Lapas attēli

the Bureau of Fisheries, Professor Spencer Fullerton Baird, and the traditions that he established, he continued:

The universities are dedicated to the advancement of learning; the government naturally devotes itself to the promotion of the welfare of its citizens, but looks far ahead with the aid of science to avoid dangers and to create advantages for them. The disinterested pursuit of learning has so often led to great material gains that we have come to feel that all learning is worth while even from a material point of view. Pure and applied science, when compared, must exhibit angles of divergence, but these are not so broad as formerly, and the workers are cooperating more advantage. ously than ever before. There is an appreciation of the fact that the great material interests of mankind, the increase of health and the increase of wealth, depend to an increasing extent upon effective cooperation of pure and applied science. Neither can advance rapidly without the other. Together they will hasten the day of liberation from shackles of poverty and disease.

The Bureau of Fisheries bears the distinction of practising this cardinal principle of scientific progress from the day of its foundation. The dedication of this building is a reaffirmation of the strong belief and consistent practise of its wise founder.

It was a broad-minded and comprehensive pol. icy of the Bureau for uniting both scientific and economic interests for mutual assistance and inspiration, and one that received the strongest endorsement and encouragement, on the one hand, by the universities, especially those of the middle west, and on the other hand by the pearl button industry.

With singular and striking harmony, essential agreement and understanding, and with unusual clearness of vision into the future, a federal bureau, an important industry, and educational institutions have worked together with a single purpose, for a definite end, and for a common good. Is not such a cooperation a heartening thing, and does not the existence of this station here to-day refute the contention of those apostles of individualism who belittle cooperative effort and maintain that all real progress in science springs from the researches of the isolated, independent laboratory worker ?

The station is, as has been pointed out by the bureau, quite analogous to the agricultural experi. ment station, and the service it can render to the development of the aquatic resources of the country is as important and fundamental as is that of the latter to the development of agricultural re


Professor George Lefevre of the University of Missouri speaking on the subject “The Fisheries Biological Station in Relation to Universities,” said in part as follows:

The history of the station thus far furnishes, among other things, a remarkable and unusual example of the carrying through to realization of a definite purpose, guided by a definite ideal and controlled by the scientific imagination. There has been no faltering on the way, no compromise of the ideal of service, until to-day we witness this inspiring fruition of a purpose consistently maintained and finally expressed in concrete form.

The aims and aspirations which the bureau had in mind for the Fairport Station were clearly expressed .., at the beginning ... in the following words: “This station is the first permanent freshwater biological laboratory established by the gov. ernment, and it is intended to become, not only the leading laboratory in America for the study of fresh-water biology, but one of the most important biological stations in the world.

Professor C. C. Nutting brought greetings of the State University of Iowa and those of Leland Stanford Jr. University and its president emeritus, Dr. David Starr Jordan. Taking as his theme “The Biological Laboratory as an Aid to Pure Science," Professor Nutting discussed briefly the history of the Bureau of Fisheries, the ideals of Professor Baird and the relations existing in the past between the Bureau of Fisheries and the workers in the field of pure science. He concluded his address with the following question and its answers:

In answer to the question “How can the laboratory best serve as an aid to pure science?" I would say:

First. By proceeding in the future just as it has in the past; by laying a foundation of pure science by the work of the systematist and morphologist and then erecting a superstructure of applied science on this solid basis.

To illustrate just what I mean we have but to refer to the work on the fresh-water mussel. The exploration of the more important mussel-bearing streams with a view to ascertaining the extent and number of the mussel beds—the source of supply-was done by men trained in the work of pure science. The material thus secured was carefully worked over, classified and described—the work of the systematist—which was embodied in an admirable report. Then Lefevre and Curtis undertook to work out the anatomy and embryology of the mussels of economic importance and to ascertain the species of fish best fitted to act as carriers of the mussel larvæ or glochidia. All of this was purely scientific work, and the results were embodied in a paper entitled “Reproduction and Artificial Propagation of the Fresh-water Mussels,” to my mind an excellent piece of work from a purely scientific standpoint.

With this as a basis, the work of propagation of mussels, the infection of fish best suited to act as hosts to the glochidia and the proposing of laws regarding the mussel industry as a whole could be followed intelligently and effectively. And this, of course, is practical or "applied” zoology.

