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Animal and in the Vegetable Creation, and if ever, get together to talk over problems of in the production of Hurricanes and Abnor- mutual interest and to get each other's viewmal Atmospheric Vicissitudes." Particulars point. regarding the conditions of the contest may To facilitate an interchange of ideas among be secured from the secretary, Dr. J. S. Fow- the various groups of workers, the committee ler, Edinburgh.

voted to request the Optical Society of In honor of Dr. Charles Lester Leonard America to form a Section on Vision. Such who died in 1913 a martyr to research with a section has been authorized by the society the roentgen ray, the American Roentgen Ray and the first meeting will be held in Rochester Society offers a $1,000 prize for the best piece in October, 1921. It is hoped that all those of original research in the field of roentgen interested in the pure or applied science of ray, radium or radioactivity. The competi- vision, such as physicists, physiologists, tion is open to any one living in the United psychologists, ophthalmologists, photochemStates, or its possessions, Canada, Mexico, ists, illuminating engineers, etc., will join Central and South America and Cuba. The the new section and will take an active part research work must be submitted in writing in its work. in the English language not later than July 1. The committee will also immediately make The winner will read his paper at the annual a survey of present research in progress. meeting of the society in September. Dr.

Later will be issued a report on the present Henry K. Pancoast of the University Hos- status of physiological optics with some outpital is a member of the committee in charge standing problems for research. of the competition. THE COMMITTEE ON PHYSIOLOGICAL OPTICS

SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS OF THE NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

At the annual dinner of the National AcadUNDER the auspices of the Division of

emy of Sciences on April 26, the following Physical Sciences of the National Research

medals were presented: To Dr. Charles D. Council, there has recently been formed a

Walcott, secretary of the Smithsonian InstiCommittee on Physiological Optics consist- tution and president of the Academy, the first ing of

award of the Mary Clark Thompson Medal Professor Adelbert Ames, Dartmouth College, for distinguished achievement in geology and Professor W. T. Bovie, Harvard University, paleontology. To Albert I., Prince of Monaco, Dr. P. W. Cobb, Nela Research Laboratory, the Alexander Agassiz Gold Medal for contriMr. L. A. Jones, Eastman Kodak Company, butions to the science of oceanography; to Dr. Dr. W. B. Lancaster, Boston,

P. Zeeman, of Amsterdam, Holland, the Henry Dr. P. G. Nutting, Pittsburgh,

Draper Gold Medal for eminence in investigaDr. I. G. Priest, Bureau of Standards,

tions in astronomical physics; to Rear AdProfessor J. P. C. Southall, Columbia University, Dr. L. T. Troland, Emerson Hall, Harvard Univer

miral C. D. Sigsbee, U. S. N., retired, the sity, Cambridge, Mass.,

Agassiz Gold Medal, the same as the medal to Professor F. K. Richtmyer, Cornell University, the Prince but awarded one year later, for Chairman,

eminence in investigations in oceanography, This committee recently held a meeting in

to Dr. Robert Ridgway, the Daniel Giraud New York for the purpose of organization and

Elliot Gold Medal for his studies of the birds discussion of the problems before it. The

of North America, and especially in recognidiversity of present theories of vision was

tion of Part 8 of his “ Birds of North and thought to be due in large part to the circum- Middle America”; to Dr. C. W. Stiles, the stance that the workers in the sciences con- Gold Medal for eminence in the application of tributory to visual phenomena, such science to the public welfare, in recognition of physics, physiology and psychology, seldom, his work on the hook worm disease.

as

THE June issue of the Medical Review of UNDER the auspices of the General Electric Reviews will be a special radium number, Company and Union College, Professor F. K. dedicated to Mme. Curie. The issue will Richtmyer, of the Department of Physics at consist exclusively of articles on radium and Cornell University, has given in Schenectady, its uses.

during the present academic year, a course of As Professor A. Netter of the University of

lectures on modern physical theories. Paris soon reaches the retirement age, his On April 7, Professor Edward Kasner, of friends and pupils are planning to present Columbia University, lectured on “ Einstein's him with a testimonial plate.

theory of gravitation” at the College of the Eight professors of the College of Agricul

