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ascidians, but the presence of vanadium in practically equal, in nutritive properties, to association with the proteid escaped Griffith's the unheated raw milk. The pasteurized observation. Whether non-metallic respiratory milk, heated at 145° F. for 30 minutes, propigments represent degeneration, or whether duced scurvy very quickly and all of the they are phylogenetic predecessors of metal- animals died in a very short time. Examinalic pigments, is difficult to decide; but their tion revealed the fact that the pasteurized presence in the animal kingdom shows that milks had been stirred rather violentiy with the function of oxygenation is not dependent motor-driven propellors, while the boiled milk upon the presence of a metal in the pigment had not been stirred mechanically. This led molecule-a fact which gives strong indica- us to believe that oxidation had occurred in tion that the association with metals was the pasteurized milks due to the intimate conoccasioned by the need of a greater capacity tact of air with the milk particles. Consefor ready oxidation and reduction, the need, quently, many new animals have been added that is, of a catalyst.
with the result that we have been able to show JOHN F. FULTON, JR. that the nutritive and antiscorbutic properHARVARD UNIVERSITY
ties of cow's milk are destroyed by oxidation.
Some destruction occurs when air is bubbled THE INFLUENCE OF HEAT AND OXIDATION through milk at 145° F. for 30 minutes, but UPON THE NUTRITIVE AND ANTISCOR
the destruction is much more marked when BUTIC PROPERTIES OF COW'S MILK
oxygen or hydrogen peroxide is used. OxyIn a recent paperfrom the Minnesota Ex- gen and hydrogen peroxide will destroy the periment Station we submitted data which antiscorbutic accessory at room temperature indicated that the nutritive and antiscorbutic although the destructive action is hastened properties of cow's milk are dependent upon as the temperature increases. Milk may be the nature of the feeding materials which pasteurized in closed vessels or boiled in the constitute the dairy ration.
open air without appearing to lose its nutriIn April, 1920, a series of studies was tive and antiscorbutic properties when fed to initiated with the view of ascertaining the in- guinea pigs. When carbon dioxide is bubfluence of heat upon the nutritive properties bled through the milk, it compares very favorand the antiscorbutic potency of milk. The ably in nutritive properties with the raw milk. experimental milk used in these studies was Our work, now in progress, on orange juice obtained from an Ayershire cow fed upon a shows that the antiscorbutic properties are ration composed of the same types of feeding not destroyed by boiling for 30 minutes. At materials throughout the experimental period. least, if destruction occurs it is not discernBy this method it was hoped that we might
ible with the methods employed. Hydrogen eliminate fluctuations in the vitamine content
peroxide destroys the antiscorbutic factor in of the dairy ration and thereby reduce to a
orange juice at room temperature, and the minimum any variations in the nutritive
speed of the oxidation is hastened as the properties of the milk.
temperature increases. Oxidation would apIn these studies we have used a total of 163
pear to be a more important factor than heatguinea pigs, and control groups were included in each series. In the first series of experi- ing as far as the nutritive and antiscorbutic
properties of milk are concerned. ments it was found that boiled milk was
EDLA V. ANDERSON, 1 Published with the approval of the director as
R. Adams DUTCHER, Paper No. 247, of the Journal Series of the Min
C. H. ECKLES,
J. W. WILBUR
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