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THE BIOLOGICAL STATION AT FAIR
PORT, IOWA, AS AN AGENCY
FOR PUBLIC SERVICE 1
Fairport, Iowa, combines in a somewhat 447
unique way the functions of a fisheries bioSher Animals : DR. logical station and a fish-cultural experiment RAYMOND U, USBURN.
451 station. Its functions include the propagaCopper in Animals and Plants: DR. RICHARD tion and investigation of fresh-water mussels, A. MUTTKOWSKI
453 the conduct of fish-cultural experiment work,
investigation of various fresh-water fishery Scientific Events:Directors of Research and Scientific Quali
problems, and the promotion both of a fuller fications; Elections by the National Acad- utilization of aquatic products and of a broader emy of Sciences; The Printers' Strike and and more efficient interest in the protection of the Publication of SCIENCE
aquatic resources. With its admirable buildScientific Notes and News....
ing, its extensive equipment of ponds and its
general environment, it offers unusually favorUniversity and Educational News..
able conditions for all manner of biological Discussion and Correspondence :
investigations, and the Bureau of Fisheries English Pronunoiation for the Metric Sys.
invites university biologists to avail themtem: HOWARD B. FROST. Extramundane
selves of the opportunities there afforded for Life: DR. HUBERT LYMAN CLARK, DR. W. W. CAMPBELL
457 independent research work.
The primary functions of the station are Scientific Books :
characteristically ecological. In mussel propThe Sumario Compendioso of Brother Juan Diez: PROFESSOR G. A. MILLER. Cayeux's
agation it deals directly with that striking Introduction to the Study of the Petrog.
symbiotic relation existing between fish and raphy of the Sedimentary Rocks: MARCUS mussels, the fish being essential to the developI. GOLDMAN
458 ment of mussels and the mussels promoting, Special Articles :
in part directly, and perhaps in greater part The Occurrence of Gammerus Limnaeus indirectly, the food supply of fishes. As a Smith in a Saline Habitat: Dr. Ross AIKEN fish-cultural experiment station, it is conGORTNER AND J. ARTHUR HARRIS. An Eye- cerned not so much with fish as with that
less Daphnid: DR. ARTHUR M. BANTA.... 460 complex association of fish, insects, molluscs, The Easter Meeting of the American Mathe- crustacea, algæ, and other animals and plants,
matical Society at Chicago: PROFESSOR AR- all of which are intimately interrelated and in NOLD DRESDEN
463 turn dependent upon physical and chemical The American Association for the Advance
conditions of water, bottom soil and land enment of Science:
vironment-an association which we call in Pacific Division: DR. W. W. SARGEANT.... 464
1 The functions and opportunities of the Station as expressed by leaders in the dedicatory exercises
and conference held at Fairport, Iowa, in October, MSS. intended for publication and books, etc., intended for review should be sent to The Editor of Science, Garrison-on
1920, are given in this paper, in connection with Hudson, N. Y.
an account of the exercises and the conference. « fish
more concise and familiar language, a
In presentation of the building to the pond.”
Department of Commerce on behalf of the Nothing so attests public faith in the possi- public, Professor James M. White, architect bilities of service by a fisheries biological of the building, spoke of the value of a station as the dedicatory exercises and con- pleasing environment to the prosecution of ference held at Fairport on October 7 and 8, scientific studies, of the contribution of sci1920. The occasion was marked as one of ence to the development of architectural unusual significance by the attendance of forms, and of the possible value of a new prominent scientists, the representation of sympathy between the architect and
and the leading universities, the collaboration of men scientist. prominent in public life, and the hearty co- The building was received on behalf of the operation of business men, some of whom Department of Commerce by the Hon. Edwin came from cities remote from Fairport. F. Sweet, Assistant Secretary of Commerce,
The universities, colleges and scientific in- who presented a brief address under the title stitutions represented were the following, in of “Federal and State Responsibilities for alphabetical order: Cornell College (Iowa), Maintaining the Resources of Interstate Cornell University (New York), Davenport Waters." Mr. Sweet strongly expressed as a Academy of Sciences, Doane College (Ne personal view, not that of the Bureau of braska), Harvard University, Iowa State Col- Fisheries, his belief that the states might adlege of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts, vantageously transfer to the federal governIowa State Teachers College, Johns Hopkins ment the control of fisheries, not only because University, Leland Stanford Jr. University, of the difficulties attending state control in Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole, boundary waters, but also because of the lesser Mass.), Massachusetts Institute of Tech- influence of local politics in affairs of national nology, Massachusetts State Normal School administration. He concluded by formally (Westfield), Northwestern University, Purdue delivering the building to the Bureau of University, University of Chicago, University Fisheries. of Florida, University of Illinois, University In a short speech of acceptance Dr. Hugh of Indiana, University of Iowa, University of M. Smith, Commissioner of Fisheries, spoke Michigan, University of Missouri, University of the building as an outward sign of a need, of Oklahoma, University of Wisconsin and an opportunity and an obligation to strive for Yale University.