City of New York. Professor Einstein at

tended and took part in the discussion. ture of Cornell University will be on sabbatic leave next year. They are Professors DR. GEORGE H. PARKER, head of the departHerbert H. Whetzel, George W. Cavanaugh, ment of zoology at Harvard University, is in Ralph S. Hosmer, Karl M. Wiegand, Arthur residence at Pomona College as Harvard exB. Recknagle, Blanche Hazard, Anna B. change professor, from April 11 to May 6, Comstock and Earl W. Benjamin. Professor giving two courses of lectures, on “ The oriWhetzel will organize a plant pathology gin of the nervous system and “ Smell, taste service for the Bermuda Islands. Professor and allied senses." Hosmer will make a study of the forests of PROFESSOR HARRIS J. RYAN, of Leland StanEngland, France, Switzerland, Sweden and ford Junior University, spoke on April 20 Norway. Dr. Benjamin will act as general before the Physics Club of the California Inmanager of a poultry-producing firm in New

stitute of Technology and the Mount Wilson Jersey, making efficiency and cost studies. Observatory on: “High voltage phenomena The department of medical zoology of the

encountered in the study of the insulation school of hygiene and public health of the

requirements for the proposed 220,000 volt Johns Hopkins University has recently ar

power transmission lines.” ranged to send during the summer of 1921 an On April 23 Dr. Dayton C. Miller, head of expedition to Porto Rico for the purpose of the department of physics, Case School of studying the malaria problem and other prob- Applied Science, and secretary of the Amerilems involving disease-producing protozoa and can Physical Society, gave an experimental their vectors. Dr. R. W. Hegner will devote

lecture upon

“Photographing and analyzing his time especially to the study of the malarial sound waves." organism and other blood-inhabiting protozoa DR. HARVEY R. GAYLORD, director of the and to the intestinal protozoa, and Dr. F. M. New York State Institute for Research in Root, who will accompany him, will make a Malignant Diseases, and Dr. Charles Cary, of survey of the mosquitoes, fleas and other dis

Buffalo, left for Germany on April 23 to intributors of pathogenic microorganisms. vestigate methods developed in Germany for

WALTER L. HOWARD, professor of pomology applying X-rays to cancer. in the University of California, now in charge JAMES ZETEK, formerly entomologist to the of the new Deciduous Fruit Experiment Sta- Panama Canal, has been appointed specialist tion at Mountain View, California, has been in tropical insects with the Federal Horticulgranted a year's leave of absence to make a tural Board, U. S. D. A., in charge of the study of root stocks for deciduous fruits. temporary field station at Ancon, Canal Zone, Accompanied by his family, he will sail from

Panama. New York to Europe on June 25, going DR. PAUL E. KLOPSTEG, who has been condirect to Angers, France. The field of study nected with the sales and advertising departwill include France, Italy, Spain and England. ment of Leeds and Northrup for several years, has recently accepted a position with the Cen- Maryland, will appoint fifty chemists as soon tral Scientific Company of Chicago as man- as suitable men can be secured. The United ager of development and manufacturing. States Civil Service Commission has anPROFESSOR JAMES H. LEUBA, of Bryn Mawr

[graphic]

nounced that until further notice it will reCollege, who is to be abroad during the next

ceive applications for these positions in the academic year on sabbatical leave, has been following grades: Chemist at $3,000 to $5,000 invited to give five lectures at the Sorbonne a year, associate chemist at $2,000 to $3,000 a in the Fall of 1921, under the auspices of the year, and junior chemist at $1,400 to $2,000 a Institut de Psychologie. His subject will be year. Promotion from the lower to the higher the psychology of religious mysticism. He grades will depend upon demonstrated ability is also to deliver a series of lectures at Kings and the needs of the service. The examinaCollege, London.

tion announcement states that there are The Columbia Chapter of the Society of opportunities for employment in fifteen speSigma Xi announces a lecture on “ Progress cialties of chemical science. Full information in physics in the last decade," by Michael and application blanks may be obtained by Idvorsky Pupin, professor of electro-mechan- communicating with the United States Civil ics. This lecture which was given on the Service Commission, Washington, D. C. evening of May 4 is the first of a proposed

