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Two general evening sessions of popular interest, were held. At one of these was given an illustrated lecture by Dr. R. F. Griggs, on the region of Mt. Katmai, Alaska, and the “Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes." The other general interest lecture was by Professor R. W. Wood, on high power fluorescence and phosphorescence, in connection with which he performed numerous very ingenious experiments and demonstrations dealing with the study of these phenomena and of ultraviolet light.

The opening session, Monday evening, and the two general interest sessions were held in Mandel Hall. Attendance on these three evenings was as follows:

tion room, the north room on the first floor of Reynolds Club.

The increase of scientific knowledge and interest among the general public is one of the most important functions of the association and the one which it has been most difficult to accomplish. The reports in the press vary from year to year, and at Chicago represented a fair average. Several of the more important papers, such as that of Professor Michelson on the application of interference methods to astronomical measurements, were fully report, not only in Chicago but also in New York and other cities. The Science Service definitely organized at Chicago for the wide-spread diffusion of current scientific information will hereafter make possible adequate reports of scientific meetings.

The minutes of the proceedings of the Council, and reports of sections and affiliated societies will be printed in later issues of SCIENCE. Among the matters of general interest transacted at the meetings of the Council are the following:

It was decided that the next meeting of the American Association will be at Toronto, on Tuesday, December 27 to Saturday, December 31, 1921, inclusive. The opening session will be on Tuesday evening. The meeting for 1922–1923 will be held in Boston, and that for 1923–24 will be held in Cincinnati. Then will follow the stated convocation meeting in Washington.

Dr. Burton E. Livingston was reelected permanent secretary and Dr. R. S. Woodward was reelected treasurer, each for a term of four years. Dr. L. 0. Howard and Professor Herbert Osborn were elected members of the executive committee.

The Academies of Science of Michigan and of Oklahoma were affiliated with the association.

The collection of portraits and autograph letters of all presidents of the association made by Dr. Marcus Benjamin of the Smithsonian Institution will be purchased under conditions representing a partial gift to the association.

The sum of $5,000 was appropriated for

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the legislatures of each state in the union and to each member of the Association.

the Grants Committee to distribute during the year 1921.

On the Jane M. Smith fund the following were appointed with power to act during 1921: L. 0. Howard, W. J. Humphreys and B. E. Livingston.

Among the resolutions adopted by the Council are the following:

Be it resolved: That the American Association for the Advancement of Science would welcome the organization of Mexican men of science, and their affiliation with this Association,

Resolved: That a committee of seven be appointed to cooperate with such organization as Mexican men of science may form. The following were appointed on this committee: L. 0. Howard, Chairman, A. E. Douglas, E. L. Hewitt, D. S. Hill, W. J. Humphreys, D. T. MacDougal and W. Lindgren.

WHEREAS, clean culture of roadsides and the drainage of marshes in the United States is imperiling the existence of the wild-life of our country not now included in special preserves, and

WHEREAS, the preservation of this wild-life not in preserves is felt to be of great national importance not only to students and lovers of nature, but to human welfare in general, therefore,

Be it resolved, by the council of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, that it appreciates the importance of preserving this wild-life not in preserves, and that it lends its moral support to the effort to combine all interested organizations in a cooperative investigation and conservation program for the preservation of our unprotected wild-life.

WHEREAS the American Association for the Advancement of Science includes sections on Physiology, Experimental Medicine and Zoology, and

WHEREAS advancement of knowledge in these sciences, which is dependent upon intensive study of living tissue, is inevitably followed not only by amelioration of human suffering, but also by a lessening of animal disease and by substantial economic gain and by conservation of the food supply, and

WHEREAS this association is convinced that the rights of animals are adequately safeguarded by existing laws, by the general character of the institutions which authorize animal experimentation and by the general character of the individuals engaged therein,