the accomplishment of great good in behalf The morning and afternoon sessions on of industry. He emphasized the functions of October 7, were devoted primarily to the in- the station in experimental work for the dustrial and scientific phases, respectively, of advancement of fish culture, in investigation the station's functions. All of the addresses of fresh-water biological and fishery problems, were of sufficient general interest to merit in promotion of a fuller utilization of the printing in full but this unfortunately has resources of interior waters and in efforts to proved impracticable. In the following para- awaken broader interest in the preservation graphs each address is represented by ab- of useful aquatic animals so that many future stracts or extracts of such passages as bear generations may partake of nature's bounties most directly upon the significance and func- as we are privileged to do. tions of a fisheries biological station.
The program of the morning session inThe ceremonies of dedication were presided cluded an address by Hon. Charles Nagel, over by the Hon. Albert F. Dawson, Presi- Vice-president of the United States Chamber dent of the First National Bank of Muscatine, of Commerce and formerly Secretary of ComIowa, formerly member of Congress, who merce, who had accepted the invitation in spoke briefly and instructively of the origin terms of unusual cordiality, Mr. Nagel was of the station.
prevented from attending only by unexpected
engagements arising at the last moment. A sion of this complex life, as a sort of by-product of congratulatory letter from Hon. William C. all this intricate activity. Redfield, formerly Secretary of Commerce,
So much as this we know, and we know also that
all assured progress in aquiculture depends on our was read by Mr. R. L. Barney, director of the
knowledge of this complex life. We must see the station.
problems of fisheries in terms of this life of This session concluded with an address by
the waters, just as see the problem of Hon. Harry E. Hull, M.C., under the title
any specific activity or product of the body of “The Significance of the Station to In- in terms of the whole life of which it is an dustries." He discussed the history of the integral part. But we know next to nothing about
this life of the waters. We have countless papers pearl mussel industry, pointed to the service of science in directing measures of conserva
on isolated aspects or bits of aquatic life. But
there is no knowledge and hardly an attempt to tion and emphasized the national significance
secure the knowledge of the life as a whole-as a of the work of the station.
"going concern, " if I may change my figure. As the exercises of the morning stressed
Still less is there any body of knowledge which the industrial relations of the station, so those enables us to place the production of fish—that of the afternoon gave special emphasis to the essential source of food for us—in its proper place scientific phases of its activities. The primary
in the operation of that “going concern.
We must not be content with "conserv. address of the afternoon session was by President Edward A. Birge, of the University of
ing” our fisheries, though we admit with shame
that we are not effecting even this beginning of Wisconsin, and was entitled " Aquiculture and
our task. We too must aim to increase the product Science.” President Birge congratulated the
of the waters and we can do this only as aquiculbureau on the completion of so admirable a ture rests on a broad and firm foundation of orbuilding, which he welcomed "not merely for ganized knowledge of science. what it is, but even more on account of the We welcome, therefore, the Fairport Biological promise for the future which is made by its Laboratory not merely as a notable addition to establishment.” He had found, he said, that
the scientific resources of the country, but even
more as embodying the promise of a new and adthe term “aquiculture” was regarded by some
vanced policy in dealing with the problems of as a peculiarly technical or “high-brow” word
aquiculture. I can express no higher wish for the though its twin
laboratory and for the great interests served by looked upon by no one as in any way extra- it than that it may not only embody the promise ordinary. He compared and contrasted the but express the potency of that policy. well-developed science of agriculture (cultiva
Professor Frank R. Lillie, representing the tion of plants and animals upon land) with
University of Chicago and the Marine Biothe unfamiliar and largely undeveloped sci
logical Laboratory of Woods Hole, Mass., ence of aquiculture (cultivation of plants and
having chosen for his theme “ The Spirit of animals in water). The following quotations Cooperation in the Bureau of Fisheries ” said from his address are significant.
