Lepomis pallidus
tion has been definitely determined only for and the gizzard shad, Dorosoma cepedianum. mollusks and Crustacea, where it forms the That these were picked up for food among
nucleus of a respiratory protein. Its presence other organisms of the same size there can in other Arthropods is explained on the same be little doubt.
basis, that is, in all Arthropods copper forms RAYMOND O. OSBURN the nucleus of hemocyanin. This is all the OHIO STATE UNIVEKSITY
more probable, since, as already stated, the
amounts present in insect blood, spiders and COPPER IN ANIMALS AND PLANTS
centipeds are proportionate to the amounts In a recent number of The Journal of Bio- present in the crayfish blood used as a control. logical Chemistry (Vol. 44, pp. 99-112, Oct., In considering the urce of the copper the 1920) W. 0. Rose and M. Bodansky report writer analyzed the water of a creek from the finding of copper in various marine or- which most of his aquatic material was taken, ganisms, including Coelenterates, Mollusca, and found distinct traces of the metal. The Crustacea, Elasmobranchs, and Teleostomi. water as a source of copper is of importance As some of the writer's work bears on this to aquatic animals. It was shown, however, subject, the following note is offered.
that terrestrial insects, including such highly In some recent investigations on the res- specialized families as bees, ants and wasps, piration of insects the writer incinerated both contained copper. These and other terrestrial the blood and entire specimens of over 30 insects, especially the herbivores, could derive their copper only from their plant food. In research into the problems of the glass indusview of this fact about a dozen species of try, and is considered by the association to be plants were incinerated. In all cases, whether the man best suited for organizing and directthe portion incinerated was taken from the ing the research needed by it. (2) The restem, or the leaves, or fruit, the ash reacted sponsibility for the selection of a director of positively.
research rests in each case with the research In general, copper was present only in association concerned, and not with the Detraces in plants, not at all in amounts com- partment of Scientific and Industrial Reparable to that present in insects. It is prob- search, which has no power to approve or disable that the copper ion is inactive in plants, approve the appointment of any individual. that its presence is due to mechanical storage, (3) The department guarantees three quarters and that it plays no active rôle in the phys- of the expenditure of the research association iology of the plant.
up to a certain limit, but payment of the grant It is evident, however, from the experi- is conditional, among other things, on the apments performed, that copper is widely dis
proval by the department of the program of tributed in both the plant and animal world. research and of the estimate of expenditure In the former it is present only in traces, and thereon. (4) The advisory council of the deprobably inactive, while in the latter it is
partment, after considering all the relevant present in measurable quantities and its rôle
circumstances with great care, recommended appears to be active.
the approval of the expenditure involved in A more detailed account of these investiga- this director's appointment. tions will be published in the near future. RICHARD A. MUTTKOWSKI
ELECTIONS BY THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF UNIVERSITY OF IDAHO,
SCIENCES Moscow, IDAHO
The scientific program of the meeting of
the National Academy of Sciences, held in SCIENTIFIC EVENTS
Washington on April 25, 26 and 27, has been DIRECTORS OF RESEARCH AND SCIENTIFIC printed in SCIENCE, and other information QUALIFICATIONS
concerning the meeting will be published later. THE RIGHT Hon. F. D. ACLAND recently At the business session of April 27, the asked in the House of Commons, as we learn president of the academy, Dr. Charles D. Walfrom Nature, whether the lord president of cott, presented his resignation, but at the the council “is aware that dissatisfaction is earnest request of the academy, he consented being expressed by scientific workers with the
to serve the remaining two years of his term. appointment of a man without scientific quali- The resignation of the foreign secretary, Dr. fications as director of research to the Glass George E. Hale, was accepted with regret, and Research Association; whether, as the De- with the expression of high appreciation of his partment of Scientific and Industrial Research able work in that office. Dr. R. A. Millikan provides four fifths of the funds of the asso- was elected foreign secretary, to complete the ciation, the department was consulted before unexpired term of Dr. Hale. Dr. Hale was the appointment was made; and does he ap- elected a member of the council, and Dr. Rayprove of the appointment as giving a guarantee mond Pearl was reelected. that state funds devoted to scientific research The following were elected to membership: will be wisely expended?” Mr. Fisher replied
Frank Michler Chapman, American Museum of to the question, and his answer included the
Natural History. following statements, which concerned a di
William LeRoy Emmet, General Electric Company, rector for the work called from the United
Schenectady, N. Y. States: (1) The successful candidate has a William Draper Harkins, University of Chicago. wide and successful experience of scientific Ales Hrdlicka, United States National Museum,
Arthur Edwin Kennelly, Harvard University.
SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS William George MacCallum, Johns Hopkins University.
At the recent meeting of the American Dayton Clarence Miller, Case School of Applied
Chemical Society at Rochester, Professor Science.
Charles F. Chandler and Dr. William H. George Abram Miller, University of Illinois. Nichols were unanimously elected honorary Benjamin Lincoln Robinson, Harvard University. members of the society. Vesto Melvin Slipher, Lowell Observatory.
DR. SIMON FLEXNER, director of the RockeLewis Buckley Stillwell, 100 Broadway, New York, Thomas Wayland Vaughan, United States Geo
feller Institute for Medical Research, has been logical Survey.
elected an honorary fellow of The Royal SoDonald Dexter Van Slyke, Rockefeller Institute.
ciety of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene of Henry Stephens Washington, Geophysical Labora- London at a meeting of the council of that tory.
society, held on April 8, 1921. Robert Sessions Woodworth, Columbia University.