Second. This laboratory, being in operation through the year, in which it differs from most others in this country, studies of the life histories and ecology of fluviatile species can best be pursued here, and should, in my opinion, be distinctly encouraged. Graduate students from our colleges and universities could be detailed to do this work and thus contribute to pure science and at the same time lay the foundations for work of

stinctly economic bearing. Third. Material secured here, such as protozoans, mussels, annelids and small crustaceans, could be sent to the biological laboratories of neighboring states and serve a valuable end in supplying such laboratories with many forms desired for class work in botany and zoology.

The raw material from which the scientists of the future must, in the main, be secured is found in the college students now in classes; and anything that aids in the preparation of these students for their future life work will ultimately be of prime importance not only to pure science but also to applied science and the welfare of mankind.

The conference on the morning of the 8th was presided over by Professor Stephen A. Forbes, professor of entomology, University of Illinois, and chief of the Natural History Survey of Illinois. The leading address, entitled “The Biological Resources of our In

land Waters was presented by Professor James G. Needham, of Cornell University, who has epitomized his remarks in the following terms:

Fish culture is a branch of animal husbandry. Animal husbandry makes progress about in proportion as it gives attention to the fundamental needs of animals, which are three: (1) Food, (2) Protection, and (3) Fit conditions for reproduction. Fish culture (as now practised) is not like other lines of animal husbandry because it gives adequate attention to only the last of these three. Further progress will lie in studying: (1) One species at a time, (2) One problem at a time, and (3) in one environment at a time.

That is my creed for fish culture and for fish management and it applies to fish forage organisms and to fish enemies as well,

Several zoologists and business men participated in the general discussion relating to the subject of the conference.

The entire occasion was made agreeable and memorable through the generous cooperation of the National Association of Button Manufacturers, who gave luncheons at Fairport on the 7th and 8th and a banquet in Mụscatine on the night of the 7th. The banquet in Muscatine was the occasion for a considerable number of extemporaneous talks by the various delegates present, and by persons representing the Station, the Bureau and the Department.




ANIMALS BRYOZOA are common animals of the coastwise waters everywhere, but they have not been listed with any frequency in the food of other animals—in fact such references are exceedingly rare. It is of some interest, therefore, that I am able to record the fact that certain aquatic birds, at least occasionally, include them in their bill of fare.

Dr. E. W. Nelson, chief of the Bureau of Biological Survey, has recently sent me for determination a small collection of bryozoa taken from the stomachs of the king eider (Somateria spectabilis) and the Pacific eider (Somateria v-nigra). These ducks were taken


at the Pribilof Islands in the Bering Sea, and Certain fishes that habitually browse around the presumption is that the bryozoa are from ledges, rocks, wharves, etc., and which have the same locality. The food records are as teeth adapted for cutting off and crushing the follows:

shells of their prey, are known to include

Bryozoa in their diet with some regularity. Crisia sp., from stomachs of the king eider and of two Pacific eiders, St. Paul I.,

Thus, the cunner, Tautogolabrus adspersus,

and the blackfish or tautog, Tautoga onitis, Alaska, January 29 and 30, 1918.

feed on bryozoa along with other hardshelled Menipea pribilofi Robertson, from stomach of organisms. (See Sumner, Osburn and Cole,

king eider, St. George I., Alaska, January “ Biological Survey of the Waters of Woods 30, 1918.

Hole and Vicinity," Bull. U. S. Bureau of Myriozoum subgracile d'Orbigny, from stomach Fisheries, Vol. XXXI., Part 2, 1911.) The

of king eider, St. George I., Alaska, May 3, kingtish, Menticirrhus saxatilis, also has been 1917.

known to feed on bryozoa. The writer has

observed Bugula turrita Desor and Lepralia Cellepora surcularis Packard, from stomachs

pallasiana Moll among the stomach contents of the Pacific eider, St. Paul I., Alaska,

of the puffer or swellfish, Spheroides macuMch. 21, 1915, and from the king eider, St.

latus. On one occasion a couple of young Paul I., Alaska, December 13, 1914 and

puffers were placed over night in a finger January 29, 1918.

