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Economies can be accomplished from a the administration of at least some of the public point of view by an elimination of the matters not pertinent to their major funcoverlap in these different units of adminis- tions which clutter their departments. tration through unification into groups of We have also some confusion between similar purpose. The real economy to the executive, advisory, and semi-judicial funcnation, however, does not lie here, however tions. One of the tendencies of government great this may be, but it lies in their more both local and national during the last twenty effective functioning in their daily relation years has been to add executive functions to to the public. The extra cost imposed upon commissions and boards created primarily for business in general in the determination of advisory or regulatory purposes. It requires the relation of any particular business to the no argument with our business public that the different functions of the govenment, with executive functions can not rise to high effithe unnecessarily duplicating interferences ciency in the hands of government boards and demands is a real charge on national where from the very nature of things each wealth, probably as great in some directions member has a separate responsibility to the as the actual costs of the administrations public and is primarily engaged in a semithemselves.

judicial function. Of equal importance with economy is to Furthermore, during the last few years secure effective concentration of government there has been a great growth of independent affort into service to the community. No agencies in the government reporting directly constructive vision or policies can be built to the president until his office is overburdened around a national service directed by from almost beyond the point of endurance. The two to ten cabinet members, more especially original and sound conception was that the when this particular purpose is a side issue to executive functions should be reported up to all of them. No better example of this exists the president directly through his cabinet than the deplorable handling of our relations officials. Not only do these outside functions to our veterans.

to-day overburden the president, but they There are other reasons that render re- render coordination with executive departorganization imperative. The changed eco- ments extremely difficult. It is neither posnomic situation of the world demands that the sible nor advisable to place all these outside functions of the government in aid to com- organizations into the departments, but much merce and industry be given more concentra- could be done to mitigate the situation. tion and wider scope.

One of the great steps in federal reorganiThe enlarged activities of the government zation is the erection of a budget system, with as a result of the war greatly affect certain its necessary reorganization of the congresdepartments. The Treasury to-day as the sional committees. There can be no doubt as fiscal office of the government must handle to the early accomplishment of this great rean annual budget of $5,000,000,000 as com- form, but it will not serve its real purpose pared with $1,000,000,000 pre-war.

Activities until the departments have been reorganized of the Army have increased from a budget of so that they represent a common purpose. $200,000,000 to $400,000,000; activities of the Without this, congress will never have before Navy have increased from a budget of $125,- it budgets showing the expenditure of the 000,000 to $425,000,000. Thus the burden and

government in its relation to any particular responsibilities for the major purposes of function. these departments have been enormously in- I have daily evidence in the Department of creased. I believe it is the consensus of Commerce of all these forces. The question opinion of the gentlemen conducting these de- of governmental aids to navigation is not by partments that in the interests of efficiency

any means one of the principal functions of they should not be called to responsibility for our government, but it must be a sore trial to the hardy mariner. He must obtain his regulate business. We need a department domestic charts from the Department of Com- that can give prompt and accurate diagnosis merce, his foreign charts from the Navy De- from both a foreign and domestic point of partment, and his nautical almanac from the view of economic events, of economic tendNaval Observatory—and he will in some cir- encies; of economic ills; that can promptly cumstances get sailing directions from the and accurately survey economic opportunity, Army. In a fog he may get radio signals economic discrimination and opposition; that from both the Navy and Commerce, and listen can give scientific advice and assistance and to fog horns and look for lights and buoys stability to industry in furnishing it with provided him by Commerce; if he sinks his prompt and accurate data upon production, life is saved by the Treasury. He will anchor supplies and consumption; that can cooperate at the direction of the Army, who rely upon with it in finding standards and simplificathe Treasury to enforce their will. His boil- tions; that can by broad study promote naers and lifeboats are inspected by the Depart- tional conversation in industry and the elimiment of Commerce; his crew is certified by nation of waste; that can study and ventilate one bureau in commerce, signed off in the the commercial side of our power possibilipresence of another, and inspected at sailing ties; that can study and advise national by the Treasury, and on arrival by the Depart policies in development of rail, water and ment of Labor.

overseas transportation; that, in fact covers, It is possible to relate the same sort of story so far as government functions can cover, the in our governmental relations to industry to broad commercial problems of trade, industry our domestic and foreign commerce.

and transportation. This can be accomplished The moral of all this is that economy could more by coordination of existing governbe made by placing most of these functions mental facilities than by increased expenunder one head, not only economy to the gov- ditures. ernment but to the mariner. Congress would know what it spends in aid to navigation and THE AMERICAN ENGINEERING the government could develop definite policies

COUNCIL in giving proper assistance and lastly could

In these days when societies multiply and remove from the hardy mariner's mind his

increase it is a fair question to ask whether well-founded contempt for the government as there is need for such an organization as the a business organization.

