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Dorsey, Minnesota, who emphasized the close 1. That the forces interested in the estabrelationship of genetic investigations on ap- lishment of natural parks and forest preserves plied problems with other sciences, coopera- for recreation purposes—to make “ better citition being particularly necessary to secure the zens through contact with nature” are well orgreatest results. All who entered the dis- ganized, and are probably the strongest force cussion of this topic thought that cooperation operating to secure more parks and protect should not go on so far as to attempt to existing ones. direct another's research and that the success 2. Science has left them quite uninformed of any cooperation of this kind is limited by of its needs for natural areas and of the practhe mutual confidence of the workers.

tical significance of scientific results which may At the close of the meeting it was agreed accrue from study of natural areas. They that no permanent organization should be welcome the idea of biological study as a furformed but that informal meetings such as ther argument for natural tracts. this should be arranged for whenever de- 3. They are, however, without constructive sirable. Professor L. J. Cole, who was elected plans of management of the smaller tracts chairman of the meeting, was voted to act as which will insure them against destruction secretary ad interim. D. F. JONES, from over use as recreation parks. Such plans Secretary pro tem. of management must be based on knowledge of

plant and animal ecology which they do not NATIONAL PARKS

possess. WHILE a small number of scientific societies

4. They are engaged in drafting legislation were represented, the conference was well at

and in advising legislators without the counsel tended, especially by those interested in nat- of those interested in preserves for research ural parks for recreation purposes. Their aim purposes. is to secure more parks and protect existing

5. It is incumbent upon scientific societies, ones. Very few of the existing parks and pre

museums, and universities to organize and to serves are free from liability to extensive modi- provide funds which will serve the following fication through recreation activities, scientific

purposes: (a) to place information as to the forestry, fires, or exploitation. Even the Na

scientific uses, and scientific management of tional Parks must be watched and defended

natural areas, into the hands of those individagainst external aggression. There are now

uals and organizations working for the preseronly a few areas aside from the National Parks

vation of natural conditions; (b) to make poswhich have been set aside with the intention

sible the representation of scientific needs bethat they should be left in a natural state.

fore legislative bodies and officials; (c) to proMost areas have been and probably will con- vide for furthering the wise selection of new tinue to be set aside primarily as recreation areas, and (d) to make existing areas accessparks, or as forest preserves. The main busi- ible to scientists by the publication of lists and ness of those interested in areas to be held in guide books. an original state, must of necessity be to get

V. E. SHELFORD areas set aside within these forest preserves and parks.

SCIENTIFIC EVENTS The following was made evident by the con

WORLD PRODUCTION OF COAL IN 1920 ference.

REPORTS received by the United States Geo1 Report of the delegate of the American 80

logical Survey indicate that the total output in ciety of Zoologists to the National Conference on

1920 was about 1,300,000,000 metric tons. Parks, Des Moines, Iowa, January 10–12, 1921. This report will be submitted to the American

This, although a great increase over 1919, was Society of Zoologists at their next annual meeting. still 42,000,000 tons short of the output in -W. C. ALLEE, Secretary-Treasurer.

1913, the last year before the Great War. The course of production during the last decade is France the 1920 output (excluding the Saar shown in the following table. The unit of and Alsace-Lorraine) was 46 per cent. less than measurement, it will be noted, is the metric that of 1913; in Great Britain the decline was ton, which will be most easily remembered by 20 per cent.; in Germany (also excluding the American readers as roughly equivalent to the Saar and Alsace-Lorraine) the output of gross ton of 2,240 pounds. The fluctuations bituminous coal decreased 24 per cent., a dein world coal supply, if expressed as index crease which was in part, however, offset by numbers, taking the output in the year 1913 as the increased production of lignite. In eastequal to 100, become as follows:

ern Europe the old Austro-Hungarian empire, 1910 86

Russia and the Balkans, the breakdown caused 1916

97 1911 89 1917

100

by the war was even greater than in western 1912 93 1918

99 Europe, and the decline in output propor1913 100 1919

86 tionately large. Of all the major European 1914 90 1920

97 belligerents only Belgium had in 1920 prac1915 89

tically reattained the pre-war rate of produc

tion. These figures are necessarily in part esti

While in 1913 Europe led all the continents mated, for official statistics are slow in com

as a producer of coal, contributing 54 per ing in and for certain countries of eastern Europe-notably Russia-even unofficial data

cent. of the world's output, in 1920 she had

yielded first place to North America and her are lacking. The figures are presented as

share of the world's total had shrunk 46 tentative and subject to revision. As official reports are available for 92 per cent. of the

per cent. The largest factor in filling the void

caused by the war in Europe was, of course, world's output, the margin of error in the

the United States. Our production increased total probably does not exceed 1 or 2 per cent.