in part: Now the lake is an organism in the same sense The cooperation that you here propose with the that the soil is one. The fish or the clam is not a industries on the one hand and with the universithing which grows for itself—and for us-alone in ties through their biologists on the other is a fine a certain environment. It is an integral part of a program which should be to the advantage of both complex life, a life regulated by chemical sub- parties. The relations which both will enter into stances set free by its manifold operations. These with the government through this Bureau are substances stimulate one kind of growth or activ- among those close personal relations with our too ity and check another one; and the utilizable crop impersonal government which contribute to the of fish or of clam shells comes as only one expres- feeling that we are one people with one set of
interests and a mutual loyalty. 1 The quotations in this paper are by permission of the several speakers,
After recalling the spirit of the founder of
the Bureau of Fisheries, Professor Spencer It was a broad-minded and comprehensive polFullerton Baird, and the traditions that he icy of the Bureau for uniting both scientific and established, he continued:
economic interests for mutual assistance and in
spiration, and one that received the strongest enThe universities are dedicated to the advance.
dorsement and encouragement, on the one hand, by ment of learning; the government naturally de
the universities, especially those of the middle votes itself to the promotion of the welfare of its west, and on the other hand by the pearl button citizens, but looks far ahead with the aid of sci
industry. ence to avoid dangers and to create advantages for With singular and striking harmony, essential them. The disinterested pursuit of learning has agreement and understanding, and with unusual so often led to great material gains that we have clearness of vision into the future, a federal bucome to feel that all learning is worth while even reau, an important industry, and educational in. from a material point of view. Pure and applied stitutions have worked together with a single science, when compared, must exhibit angles of purpose, for a definite end, and for a common divergence, but these are not so broad as formerly, good. Is not such a cooperation a heartening and the workers are cooperating more advantage- thing, and does not the existence of this station ously than ever before. There is an appreciation here to-day refute the contention of those apostles of the fact that the great material interests of of individualism who belittle cooperative effort mankind, the increase of health and the increase
and maintain that all real progress in science of wealth, depend to an increasing extent upon springs from the researches of the isolated, indeeffective cooperation of pure and applied science. pendent laboratory worker? Neither can advance rapidly without the other. Together they will hasten the day of liberation The station is, as has been pointed out by the from shackles of poverty and disease.
bureau, quite analogous to the agricultural experiThe Bureau of Fisheries bears the distinction of
ment station, and the service it can render to the practising this cardinal principle of scientific
development of the aquatic resources of the counprogress from the day of its foundation. The try is as important and fundamental as is that of dedication of this building is a reaffirmation of the latter to the development of agricultural rethe strong belief and consistent practise of its wise founder.
Professor C. C. Nutting brought greetings Professor George Lefevre of the University of the State University of Iowa and those of of Missouri speaking on the subject “The
Leland Stanford Jr. University and its presiFisheries Biological Station in Relation to
dent emeritus, Dr. David Starr Jordan. Universities," said in part as follows:
Taking as his theme “ The Biological Labora
tory as an Aid to Pure Science," Professor The history of the station thus far furnishes,
Nutting discussed briefly the history of the among other things, a remarkable and unusual ex
Bureau of Fisheries, the ideals of Professor ample of the carrying through to realization of a
Baird and the relations existing in the past definite purpose, guided by a definite ideal and controlled by the scientific imagination. There has
between the Bureau of Fisheries and the been no faltering on the way, no compromise of
workers in the field of pure science. He conthe ideal of service, until to-day we witness this
cluded his address with the following quesinspiring fruition of a purpose consistently main
tion and its answers: tained and finally expressed in concrete form.