THE William H. Nichols medal of the New Foreign Associates
York section of the American Chemical SoWilliam Bateson, John Innes Horticultural Insti
tution, Merton Park, Surrey, England. ciety was presented to Professor Gilbert M. c. Eijkman, University of Utrecht, Holland. Lewis, dean of the department of chemistry
of the University of California on May 6. THE PRINTERS' STRIKE AND THE PUBLICA. The program was: “ The man and his work,” TION OF “SCIENCE"
remarks by Arthur B. Lamb, John Johnston; SCIENCE has been issued weekly from the presentation of medal by John E. Teeple; acsame press without intermission for over ceptance and address, “ Color and molecular twenty-six years, but it is possible that the structure," by Professor Lewis. present number may be delayed. The wide
THE Royal Geographical Society of Great spread strike of compositors for a forty-four Britain, with the approval of the King, has hour week affects the offices at Lancaster, awarded to Vilhjalmur Stefansson their Easton and Baltimore, in which a large part Founder's Medal for his “ distinguished serof the scientific journals of the United States vices to the Dominion of Canada in the exare printed. The printing office will do all in ploration of the Arctic ocean." The medal is its power to bring out the number at the regu- to be presented at the anniversary meeting of lar time, and at present the pressmen are at the society in London on May 30. Mr. Stework. In order to get the number through the fansson will then be on a lecture tour in the press articles in type are being used with the western United States and consequently unexception of a few news notes. This unfor- able to attend, and it is expected that the High tunately requires the postponement of the pub- Commissioner for Canada will receive the lication of accounts of the recent meetings of
medal on his behalf, as the Stefansson Arctic the National Academy of Sciences, the Ameri- expedition of 1913–1918, of which this award can Chemical Society, the Executive Commit- is a recognition, was a Canadian naval extee of the American Association for the Ad- pedition. vancement of Science, the Joint Committee on DR. STEPHEN Smith, first president of the Conservation and other material of current American Public Health Association, now interest. It may be noted that the advertise- ninety-eight years old, will welcome members ments are in type, and advertisers have been of the association at the fiftieth annual meetrequested to continue to use the same copy, so
ing next November. that no sacrifice of reading matter is made Don JOSÉ RODRIGUEZ CARRACIDO, rector of for the advertisements. The number is, how- the University of Madrid, has been elected ever, reduced by eight ages to facilitate its president of the Spanish Association for the publication.
Advancement of Science.
The meeting of the Academy of Sciences of The general subject of his lectures was “The Cuba on March 28 was a special session in Theory of Relativity." honor of the return of Dr. Juan Guiteras WILLIAM ROBERT BROOKS, director of the from his mission to Africa to study yellow Smith Observatory since 1888, and profesfever and other tropical diseases on behalf of
sor of astronomy at Hobart College since 1900, the Rockefeller Foundation. It will be re- died at his home in Geneva, N. Y., on May 3, membered that General Gorgas started with at the age of eighty-five years. him, died in London.
DR. ALBERT C. HALE, formerly for twentyUNDER the auspices of the Rockefeller Foun- nine years head teacher in the department of dation Major-Gen. Sir Wilmot Herringham, physical science at the Boys' High School, consulting physician to St. Bartholomew's Brooklyn, secretary of the American Chemical Hospital, vice-chancellor of the University of Society for thirteen years, died on April 22 London, and Sir Walter Fletcher, senior dem- at the age of seventy-five years. onstrator in physiology, Cambridge Univer
CAPTAIN E. W. CREAK, C.B., F.R.S., forsity, are traveling over the United States to
merly superintendent of compasses in the Britstudy medical and scientific institutions for ish Admiralty, died on April 3 at the age of the British government.
eighty-four years. The biological expedition to Spitzbergen, or
UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL ganized in Oxford University, is to set out in
NEWS June, under the leadership of the Rev. F. C.
The State Legislature of Texas passed an R. Jourdain, and will devote its attention principally to ornithological work.
act which has now been approved by the gove
ernor appropriating one million, three hunPROFESSOR ARTHUR H. GRAVES, collaborator,
dred and fifty thousand dollars to be used in Office of Investigations in Forest Pathology,
buying property adjacent to the present camBureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Department
pus of the University of Texas. It is exof Agriculture, and formerly assistant profes- pected that about 120 acres, a considerable sor of botany in the Sheffield Scientific School
part of which is residence property, will be and Yale School of Forestry, has accepted the
purchased. appointment as curator of public instruotion
Mrs. RANSOHOFF, the widow of Dr. Joseph at the Brooklyn Botanic Garden to begin Sep
Ransohoff, former professor of surgery at the tember 1, 1921.
medical college, has given $25,000 to the medDR. R. A. MILLIKAN, of the University of ical college of Cornell University toward an Chicago, delivered the first annual address be
endowment fund for the establishment of a fore the Crowell Scientific Society of Trinity chair of surgery and anatomy. The money College, Durham, N. C., April 28. This so- will be used as a nucleus for such an endowciety is a reorganization of the general scien- ment, the minimum of which is estimated at tific society which had been in existence for $150,000. the past thirty years. Physicists and students
DR. PAUL H. M.-P. BRINTON, of the chemfrom various parts of the state were in at
ical department of the University of Arizona, tendance.
has been appointed professor of analytical DR. DAVID WHITE, chief geologist of the chemistry in the University of Minnesota. United States Geological Survey, delivered a Dr. R. W. SHUFELDT has been elected prolecture on the “ Deposition of oil shales and fessor in nature study in the summer school cannels,” at the School of Mines of Pennsyl- of the George Washington University, vania State College on April 29.
DR. JOHN EDWARD ANDERSON, instructor in PROFESSOR ALBERT EINstein, lectured at the psychology at Yale University, has been proUniversity of Chicago on May 3, 4, and 5. moted to an assistant professorship.