from 38.5 per cent. of the total for the world, In comparing the 1920 output with that of the years before the war it must be remem

in 1913, to 45.1 per cent. in 1920. In that bered that the world's consumption of coal

year our seaborne exports of coal were 22,500

net tons, five times what they were in 1913. normally increases by leaps and bounds. The average rate of increase in the 20-year period

TOP MINNOWS AS YELLOW FEVER preceding August, 1914, was 38,000,000 tons.

ERADICATORS Of course the waste and disorganization of the

ACCORDING to The Fisheries Service Bullewar have reduced the consuming capacity of tin the success which has attended the use many countries, but in other countries, notably

of the top minnow (Gambusia) in eradicating the United States, requirements have been in

malarial mosquitoes in various parts of the creasing at a rate greater if anything than be

United States has led to the employment of fore the war.

the same fish in combating an incipient epiThe present rate of production in the world

demic of yellow fever at Tampico, Mexico. is the resultant of conflicting forces; the de

Dr. A. R. Stubbs, of the Standard Oil Co., cline in the war-torn countries is being offset

who visited the Washington office in March, in part by an increase in regions remote from

reported that cases of yellow fever appeared the battlefields. In the belligerent countries

at Tampico during the past summer, and of Europe the war cut heavily into production.

there was every indication of a serious epiSometimes the cause of the decline was phys- demic, as the conditions for the spread of the ical destruction of the mines, as in France; disease among the natives were most favorsometimes it was the drain upon the man- able. In addition to numerous outlying power of the nation; sometimes it was merely ponds, pools, sloughs, and marshes in which the economic disorganization and disruption mosquitoes breed, all of the native houses of normal trade which attended the war. In have open barrels or other receptacles con

cars.

taining rain water that is used for domestic be comparable with those of other great counpurposes and is the only supply of fresh water tries of the world. that the natives possess.

Once the National Botanic Garden has been At the outset the oil interests organized established and developed, it would be one of an antimosquito campaign, conducted through the great sightseeing places of Washington, a committee headed by Dr. Stubbs. About which would be visited by thousands of per600 men were constantly employed in oiling sons annually. The Zoological park is 3.50 the ponds and other open waters, and also miles and Arlington National Cemetery 4.50 the receptacles in which the natives keep their miles from the Capitol, yet each is visited by water for domestic purposes. The use of thousands of persons each week. The daily crude oil on the water required by the natives average attendance at the Zoological Park is for drinking and cooking naturally caused 6,108, from 20,000 to 40,000 on Sundays and much dissatisfaction.

more than 2,000,000 for the year. The Mount After some months, when an official of the Hamilton site is only two miles northeast of U. S. Public Health Service visited Tampico, the Capitol, and is accessible by lines of street he mentioned the value of Gambusia in the

In

addition the National Botanic antimosquito work of the Public Health Serv- Garden would be a place where thousands of ice and Bureau of Fisheries, and suggested school children of the city could make a study that this fish might be available for the of plant life and the garden would continually yellow-fever campaign at Tampico. A search be a place of enjoyment for residents of the was forthwith made and Gambusia was found city. The Mount Hamilton site is on the in abundance in the vicinity. Since December main highway between Baltimore and Wash1 the top minnow has entirely replaced crude ington, one of the main approaches of the oil as an eradicator of mosquito larvæ, the city. A boulevard would lead through the natives are much pleased at the change, and grounds along which a countless number of the reduction in the expense has amounted to persons would travel each year in order to $3,000 weekly.