Therefore be it resolved, that this association agrees fully with the fundamental aim of those whose efforts are devoted to the safeguarding of the rights of animals but deprecates unwise attempts to limit or prevent the conduct of animal experimentation such as have recently been defeated in California and Oregon, for the reason that such efforts retard advance in methods of prevention, control and treatment of disease and injury of both man and animals and threaten serious economic loss, and be it further

Resolved, that a copy of these resolutions be included in the official records of this Association, and that copies be sent to the national congress, to

WHEREAS, in recognition of the unique character and value of our National Parks and Monuments to present and future generations, twenty-four successive Congresses have wisely resisted attempts to commercialize them and have preserved them inviolate for nearly half a century,

WHEREAS, certain private interests are now seeking to secure special privileges in these areas, which if granted will seriously interfere with their true purpose and undoubtedly result in the entire commercialization of these unique national museums

Therefore, be it resolved, that the American Association for the Advancement of Science request members of Congress first to amend the Water Power Act so that it shall not apply to National Parks and Monuments and that their full control be restored to Congress, and second, to reject all present and future measures which propose to surrender any part of these National Parks and Monuments to private control or to divert them in any way from their original and exclusive purpose, the preservation for all future generations of unique representations of natural conditions such as exist in no other part of the world.


It is an old custom for the retiring vice president of this section to deliver an address.

1 Address of the vice-president and chairman of Section G, botany, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Chicago, 1920.

These addresses have taken various forms; in flect on a topic suitable for an occasion of this some cases a review of the achievements in kind, and suitable for one who has been ensome particular phase of botany; others have gaged in trying to interest students and help looked to the future. It has been my pleasure to solve some of the problems confronting to have heard many of the addresses on these those who have to deal with the economic annual occasions for thirty years, and I feel phases of our subject, it occurred to me that sure that they have epitomized the botany "some phases of economic botany” would for the time. As I look back I find there was give me a chance to offer some suggestions much of inspiration in these addresses. We that might be a stimulus to bring together regret that some of the men who sounded the the varying interests of botany. keynote at these gatherings are no longer with us. It is interesting to look back to see what

HUMAN INTEREST OF BOTANY was uppermost in the minds of the speakers Botany should, first of all, have an intensely on these different occasions: N. L. Britton, human interest from the standpoint of our “ Botanical Gardens ”; J. C. Arthur, “ Devel- well being. If we recognize this fact then opment of Vegetable Physiology”; L. M. plants should be studied not only for what use Underwood, “The Evolution of the Hepa- they may be to man directly and indirectly, ticæ "; T. H. Macbride, “The Alamagordo but we must recognize also the cultural value Desert”; D. H. Campbell, “The Origin of of botany in schools, colleges and universities. Terrestrial Plants”; H. C. Cowles, “Eco- Those who have had something to do with the nomic Trend of Botany"; B. T. Galloway, park movement in the United States ap" Applied Botany Retrospective and Pros- preciate, of course, that the general interest pective”; William Trelease, “Some Twentieth in plants is really greater now than ever beCentury Problems"; Charles R. Barnes, “The fore. The layman to-day takes intense deProgress and Problems of Plant Physiology"; light in the great out of doors and he does so W. G. Farlow, “The Conception of Species for the pleasure he gets out of contact with as Affected by Recent Investigations on

nature. To such men and women a knowlFungi”; Geo. F. Atkinson, “Experimental

“Experimental edge of plants becomes an intensely fascinaMorphology”; R. A. Harper, “Some Cur- ting subject. They are becoming as truly cul

tured as the men rent Conceptions of the Germ Plasm"; F. C.

women who studied Newcomb, “The Scope and Method of State

Shakespeare or any other of the great writers.