The inadequacy of the appropriation to the series of annual lectures on the Progress of

Bureau of Fisheries for scientific work has Science.

made necessary a reduction in the number of An address on “The spirit and method of projects to be pursued by that bureau during research in agriculture” was given by Dr. E.

the next fiscal year and will necessitate keeping W. Allen, of the office of experiment stations, the Woods Hole, Massachusetts, laboratory at the college of agriculture, at the Ohio State

closed during the summer. Therefore, no apUniversity, on April 15.

plications for the use of tables during the DR. ARTHUR GORDON WEBSTER, head of the coming season can be approved. department of physics at Clark University,

A COMMUNICATION from J. Parke Channing will sail on May 28 for London, where he

of New York, chairman of the American will deliver a lecture on “Researches on

Engineering Council's Committee on Public Sound,” before the Royal Institution, on

Affairs, has been placed before President June 10.

Harding and representatives of the council DR. FRANK SCHLESINGER, director of the have been advised that the president is conYale Observatory, will deliver an address be- sidering the recommendation that an engineer fore the Yale chapter of Sigma Si on “The be placed on the Interstate Commerce Comdistances of the stars," on May 10.

mission with other recommendations for apDr. C. G. ABBOT, assistant secretary of the pointments to the three vacancies. A suppleSmithsonian Institution, delivered an address mentary communication was also submitted to before the Washington Academy of Sciences

the president naming six engineers with qualion April 22 on “ The solar constant observing

fications for this appointment in the hope that stations of the Smithsonian Institution."

such list would be useful to him. In repre

sentations to the president, the council is also DR. GEORGE FREDERICK WRIGHT, known for

acting for the American Society of Civil his contributions to geology especially glacial Engineers, the American Association of Engiperiod, and professor emeritus of the harmony

neers and the American Institute of Consultof science and religion at Oberlin College, died ing Engineers. The American Engineering at Oberlin on April 20, aged eighty-three years.

Council's Committee on Procedure has apThe establishment of the Chemical Warfare pointed L. W. Wallace, executive secretary of Service at Edgewood Arsenal, Edgewood, the council, as its representative on the U. S.

Board of Surveys and Maps. Mr. Wallace tion bill signed by Governor Miller. The Col. succeeds Alfred D. Flinn, secretary of Engi- lege of Agriculture will receive, roughly, neering Foundation, and has been assigned to $1,250,000, while the Veterinary College, it is the Committee on Cooperation. Members of estimated, will receive $100,000, which is the Advisory Council of the board have been slightly less than last year's appropriation. urging the American Engineering Council to

The North Carolina Legislature has granted aid them in obtaining an adequate program involving a larger appropriation for topo

the University of North Carolina $925,000 as

a two-year maintenance fund and $1,490,000 graphic maps. Congress has asked for an outline of this program and as soon as this

for permanent improvements for two years. is completed the council will decide on the PROFESSOR GEORGE C. EMBODY has returned support that can be given.

to Cornell after spending the period since last

September establishing at the University of The prospect of large lumber operations in South America carried on by interests from

Washington the first college of fisheries in the United States is opening a field of promis

an American university. ing possibilities to the American forester, and

DR. IRA M. HAWLEY, of Cornell University, this situation has caused the faculty of the has been appointed professor of zoology and New York State College of Forestry to con- entomology at the Utah Agricultural College sider the advisability of adding Spanish to

and Entomologist for the Utah Agricultural the language requirements of the forestry

Experiment Station. Sherwin Maeser, Ph.D., course. The value of Spanish to the Amer

University of California, has been appointed ican forester is a reflection of the growing

associate professor of chemistry at the college. scarcity of forests in the United States and Canada. The consequential high prices of Dr. LEWIS KNUDSON, of the department of wood products make lumbering in distant botany of Cornell University, has gone to countries profitable. South America, accord- Spain to assist in establishing departments of ing to authorities of the college, presents a plant physiology in the Universities of Madrid new sphere of discovery in wood utilization and Barcelona. as there are many species of trees about which little is known regarding their applicability to commercial purposes. The pine forests of DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE Chili and southern Brazil occupy vast areas.