see the garden. THE NATIONAL BOTANIC GARDEN

MEDICAL PRIZES Five years ago the commission of fine arts was requested to investigate and report as to THE Journal of the American Medical Asthe possibilities of relocating the existing sociation announces the following prizes: Botanic Garden, at the foot of the Capitol, The Mörsel Foundation offers a prize of from its present restricted area to a more

10,000 marks for the best work on the etiology, suitable site, and after surveying carefully diagnosis or treatment of cancer, representing several suggested sites in the District of important progress. A second prize of half Columbia decided upon Mount Hamilton and

the amount will be given for the second best the land adjacent as the most suitable location

work. Competition is open till October 1, for a National Botanic Garden. A year ago

1922. Competing articles are to be sent to

the director of the Institute for Experimental at a hearing before the joint congressional committee on the Library the plan was again

Cancer Research at Heidelberg. The comthoroughly discussed. The highest scientific

peting works must be in German and must

have been published between January 1, 1921, and botanical authorities in the country at

and October 1, 1922, or be ready for publicatended the hearings, and not only indorsed

tion when presented. the site as being in location, area, variety of

The Royal College of Physicians of Edinsoil, elevation and accessibilty most adaptable burgh announces the Parkin Prize of £100, for a National Botanic Garden, but asserted

open to competitors of all nations, for the best also the great need for such a garden as would

essay

On the Effect of Volcanic Action in 1 From The Washington Post.

the Production of Epidemic Diseases in the

as

Animal and in the Vegetable Creation, and if ever, get together to talk over problems of in the production of Hurricanes and Abnor- mutual interest and to get each other's viewmal Atmospheric Vicissitudes." Particulars point. regarding the conditions of the contest may To facilitate an interchange of ideas among be secured from the secretary, Dr. J. S. Fow- the various groups of workers, the committee ler, Edinburgh.

voted to request the Optical Society of In honor of Dr. Charles Lester Leonard America to form a Section on Vision. Such who died in 1913 a martyr to research with a section has been authorized by the society the roentgen ray, the American Roentgen Ray and the first meeting will be held in Rochester Society offers a $1,000 prize for the best piece in October, 1921. It is hoped that all those of original research in the field of roentgen interested in the pure or applied science of ray, radium or radioactivity. The competi- vision, such physicists, physiologists, tion is open to any one living in the United psychologists, ophthalmologists, photochemStates, or its possessions, Canada, Mexico, ists, illuminating engineers, etc., will join Central and South America and Cuba. The the new section and will take an active part research work must be submitted in writing in its work. in the English language not later than July 1. The committee will also immediately make The winner will read his paper at the annual a survey of present research in progress. meeting of the society in September. Dr. Later will be issued a report on the present Henry K. Pancoast of the University Hog- status of physiological optics with some outpital is a member of the committee in charge standing problems for research. of the competition. THE COMMITTEE ON PHYSIOLOGICAL OPTICS SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS OF THE NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

Ar the annual dinner of the National AcadUNDER the auspices of the Division of emy of Sciences on April 26, the following Physical Sciences of the National Research

medals were presented: To Dr. Charles D. Council, there has recently been formed a

Walcott, secretary of the Smithsonian InstiCommittee on Physiological Optics consist

tution and president of the Academy, the first

award of the Mary Clark Thompson Medal Professor Adelbert Ames, Dartmouth College, for distinguished achievement in geology and Professor W. T. Bovie, Harvard University, paleontology. To Albert I., Prince of Monaco, Dr. P. W. Cobb, Nela Research Laboratory, the Alexander Agassiz Gold Medal for contriMr. L. A. Jones, Eastman Kodak Company, butions to the science of oceanography; to Dr. Dr. W. B. Lancaster, Boston,

P. Zeeman, of Amsterdam, Holland, the Henry Dr. P. G. Nutting, Pittsburgh,

Draper Gold Medal for eminence in investigaDr. I. G. Priest, Bureau of Standards,

tions in astronomical physics; to Rear AdProfessor J. P. C. Southall, Columbia University, Dr. L. T. Troland, Emerson Hall, Harvard Univer

miral C. D. Sigsbee, U. S. N., retired, the sity, Cambridge, Mass.,

Agassiz Gold Medal, the same as the medal to Professor F. K. Richtmyer, Cornell University,

the Prince but awarded one year later, for Chairman,

eminence in investigations in oceanography; This committee recently held a meeting in

to Dr. Robert Ridgway, the Daniel Giraud New York for the purpose of organization and