This is a new culture which I think means Natural History Surveys"; Duncan S. John

much to the human race and our profession. son, “ The Evolution of a Botanical Prob

It develops the highest instincts and elicits lem ”; Geo. P. Clinton, “Botany in Relation

highest emotions. Let us not forget that the to American Agriculture”; H. M. Richards,

much despised taxonomic botany has a real “On the Nature of Response to Chemical

place in our life, especially for those who have Stimulation"; C. E. Bessey, “The Phyletic

come to look upon the out of doors as a means Idea in Taxonomy"; D. T. MacDougal,

to enjoy life. "Heredity and Environic Forces”; B. L. Robinson, “The Generic Concept in the

EARLY ECONOMIC BOTANISTS Classification of Flowering Plants”; A. F.

Let us take a little retrospective view of Blakeslee, “Sexuality in Mucors.” Dr. Coul

the subject. Botany began as an economic ter in his address as president of the asso- subject. Dioscorides, Pliny, Aristotle and ciation spoke on “Botany as a National Theophrastus were observers who gave to the Asset.”

world what they observed in the plant kingIn reading these addresses one certainly dom, largely on economic plants. Moreover feels that a wide range of thought and in- they related in good form what previous vestigation is covered. When I began to re- writers had observed, with comments on culti


vation. Theophrastus and Pliny both made cessors like Grew, Jung and Malpighi. The some ecological observations which were des- old myth that wheat will degenerate in chess tined to play an important part in investiga- probably started with Ray, because he pubtions of the future.

lished a statement that Triticum could be

changed into Lolium. Malpighi, the father of WHAT THESE MEN OBSERVED

microscopical anatomy, gave a fair account of Let us frankly recognize the service these

the structure of plants, including the ducts men rendered to increase our knowledge of and the Malpighian cell. Economic plants alplants. The plant pathology of these earlier

ways received special attention. writers was primitive of course and the plant The English philosopher, Robert Hook, gave pathologist of to-day would hardly class this

a fair account of cork, which he had studied early work under that term. This knowledge with his improved compound microscope. He of the ancients was buried for centuries, in investigated the nature of food of plants. which little attention was given to botany or Grew, in his “Anatomy of Plants," outrelated subjects, but we may feel sure that lines in a masterly way the architecture of during the "Dark Ages” man was intensely plants, interwoven however with the philointerested in the economic phases of botany sophical and theological prejudices of the although we have little written evidence of time. such interest. Botanists of long ago paid Bachman, who was a botanist, physiologist, some attention to medical botany. We need pharmacologist and chemist, appreciated moronly recall that such treatises as Gerard's phology and taxonomy. He introduced bi“ Herbal ” and later the painstaking work of nomial nomenclature, and the reason given by Hayne, "Die Arzneigewäshse," Rafinesque, him was that a prescription could be written "Medical Flora," and many others of the old easier. Think of it, that we as botanists are writers up to the modern work of Millspaugh, indebted to medicine for the naming of plants. American Medical Plants," Kraemer, “ Phar- Bachman refused to recognize cultivated varimacognosy," and Luerssen, “ Handbuch der

eties as species. Tournefort had only to go a Systematischen Botanik," have kept us up

step to recognize genera which he did in a with the times.

splendid way. The last link in the chain of We know that the Crusaders brought from

the botanists who were influenced by the older Asia and eastern Europe medicinal plants,

school was Linnæus, who borrowed from his cereals and fruits that made possible the

predecessors like Cesalpino, Jung, Bachman highest type of civilization, for improved

and others, but always with fulsome praise of plants accompanied a revival of learning. We

the work of his contemporaries and predemay be sure that during this epoch the economic phases of plants were studied because of the importance of increasing the food supply. The knowledge gleaned was passed on

We are astonished to see the long known to the next generation to be of some use to

thoughts of these writers (Bauhin, Cesalpino, man, and followed by the work of others who

Jung), which in their own place look important

and incomplete, fashioned by Linnæus into a live for the most part were observers, and our sci

ing whole; thus he is at once and in the best sense ence, it must be said, began in observation.