In answer to the question “How can the laboraThe aims and aspirations which the bureau had
tory best serve as an aid to pure science?” I in mind for the Fairport Station were clearly ex.
would say: pressed ... at the beginning ... in the following First. By proceeding in the future just as it words: “This station is the first permanent fresh- has in the past; by laying a foundation of pure water biological laboratory established by the gov- science by the work of the systematist and more ernment, and it is intended to become, not only phologist and then erecting a superstructure of the leading laboratory in America for the study applied science on this solid basis. of fresh-water biology, but one of the most im- To illustrate just what I mean we have but to portant biological stations in the world.”
refer to the work on the fresh-water mussel. The
exploration of the more important mussel-bearing land Waters"
land Waters” was presented by Professor streams with a view to ascertaining the extent James G. Needham, of Cornell University, and number of the mussel beds—the source of
who has epitomized his remarks in the followsupply-was done by men trained in the work of
ing terms: pure science. The material thus secured was carefully worked over, classified and described—the
Fish culture is a branch of animal husbandry. work of the systematist—which was embodied in
Animal husbandry makes progress about in proan admirable report.
Then Lefevre and Curtis portion as it gives attention to the fundamental undertook to work out the anatomy and embryol
needs of animals, which are three: (1) Food, (2) ogy of the mussels of economic importance and to
Protection, and (3) Fit conditions for reproducascertain the species of fish best fitted to act as
tion. Fish culture (as now practised) is not like carriers of the mussel larvæ or glochidia. All of
other lines of animal husbandry because it gives this was purely scientific work, and the results
adequate attention to only the last of these three. were embodied in a paper entitled “Reproduction
Further progress will lie in studying: (1) One and Artificial Propagation of the Fresh-water
species at a time, (2) One problem at a time, and Mussels,” to my mind an excellent piece of work
(3) in one environment at a time. That is my from a purely scientific standpoint.
creed for fish culture and for fish management and With this as a basis, the work of propagation of
it applies to fish forage organisms and to fish mussels, the infection of fish best suited to act as
enemies as well, hosts to the glochidia and the proposing of laws Several zoologists and business men parregarding the mussel industry as a whole could be ticipated in the general discussion relating to followed intelligently and effectively. And this, the subject of the conference. of course, is practical or "applied” zoology.
The entire occasion was made agreeable and Second. This laboratory, being in operation memorable through the generous cooperation through the year, in which it differs from most
of the National Association of Button Manuothers in this country, studies of the life histories and ecology of fluviatile species can best be pur
facturers, who gave luncheons at Fairport on sued here, and should, in my opinion, be dis
the 7th and 8th and a banquet in Mụscatine tinctly encouraged. Graduate students from our on the night of the 7th. The banquet in Mus. colleges and universities could be detailed to do catine was the occasion for a considerable this work and thus contribute to pure science and number of extemporaneous talks by the vaat the same time lay the foundations for work of rious delegates present, and by persons reprea distinctly economic bearing.
senting the Station, the Bureau and the DeThird. Material secured here, such as proto
partment. zoans, mussels, annelids and small crustaceans,
R. E. COKER could be sent to the biological laboratories of neighboring states and serve a valuable end in
BRYOZOA AS FOOD FOR OTHER supplying such laboratories with many forms de
ANIMALS sired for class work in botany and zoology. The raw material from which the scientists of
BRYOZOA are common animals of the coastthe future must, in the main, be secured is found
wise waters everywhere, but they have not in the college students now in classes; and any
been listed with any frequency in the food of thing that aids in the preparation of these stu
other animals in fact such references are exdents for their future life work will ultimately be ceedingly rare. It is of some interest, thereof prime importance not only to pure science but fore, that I am able to record the fact that also to applied science and the welfare of man- certain aquatic birds, at least occasionally, kind.
include them in their bill of fare. The conference on the morning of the 8th Dr. E. W. Nelson, chief of the Bureau of was presided over by Professor Stephen A. Biological Survey, has recently sent me for Forbes, professor of entomology, University determination a small collection of bryozoa of Illinois, and chief of the Natural History taken from the stomachs of the king eider Survey of Illinois. The leading address, en- (Somateria spectabilis) and the Pacific eider titled “ The Biological Resources of our In- (Somateria v-nigra). These ducks were taken