bowl containing some colonies of the EndoThe amount of material in each case was proct, Barentsia major Hincks, and the next small. The Crisia colonies

broken morning it was discovered that the puffers scraps and undeterminable as to species be- had returned my kindness in keeping them cause of the lack of ovicells, though the gen- alive a few hours longer by eating the heads eral appearance was that of the common C. off of the most of the Barentsia. I have seen denticulata Lamarck. Myriozoum subgracile a considerable mass of Bugula turrita taken was represented by a branched portion 9 mm. from the stomach of a smooth dogfish, long by 3 mm. thick, and Cellepora surcularis Mustelus canis, and on several occasions have by irregular nodules 4 to 12 mm. in greatest had referred to me for identification, nodules diameter.

of Smittina trispinosa nitida Verrill and In all cases the animal matter seemed to Schizoporella unicornis Johnston, from the have been digested out, leaving only the stomachs of sharks. In one case the colony chitinous or calcareous matter of the ectocyst. was half as large as my fist. Aside from the fact that they were consider- Bryozoa often grow in the greatest profuably broken up, the specimens were in good sion, covering piles, rocks, shells, seaweed, condition for study, being as clean as though etc., with growths so dense that they may they had been treated with Javelle water. As entirely obscure the objects to which they are Dr. Nelson suggests in a letter, it is probable attached. At Woods Hole, Mass., during the that the ducks ate the Crisia and Menipea summer of 1919, observations were made on incidentally with other food, as these small Bugula turrita, growing on the rock wall of branched species often grow attached to other the Bureau of Fisheries dock, and on Lepralia organisms. The Myriozoum and Cellepora be- pallasiana, encrusting the piles and timbers ing nodular, may have been swallowed in lieu under the Coast Guard dock. Though in both of pebbles.

cases the substratum was practically covered In general the bryozoa must afford com- by the bryozoa and there were many other paratively little nutriment, as the indigestible animals present, very few of the colonies portion is so large, yet an animal pressed for showed injury of any sort. In nearly every food might be able to eke out an existence on case the colony form was perfect. It has been then.

my experience in many years of dredging that bryozoa colonies are usually complete, unless species of insects, representing the chief broken during dredging operations.

orders. The ash was analyzed for copper, on The bryozoan individual is always small, the supposition that the copper present serves being rarely half as large as a pin head, but as the nucleus of a respiratory pigment, the colonial mass is often of sufficient size namely hemocyanin. In every case the ash to render them desirable as food for numerous reacted positively for copper with several reorganisms, were it not for the fact that in agents. The amount of copper present in innearly all cases they are well protected by sect blood is nearly proportionate to that presheavy chitinous or calcareous walls. Only ent in crayfish blood, which was used as a those animals provided with strong incisorial control. teeth or which can swallow the colony whole, In addition to insects and crayfish, other can utilize them. Predaceous worms and Arthropods were incinerated, including sevother invertebrates probably are unable to eral species of plankton Crustacea, spiders, feed on them to any extent, for in addition daddy long-legs, and centipede. In all cases to its shell, the bryozoan is so highly irritable copper was found. As representatives of to tactile stimuli that it retracts into its shell other phyla Volvox, Lumbricus, Ascaris, with great rapidity at the slightest touch. snails and slugs, and the blood of garter Possibly some of the softer-bodied ctenostomes snakes and human blood were incinerated. may serve as food for other invertebrates, but Of these all but the vertebrate blood reacted observations on this point are apparently

positively to tests for copper. As a matter of lacking.

fact, the snake blood also appeared to show It should be added that the statoblasts of a minute trace of copper, but as the reaction the freshwater bryozoa are often eaten by

developed with only one of the reagents used, young fishes. During a survey of the fishes and then only after several hours under alcoof Ohio, made during the past summer, stato

hol vapor, this particular experiment is inconblasts of Pectinatella and Plumatella were

clusive. found among the stomach contents of the The foregoing results indicate that the eleyoung of the large-mouth black bass, Microp- ment copper has a wider distribution in living terus salmoides, the crappie, Pomoxis annu- organisms than heretofore accepted. Its funclaris, the blue-gill sunfish, Lepomis pallidus tion has been definitely determined only for and the gizzard shad, Dorosoma cepedianum. mollusks and Crustacea, where it forms the That these were picked up for food among

nucleus of a respiratory protein. Its presence other organisms of the same size there can in other Arthropods is explained on the same be little doubt.