Elliot Gold Medal for his studies of the birds discussion of the problems before it. The

of North America, and especially in recognidiversity of present theories of vision was tion of Part 8 of his “Birds of North and thought to be due in large part to the circum- Middle America"; to Dr. C. W. Stiles, the stance that the workers in the sciences con- Gold Medal for eminence in the application of tributory to

to visual phenomena, such science to the public welfare, in recognition of physics, physiology and psychology, seldom, his work on the hook worm disease.

ing of

as

THE June issue of the Medical Review of UNDER the auspices of the General Electric Reviews will be a special radium number, Company and Union College, Professor F. K. dedicated to Mme. Curie. The issue will Richtmyer, of the Department of Physics at consist exclusively of articles on radium and Cornell University, has given in Schenectady, its uses.

during the present academic year, a course of As Professor A. Netter of the University of

lectures on modern physical theories. Paris soon reaches the retirement age, his On April 7, Professor Edward Kasner, of friends and pupils are planning to present Columbia University, lectured on "Einstein's him with a testimonial plate.

theory of gravitation" at the College of the Eight professors of the College of Agricul

City of New York. Professor Einstein at

tended and took part in the discussion. ture of Cornell University will be on sabbatic leave next year. They are Professors

DR. GEORGE H. PARKER, head of the departHerbert H. Whetzel, George W. Cavanaugh, ment of zoology at Harvard University, is in Ralph S. Hosmer, Karl M. Wiegand, Arthur residence at Pomona College as Harvard exB. Recknagle, Blanche Hazard, Anna B. change professor, from April 11 to May 6, Comstock and Earl W. Benjamin. Professor giving two courses of lectures, on “ The oriWhetzel will organize a plant pathology gin of the nervous system” and “Smell, taste service for the Bermuda Islands. Professor

and allied senses." Hosmer will make a study of the forests of PROFESSOR HARRIS J. RYAN, of Leland StanEngland, France, Switzerland, Sweden and

ford Junior University, spoke on April 20 Norway. Dr. Benjamin will act as general before the Physics Club of the California Inmanager of a poultry-producing firm in New

stitute of Technology and the Mount Wilson Jersey, making efficiency and cost studies. Observatory on: “High voltage phenomena The department of medical zoology of the

encountered in the study of the insulation school of hygiene and public health of the

requirements for the proposed 220,000 volt Johns Hopkins University has recently ar

power transmission lines.” ranged to send during the summer of 1921 an On April 23 Dr. Dayton C. Miller, head of expedition to Porto Rico for the purpose of the department of physics, Case School of studying the malaria problem and other prob- Applied Science, and secretary of the Amerilems involving disease-producing protozoa and can Physical Society, gave an experimental their vectors. Dr. R. W. Hegner will devote lecture upon “Photographing and analyzing his time especially to the study of the malarial sound waves.” organism and other blood-inhabiting protozoa

DR. HARVEY R. GAYLORD, director of the and to the intestinal protozoa, and Dr. F. M.

New York State Institute for Research in Root, who will accompany him, will make a Malignant Diseases, and Dr. Charles Cary, of survey of the mosquitoes, fleas and other dis- Buffalo, left for Germany on April 23 to intributors of pathogenic microorganisms. vestigate methods developed in Germany for WALTER L. HOWARD, professor of pomology

applying X-rays to cancer. in the University of California, now in charge JAMES ZETEK, formerly entomologist to the of the new Deciduous Fruit Experiment Sta- Panama Canal, has been appointed specialist tion at Mountain View, California, has been in tropical insects with the Federal Horticulgranted a year's leave of absence to make a tural Board, U. S. D. A., in charge of the study of root stocks for deciduous fruits. temporary field station at Ancon, Canal Zone, Accompanied by his family, he will sail from Panama. New York to Europe on June 25, going DR. PAUL E. KLOPSTEG, who has been condirect to Angers, France. The field of study nected with the sales and advertising departwill include France, Italy, Spain and England. ment of Leeds and Northrup for several years,

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