receptive and productive. Men like Robert Morison, a close student of Cesalpino, Kasper Bauhin and others, added Linnæus thought it important to know all a little to the knowledge of previous botanists. species of plants. His “Philosophica BotanJohn Ray and Francis Willoughby became in- ica” was a splendid text-book of botany. terested in another phase of economic botany; There was nothing else like it for more than they conducted experiments on the motion of a generation, at least there was nothing that sap in trees. Ray was generous to his prede- equalled it in clearness and completeness. He


Sachs says:


was not an experimenter and cared little for pot culture method of Knop, Sachs, and the it. In Germany, under his influence taxonomy work of Lachmann, who in 1858, spoke of the degenerated into mere plant collections, col- “Vibrionenartige" organisms found in legulectors calling themselves taxonomists.

minous nodules. Later the work of Schloes

ing and Muntz, Warrington, Beijerinck, WinoPOST-LINNAAN BOTANY

gradsky, Hellriegel and Wilfarth and many A new era opened with such men as Jussieu, others made secure for ever a better agriculGaertner, DeCandolle, Robert Brown, Adan- tural practise. Added to the knowledge of son, Endlicher who knew how to observe and the importance of the legume bacteria the iminterpret the things they saw. Experimental portant discoveries of Wollny and Berthelot work with plants became more important; bot- show that bacteria in the soil are the makers anists began to ask the why about plants; and of plant food. 80 E. Mariette, one of the first experimental Plant physiological work in Europe made physicists, studied the salts of plants and the rapid strides through the labors of Detmer, active forces of attraction and nutrition. Pfeffer, Sachs, Jost, Palladin, Haberlandt and

Martin Lister directed attention to the many others. The question of photosynthesis movement of water in plants. Christiąn long remained obscure because of insufficient Wolff, too, experimented on the nutrition of chemical study of the plant pigments. The plants. Stephen Hales in his “ Statistical Es- environmental factors were partially detersays " sought to trace back the phenomena of mined by F. B. Blackman and then Willstatter vegetation to mechanico-physical laws, as then and his coworkers determined the chemistry of understood, and studied the water taken in by chlorophyll, which enabled plant physiologists plants and its exit by the leaves and the for- to better understand the problems of carbon mation of solid substances.

assimilation. Jorgensen and Walter Stiles in The discovery of oxygen by Priestley was their résumé say: important in plant physiology, but he missed

No prophetic vision is needed to foretell develthe important discovery that light is a vital

opment in plant physiology as great as those which factor in making plant food. This was left to

were produced by physics and chemistry in engi. Jean Ingenhousz, whose experiments showed neering and other technical sciences, that purifying of air goes on in light only. This led him to study the food of plants and

It is refreshing to observe that a soil physi

cist like Edward Russell in his paper “ Soil the improvement of soils. He discovered that

Conditions and Plant Growth,” should put plants use CO2 and under the influence of light make plant food. Jean Senebier was the

stress on plant physiological problems as first to give a clear statement of the process

fundamental to a study of soils and plant nu

trition. of photosynthesis. We are indebted to the chemist, DeSaussure, for his discoveries, which

Jung did not entertain any definite idea of laid the foundation in an experimental way of

the sexuality of plants nor did Grew have a the process of food-making in plants. It is a

clear conception. Rudolph Camerarius, howlong way from the researches of these pioneers

ever, settled the problem by making experito the work of Boussingault's quantitative

ments with maize and mulberry, two economic methods of studying the food requirements of

plants. plants, especially with reference to nitrogen,

We can only marvel at the economic trend and the work of Sprengel on ash constituents

of the work of Loewenhoek in the study of and Liebig's work, “ Chemistry in its Relation linen, who made the discovery of minute orto Agriculture and Physiology." These greatly ganisms, and thus repudiated the theory of helped to advance plant physiology, as did abiogenesis. People became curious to study also the work of Lawes and Gilbert on the the hitherto unseen world. The use of the mineral constituents of plants and later the microscope in the hands of the curious was

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