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Repeated object lessons have demonstrated that nearly all progress in science has resulted in important advances in industry

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G-E Research Laboratory

Schenectady, N. Y.

Among the many products developed by the General
Electric Company's research laboratories the following
are of special interest to manufacturers:

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For further information address Supply Department, Schenectady Office.

General Electric

Company

General Office
Schenectady. N.Y.

Sales Offices in all large cities

35B-48

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Laboratory Bottles, with flat glass stopper; these bottles are made in our own private moulds of a new formula lime glass, developed under our direction and which, while not equal to Pyrex, Nonsol or similar glass in stability, is far superior in this respect to the ordinary flint glass mostly used in the manufacture of bottles. They were the first bottles to be made in the U. S. of the squat shape, heretofore available only in imported bottles. They hold the full capacity indicated, are of excellent appearance and are suitable in every way for use as reagent bottles where labelling is done in the laboratory.

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ARTHUR H. THOMAS COMPANY

WHOLESALE, RETAIL AND EXPORT MERCHANTS LABORATORY APPARATUS AND REAGENTS WEST WASHINGTON SQUARE

PHILADELPHIA, U. S. A.

SCIENCE

$

13, 1921

THE BIOLOGICAL STATION AT FAIR

PORT, IOWA, AS AN AGENCY
NTS

FOR PUBLIC SERVICE 1
Fairport, Iowa, as THE U. S. Fisheries Biological Station at
Service: DR. R. E.

Fairport, Iowa, combines in a somewhat 447

unique way the functions of a fisheries bioher Animals : DR. logical station and a fish-cultural experiment RAYMOND U. VSBURN....

451 station. Its functions include the propagaCopper in Animals and Plants: DR. RICHARD

tion and investigation of fresh-water mussels, A. MUTTKOWSKI

453 the conduct of fish-cultural experiment work, Scientific Events:

investigation of various fresh-water fishery Directors of Research and Scientific Quali

problems, and the promotion both of a fuller fications; Elections by the National Acad- utilization of aquatic products and of a broader emy of Sciences; The Printers' Strike and and more efficient interest in the protection of the Publication of SCIENCE

454

aquatic resources. With its admirable buildScientific Notes and News..

455 ing, its extensive equipment of ponds and its

general environment, it offers unusually favorUniversity and Educational News..

456

able conditions for all manner of biological Discussion and Correspondence :

investigations, and the Bureau of Fisheries English Pronunoiation for the Metric Sys

invites university biologists to avail themtem: HOWARD B. FROST. Extramundane

selves of the opportunities there afforded for Life: Dr. HUBERT LYMAN CLARK, DR. W. W. CAMPBELL

457

independent research work.

The primary functions of the station are Scientific Books :

characteristically ecological. In mussel propThe Sumario Compendioso of Brother Juan Diez: PROFESSOR G. A. MILLER. Cayeux's

agation it deals directly with that striking Introduction to the Study of the Petrog

symbiotic relation existing between fish and raphy of the Sedimentary Rocks: MARCUS mussels, the fish being essential to the developI. GOLDMAN

458 ment of mussels and the mussels promoting, Special Articles:

in part directly, and perhaps in greater part The Occurrence of Gammerus Limnaeus

indirectly, the food supply of fishes. As a Smith in a Saline Habitat : Dr. Ross AIKEN fish-cultural experiment station, it is conGORTNER AND J. ARTHUR HARRIS. An Eye- cerned not so much with fish as with that

less Daphnid: DR. ARTHUR M. BANTA.... 460 complex association of fish, insects, molluscs, The Easter Meeting of the American Mathe- crustacea, algæ, and other animals and plants,

matical Society at Chicago: PROFESSOR AR- all of which are intimately interrelated and in NOLD DRESDEN

463 turn dependent upon physical and chemical The American Association for the Advance

conditions of water, bottom soil and land enment of Science:

vironment-an association which we call in Pacific Division: Dr. W. W. SARGEANT.... 464

1 The functions and opportunities of the Station as expressed by leaders in the dedicatory exercises more concise and familiar language, a fish In presentation of the building to the pond."

and conference held at Fairport, Iowa, in October, M88. intended for publication and books, etc., intended for review should be sent to The Editor of Science, Garrison-on- 1920, are given in this paper, in connection with Hudson, N. Y.

an account of the exercises and the conference.

Department of Commerce on behalf of the Nothing so attests public faith in the possi- public, Professor James M. White, architect bilities of service by a fisheries biological of the building, spoke of the value of a station as the dedicatory exercises and con- pleasing environment to the prosecution of ference held at Fairport on October 7 and 8, scientific studies, of the contribution of sci1920. The occasion was marked as one of ence to the development of architectural unusual significance by the attendance of forms, and of the possible value of a new prominent scientists, the representation of sympathy between the architect and the leading universities, the collaboration of men scientist. prominent in public life, and the hearty co- The building was received on behalf of the operation of business men, some of whom Department of Commerce by the Hon. Edwin came from cities remote from Fairport. F. Sweet, Assistant Secretary of Commerce,