Federated American Engineering Societies. The economic changes in the world, grow

That many believe there is such a need is ing out of the war, and their reflex upon our

attested by the large number of societies that trade and industry make it vital if we are to

have already joined the organization and by maintain our standards of living against in

the promise that others will come in. Aside creasing ferocity of competition that we shall

from this, however, it is well to clear our concentrate and enlarge our national effort

minds as to just what the aims of this organiin the aid, protection, stimulation and per

zation may be and what it may hope to acfection of our industrial and commercial life.

complish. I am not unmindful of the vast There can be no real Department of Com

amount of useful work that has been done by merce or commercial policies to these broad

individual engineering societies in this counpurposes so long as the instrumentalities of

try, not only in the somewhat varied lines for the government bearing on these questions

1 Address by Dexter S. Kimball, dean of the lie in half a dozen departments.

college of engineering of Cornell University and We want no paternalism in government.

vice-president of the American Engineering CounWe do need in government aid to business in

cil, at the dinner given by the Engineers' Club a collective sense. In a department we do of Philadelphia, April 16, in honor of Mr. Hernot want to either engage in business or to bert Hoover.

which they have been specifically organized, at once the most effective tool that man has but also in a broader way as affecting state ever devised, it is at the same time the cause and national issues. At the best, however, of his greatest difficulties. Because, wherever these individual organizations are concerned, division of labor is employed, coordinated for the most part, with service to the indi- effort necessarily follows. We know of no vidual, and while not confined to such, these civilizations built up by a single individual, societies have been able to work in a broad though Robinson Crusoe is reported to have way for the public welfare only through com- made a very good effort. Nor do we know of bined organization of some kind. All think- civilizations that were built up by a limited ing engineers are aware of the inefficient

number of persons. Basicly, civilization is manner in which much of the engineering possible only where there is a wide use of and industrial features of our government, division of labor accompanied by coordinated city, state and national, are conducted, and the effort. But with coordinated effort comes experience of our local engineering societies always the difficult problem of awarding fairly in working for a better and more economical and justly the fruits of labor, and from the policy in the conduct of these affairs in cities, beginning of time men have wrestled unsucas well as the success that has attended such cessfully with the problem of "what is mine organizations, as the Engineering Council, in and what is thine." As far back as we can trying to assist on questions of broader scope read history we find industrial codes aimed at all lead to the belief that a Federated Engi- the solution of this difficult problem. The neering Society, which can speak for all engi- Mosaic code, based on a much more ancient neers in the important affairs concerning Egyptian code, the remarkable code of Hamuwhich we are justified in speaking, must be rabi and a still more ancient code recently productive of beneficial results. It is almost discovered, all bear witness that this problem axiomatic that in a nation such as ours where is very ancient indeed and has always been the industry is the great factor of our existence one great problem incident to the use of these statements must be true. Industry is division of labor and the building up of a the life of our nation, and engineering is the civilization. The solutions offered by these backbone of industry. Surely if any class of ancient codes are for the most part of a legal men have a right, or better still, a duty, to character, often very arbitrary and intended band themselves together for the betterment more as a means of keeping the peace rather of the fundamental industrial principles of

than as

a solution of the problem on the our nation, engineers, using the term in a ground of merit and justice. And to a large broad sense, have full justification for so do- extent we have inherited these viewpoints in ing. These are matters of common knowledge our modern industrial codes. to all engineers and scarcely need to be de- Wherein does modern industry differ from fended or explained.

these ancient civilizations? The advent of There is, however, a much greater and the modern machine era and the extension deeper reason in my opinion why we have of the use of scientific methods have carried need for a society of this kind. We are all division of labor to a degree undreamed of by prone to think that the problems of our day our ancestors a few hundred years ago. If and date are peculiar and unlike any that the ancient civilizations were complex ours is have gone before. As a matter of fact, his- infinitely more so and the difficulty of defining tory teaches us just the contrary and a super- what is mine and what is thine" has inficial examination of any of the great civili- creased many fold. zations that have preceeded us will show that And the solutions we have been offered basicly they differ very little from the one that for this problem are many and curious. The we now enjoy. The great fundamental prin- advocates of single tax, prohibition and ciple of all civilizations is division of labor; women's rights, of various kinds of tariff, of various schemes of taxation are all quite years ago the engineer was looked upon as one sure that if their measures are enacted the who built and designed machines or strucmillennium would be here. If the ancient tures. With the growth of his technical and civilizations were complex ours is chaotic, and scientific background it has become necessary further extension of our complex industrial for him to assume the management of insystem makes this personal problem more and dustry and to-day he stands as the foremost more difficult.

figure in industrial management. This has Out of this chaotic condition, however, three brought him for the first time in close touch viewpoints to-day stand out above all others with the human element of industry and face and are well worthy of carful consideration. to face with the great problem of the distriThe first is the conviction that is rapidly bution of wealth. Up till recent times he was taking root in the minds of thinking men not expected to know of these matters and that industry should be considered a means much less was he expected to have any wise of supporting the human race, and not as a ideas as to the solution of the problem. It means of personal corporate or state profit: should be remembered, however, that the the conviction furthermore that all men are engineer in thus enlarging his field has entitled to a certain amount of physical, brought with him the most powerful mental mental and spiritual well-being, and that the tool that the human has devised, and which nation which can develop such well-being is we call commonly the “scientific method.” the one that will endure.