PALEOBOTANY AS VIEWED BY TWO The Brazilian Parana pines are said to cover

GEOLOGISTS 260 million acres and will produce from five

In the current April American Journal of to ten thousand board feet per acre. Re

Science appear two papers reciting the larger strictive export duties and the lack of ship

stratigraphic and faunal evidence bearing on ping facilities have prevented earlier exploitation of these natural resources of South

climate in time. Professor A. C. Coleman in

the first of these lectures cites especially America, but the prodigality of the United States in the use of its forests has overcome

Dr. Knowlton's views of all-tropic ancient these obstacles.

climates thus:

Part I. of Dr. Knowlton's paper rouses en

thusiasm with its splendid array of forests mostly UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL

tropical from all parts of the world culminating NOTES

in the Eocene flora. His account of the vegetation The College of Agriculture and the College of the past confirms and heightens the impression of Veterinary Medicine of Cornell University left by paleozoology that during the greater part will receive approximately $1,350,000 from of the world's history temperatures have been the State as a consequence of the appropria- genial even in the far north and far south where

There is a very small record of the upland vegetation of past times; although the enormous extent of the unknown upland record could not be surmised so long as the alternate emergence and subsidence of the continental areas remained wholly unmapped. Yet it appears that the high upland and polar, and not the tropic or coastal fringe plants have long included the great majority of plastic forms; and it is certain that upland and polar forms moved forward during the periods of continental emergence closing the geologic epochs, and were least liable to extinction during medial subsidence. That is to say we know best the aplastic coastal fringe forms with a broken record.

frigid climates now reign. Annual rings aro rarely found in the trees, and only once before the Pleistocene is a period of severe cold admitted in the early Permian time of glaciation; and then the cold period was "probably of short duration,' and did not affect North America, Europe or northern Asia.

It is further observed that while few references to periods of cold or drought in the world's history are found in paleobotany, “mild and moist periods are tremendously emphasized," and intervening periods of drought and cold “slurred over, or entirely unrecorded.”

It is not surprising, then, that the evidence for aridity and cold during several periods of the earth's history should make little impression on a paleobotanist!

In somewhat similar inference or vein, Professor Charles Schuchert follows with several pages on climatic evolution. To Coleman's brief consideration of the more readable phases in the evidence for desert conditions seasonal variations, and ice ages in the past, Schuchert adds the Blackwelder view that a study of the color phases and stratification of the Alaskan sedimentary series indicates a more or less persistently cool moist climate throughout the known geologic history of Alaska. And the more or less provable fact is emphasized that there is usually a dearth of plant evidence for the climatic conditions during the early and late parts of the many periods when the continents were largest, highest and most arid."

Again it was stated (Vol. II., p. 238, American Fossil Cycads):

Almost invariably from the Devonian on, it has been mainly xerophyllous lacustrine or swamp types which form the great bulk of fossil plants. Even the 3,000 species of Carboniferous time afford only a one-sided picture of the specialized coal swamp floras; no glimpse is had of contempo rary mountain or upland florules.

Furthermore the notion that the tepid climates of the older botanists and zoologists have no basis (Berry), and are not sustained by the long studied invertebrate record, only finds a more insistent expression in recent text books. It goes back to Leopold von Buch, and received elaboration by Neumayr. It finds so far as elements go mention in Dana. It was stated to me in pretty hard and fast form in the field as a beginning student, by an old teacher, A. von Könen, twenty-eight years ago. And any one who takes the trouble to read a contribution I brought out in 1903, on the role of polar climates in evolution, then a sort of philosophic study, can well understand that the ideas of the real character of sediments and the indicators of seasonal change which are quite in entirety of more recent date, would have been “old grist " for the polar mill.

As a main objective, let me try to explain in a few brief paragraphs for the sake of both botanists and geologists the nature of the paleobotanic crux.

For several years I have called attention to the remarkable series of Rhätic plant localities in Argentina which strongly suggest a climate like that of to-day. And too, the shales in which these plants occur are highly laminated (seasonally so). But in such instances, which may be depended upon to multiply, the paleobotanist must yet find the fuller means of proving the presumption of cold and aridity from plant types, however insistently others may ask immediately coordinated proof. Similarly it was stated in SCIENCE several years ago that:

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