The universities, colleges and scientific in- who presented a brief address under the title stitutions represented were the following, in of “Federal and State Responsibilities for alphabetical order: Cornell College (Iowa), Maintaining the Resources of Interstate Cornell University (New York), Davenport Waters." Mr. Sweet strongly expressed as a Academy of Sciences, Doane College (Ne personal view, not that of the Bureau of braska), Harvard University, Iowa State Col- Fisheries, his belief that the states might adlege of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts, vantageously transfer to the federal governIowa State Teachers College, Johns Hopkins ment the control of fisheries, not only because University, Leland Stanford Jr. University, of the difficulties attending state control in Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole, boundary waters, but also because of the lesser Mass.), Massachusetts Institute of Tech- influence of local politics in affairs of national nology, Massachusetts State Normal School administration. He concluded by formally (Westfield), Northwestern University, Purdue delivering the building to the Bureau of University, University of Chicago, University

Fisheries. of Florida, University of Illinois, University In a short speech of acceptance Dr. Hugh of Indiana, University of Iowa, University of M. Smith, Commissioner of Fisheries, spoke Michigan, University of Missouri, University of the building as an outward sign of a need, of Oklahoma, University of Wisconsin and an opportunity and an obligation to strive for Yale University.

the accomplishment of great good in behalf The morning and afternoon sessions on of industry. He emphasized the functions of October 7, were devoted primarily to the in- the station in experimental work for the dustrial and scientific phases, respectively, of advancement of fish culture, in investigation the station's functions. All of the addresses of fresh-water biological and fishery problems, were of sufficient general interest to merit in promotion of a fuller utilization of the printing in full but this unfortunately has resources of interior waters and in efforts to proved impracticable. In the following para- awaken broader interest in the preservation graphs each address is represented by ab- of useful aquatic animals so that many future stracts or extracts of such passages as bear generations may partake of nature's bounties most directly upon the significance and func- as we are privileged to do. tions of a fisheries biological station.

The program of the morning session inThe ceremonies of dedication were presided cluded an address by Hon. Charles Nagel, over by the Hon. Albert F. Dawson, Presi- Vice-president of the United States Chamber dent of the First National Bank of Muscatine, of Commerce and formerly Secretary of ComIowa, formerly member of Congress, who merce, who had accepted the invitation in spoke briefly and instructively of the origin terms of unusual cordiality. Mr. Nagel was of the station.

prevented from attending only by unexpected

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engagements arising at the last moment. A congratulatory letter from Hon. William C. Redfield, formerly Secretary of Commerce, was read by Mr. R. L. Barney, director of the station.

This session concluded with an address by Hon. Harry E. Hull, M.C., under the title of “The Significance of the Station to Industries.” He discussed the history of the pearl mussel industry, pointed to the service of science in directing measures of conservation and emphasized the national significance of the work of the station.

As the exercises of the morning stressed the industrial relations of the station, so those of the afternoon gave special emphasis to the scientific phases of its activities. The primary address of the afternoon session was by President Edward A. Birge, of the University of Wisconsin, and was entitled “ Aquiculture and Science.” President Birge congratulated the bureau on the completion of so admirable a building, which he welcomed “not merely for what it is, but even more on account of the promise for the future which is made by its establishment.” He had found, he said, that the term “aquiculture” was regarded by some as a peculiarly technical or "high-brow” word though its twin word agriculture” was looked upon by no one as in any way extraordinary. He compared and contrasted the well-developed science of agriculture (cultivation of plants and animals upon land) with the unfamiliar and largely undeveloped science of aquiculture (cultivation of plants and animals in water). The following quotations from his address are significant.1

Now the lake is an organism in the same sense that the soil is one. The fish or the clam is not a thing which grows for itself—and for us-alone in a certain environment. It is an integral part of a complex life, a life regulated by chemical substances set free by its manifold operations. These substances stimulate one kind of growth or activity and check another one; and the utilizable crop of fish or of clam shells comes as only one expres.

1 The quotations in this paper are by permission of the several speakers.

sion of this complex life, as a sort of by-product of all this intricate activity.

So much as this we know, and we know also that all assured progress in aquiculture depends on our knowledge of this complex life. We must see the problems of fisheries in terms of this life of the waters, just as see the problem of any specific activity or product of the body in terms of the whole life of which it is an integral part. But we know next to nothing about this life of the waters. We have countless papers on isolated aspects or bits of aquatic life. But there is no knowledge and hardly an attempt to secure the knowledge of the life as a whole as a "going concern, " if I may change my figure. Still less is there any body of knowledge which enables us to place the production of fish—that essential source of food for us—in its proper place in the operation of that “going concern.

We must not be content with “conserv. ing” our fisheries, though we admit with shame that we are not effecting even this beginning of our task. We too must aim to increase the product of the waters and we can do this only as aquiculture rests on a broad and firm foundation of organized knowledge of science.

We welcome, therefore, the Fairport Biological Laboratory not merely as a notable addition to the scientific resources of the country, but even more as embodying the promise of a now and advanced policy in dealing with the problems of aquiculture. I can express no higher wish for the laboratory and for the great interests served by it than that it may not only embody the promise but express the potency of that policy.

Professor Frank R. Lillie, representing the University of Chicago and the Marine Biological Laboratory of Woods Hole, Mass., having chosen for his theme “ The Spirit of Cooperation in the Bureau of Fisheries " said in part:

The cooperation that you here propose with the industries on the one hand and with the universities through their biologists on the other is a fine program which should be to the advantage of both parties. The relations which both will enter into with the government through this Bureau are among those close personal relations with our too impersonal government which contribute to the feeling that we are one people with one set of interests and a mutual loyalty.

After recalling the spirit of the founder of

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