With this method he has conquered and subThe second is a conviction that no adjust- dued nature. At the present time he is teachment of these difficult industrial matters can ing the human race a better and more effibe enduring that is not based upon justice. cient means of organizing industry. It reIt is true that justice varies with time and

mains to be seen whether he can apply this place, but whatever stands for justice at the

method to the solution of the old time probtime and place considered, is the only basis

lem of "what is mine and what is thine." It on which enduring industrial adjustment can

should be remembered that this problem has rest. This conviction differs from the old

been wrestled with by many able minds but legal viewpoint quite markedly, and it is well

it will also be remembered that many of those illustrated in our changed point of view con

who have given much time and thought to cerning accident compensation. For hundreds

these problems did not have the intimate of years accident compensation was based on

knowledge of industry, and of those who work legal verdicts inherited by us from old Eng

in industry that is the possession of the lish common law and having sometimes little to do with justice. The modern compensation

engineer to-day. If he undertakes the solulaw is an effort to adjust these matters on the

tion of this problem with the same energy and

vision that he has applied to fields that he ground of justice and the fair deal. The third conviction is that there can be

has already conquered, I am hopeful for the

result. no justice where there is no knowledge. Any one who has read carefully the history of

I see, therefore, in the Federated Engineerindustrial disputes during the last few years

ing Societies something more than an organican not fail to be impressed with the truth of zation to assist city, state and nation in the this statement. Wherever a wide knowledge

solution of technical problems. I see in it of fact can be obtained, adjustments usually an opportunity for the engineer to study and are not difficult, but an enduring adjustment to solve the last remaining problem of civilican never be accomplished where facts are not zation. I see in the society a means of gatherknown.

ing data on the industrial problem such as What has this to do with the work of the we have not possessed and in general of engineer? A very great deal indeed. A few obtaining that knowledge, which as I have


already indicated, is absolutely essential to which revolves around what we are apt to call this great problem.

plagiarism. They are concerned for the most And I am not without hope that the engi- part with matters of not very serious import neer will qualify for this work. There are in scientific circles and the communications many indications that their ideas are stirring are marked by courtesy and good humor. in the minds of forward-looking men. At the These amiable features are sometimes absent last election Mr. James Hartness, well known

in the more earnest and specialized realms of

research and the whole subject is only too as an engineer and inventor, was elected to

often conducive to unfortunate and wearying the Gubernatorial chair of the State of Ver

controversy and to permanent and deplorable mont, an honor, so far as I know, that has

enmities between the best of men and those never before been conferred upon an engineer.

least likely, one would think, knowingly to rob And it was with the greatest satisfaction and

a fellowman of credit for original work. One pleasure that engineers, not only in this

20t himself drawn into the heat of such concountry, but elsewhere, viewed the selection

flicts is often led to believe that a more thorof Mr. Herbert Hoover as Secretary of Com

ough understanding of some of the implicaThese are pioneer workers in a field

tions and correlations, a more just appreciahitherto controlled by the lawyer and the

tion of the numerous underlying springs which politician, and their progress will be watched

move the human mind would modify it. A with the keenest interest and sympathy by all

more constant keeping in view the history of engineers. Of the success of their mission no

science, a realization of how numerous are the engineer has the slightest doubt, for we are

expositions of facts, before the world becomes well aware that these men will bring to the

attentive even to the most obvious of them, problems of state the methods that have en

would cause these deplorable incidents to beabled the engineer to subdue nature and build

come less frequent. The character of the reup civilization.

cent outbreak in SCIENCE was mild and it was Can there be any question that back of a devoid of bitterness, as most incidents are movement as great as this we need an all

which present such examples of the humor and embracing Society of Engineers; a society worldly common sense of the participants, as whose business it will be to foster the solu

these communications do. The chances of untion of the great problems of industry which fortunate consequences being remote it is perare the problems of the engineer. The func

haps an opportune time to say something of tions of such a society will differentiate the broader aspects of the subject of plagiarsharply from those of an individual society ism. in that as before stated, the individual society Its wide affiliations are best appreciated in is more likely to deal with service to the

an analysis of the underlying principles to individual. This society is organized for which I have referred. Many will be disposed service to the nation. It is a challenge to to criticize what may seem the too wide signational service. There is no question in my nificance I give to the term. Many look upon mind that it has a bright future and is worthy it only as one of evil import. However, it is of the support of engineers of all kinds and

easier to expand its usual limitations a little in all places.

than to find or invent a name which after all

would only here and there overlap the comPLAGIARISMS

monly accepted outlines of the usual term. THERE have been published in recent num- Its most sinister acceptation interests us bers of SCIENCE1 communications from corre- but little. When a man affixes his name to a spondents more or less involving the interest long essay or a book which another man has

1 SCIENCE, January 14, 1921; February 11, 1921; written it would perhaps be better to call it March 4, 1921.

thievery. I remember one such instance

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