basis, that is, in all Arthropods copper forms RAYMOND C. OSBURN the nucleus of hemocyanin. This is all the Ohio STATE UNIVEKSITY

more probable, since, as already stated, the

amounts present in insect blood, spiders and COPPER IN ANIMALS AND PLANTS

centipeds are proportionate to the amounts In a recent number of The Journal of Bio- present in the crayfish blood used as a control. logical Chemistry (Vol. 44, pp. 99-112, Oct., In considering the source of the copper the 1920) W. C. Rose and M. Bodansky report writer analyzed the water of a creek from the finding of copper in various marine or- which most of his aquatic material was taken, ganisms, including Coelenterates, Mollusca, and found distinct traces of the metal. The Crustacea, Elasmobranchs, and Teleostomi. water as a source of copper is of importance As some of the writer's work bears on this to aquatic animals. It was shown, however, subject, the following note is offered.

that terrestrial insects, including such highly In some recent investigations on the res- specialized families as bees, ants and wasps, piration of insects the writer incinerated both contained copper. These and other terrestrial the blood and entire specimens of over 30 insects, especially the herbivores, could derive

[ocr errors]

their copper only from their plant food. In research into the problems of the glass indusview of this fact about a dozen species of try, and is considered by the association to be plants were incinerated. In all cases, whether the man best suited for organizing and directthe portion incinerated was taken from the ing the research needed by it. (2) The restem, or the leaves, or fruit, the ash reacted sponsibility for the selection of a director of positively.

research rests in each case with the research In general, copper was present only in association concerned, and not with the Detraces in plants, not at all in amounts com- partment of Scientific and Industrial Reparable to that present in insects. It is prob- search, which has no power to approve or disable that the copper ion is inactive in plants, approve the appointment of any individual. that its presence is due to mechanical storage, (3) The department guarantees three quarters and that it plays no active role in the phys- of the expenditure of the research association iology of the plant.

up to a certain limit, but payment of the grant It is evident, however, from the experi- is conditional, among other things, on the apments performed, that copper is widely dis- proval by the department of the program of tributed in both the plant and animal world. research and of the estimate of expenditure In the former it is present only in traces, and thereon. (4) The advisory council of the deprobably inactive, while in the latter it is

partment, after considering all the relevant present in measurable quantities and its rôle

circumstances with great care, recommended appears to be active.

the approval of the expenditure involved in A more detailed account of these investiga- this director's appointment. tions will be published in the near future. RICHARD A. MUTTKOWSKI



The scientific program of the meeting of

the National Academy of Sciences, held in SCIENTIFIC EVENTS

Washington on April 25, 26 and 27, has been DIRECTORS OF RESEARCH AND SCIENTIFIC printed in SCIENCE, and other information QUALIFICATIONS

concerning the meeting will be published later. THE RIGHT Hon. F. D. ACLAND recently At the business session of April 27, the asked in the House of Commons, as we learn president of the academy, Dr. Charles D. Walfrom Nature, whether the lord president of cott, presented his resignation, but at the the council “is aware that dissatisfaction is earnest request of the academy, he consented being expressed by scientific workers with the to serve the remaining two years of his term. appointment of a man without scientific quali- The resignation of the foreign secretary, Dr. fications as director of research to the Glass George E. Hale, was accepted with regret, and Research Association; whether, as the De- with the expression of high appreciation of his partment of Scientific and Industrial Research able work in that office. Dr. R. A. Millikan provides four fifths of the funds of the asso- was elected foreign secretary, to complete the ciation, the department was consulted before unexpired term of Dr. Hale. Dr. Hale was the appointment was made; and does he ap- elected a member of the council, and Dr. Rayprove of the appointment as giving a guarantee mond Pearl was reelected. that state funds devoted to scientific research The following were elected to membership: will be wisely expended?” Mr. Fisher replied

Frank Michler Chapman, American Museum of to the question, and his answer included the

Natural History. following statements, which concerned a di

William LeRoy Emmet, General Electric Company, rector for the work called from the United

Schenectady, N. Y. States: (1) The successful candidate has a William Draper Harkins, University of Chicago. wide and successful experience of scientific Ales Hrdlicka, United States National Museum.

« iepriekšējāTurpināt »