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April 19. “An informal talk,” Professor F. THE appropriation by Congress to the Gowland Hopkins.

Forest Products Laboratory, at Madison, May 5. “Glimpses backward into the history Wis., has been increased by approximately of metabolism,” Professor Graham Lusk,

$100,000. May 9. “The urinary sugar secretion,” Professor S. G. Benedict.

By the will of the late Dr. Alexander Muir

head, F.R.S., who was associated with Sir THE Dean and Chapter of Westminster

Oliver Lodge in work on wireless telegraphy, Abbey have decided to place a bronze medal

and who died on December 13, aged seventylion in the Abbey as a memorial of Sir

two, the Royal Society of London receives the William Ramsay.

sum of £3,000. We learn from the Journal of the American

With the aid of a gift from Dr. Adolph Medical Association that at a recent meeting

Barkan, emeritus professor of the Stanford of some of Sir William Osler's students, an

Medical School, the university is gathering in Osler Memorial Association was formed for

the Lane Library of the medical school in San the purpose of founding an Osler memorial

Francisco a collection on the history of medilectureship at the University of California,

cine. Dr. Barkan will give $1,000 a year for which will provide for an annual lecture on

the next three years, to which the university a scientific subject. The expense will be met

will be able to add from the income from cerby a yearly assessment of the members of the

tain Lane Library Foundations $1,500 a year, association. Dr. George H. Whipple, presi

making a total fund of $7,500, all of which dent of the California Academy of Medicine,

will be expended on books concerning the hishas advised that the academy will be glad to

tory of medicine. Dr. Barkan is now in Eucooperate in securing lecturers and in sharing

rope and he has employed an expert to aid him the expense. Dr. John M. T. Finney, Balti

in getting together this collection. Dr. Barmore, has accepted an invitation to deliver

kan was professor of structure and diseases of the first lecture.

the eye, ear and larynx in the medical school On February 24, the Berlin Ophthalmolog- and retired from active teaching in 1911. He ical Society held a special session in honor of has before this been a liberal benefactor of the the semicentennial of Albrecht von Graefe's Medical School Library, having given his own death. The only living former assistant of library dealing with the subjects in his own Graefe, the ophthalmologist Professor Julius special field, together with $10,000 as a fund Hirshberg, now seventy-eight years of age, for the purchase of other books on these subdelivered the memorial address.

jects. DR. HENRY PLATT CUSHING, for thirty years

The thirty-second session of the Biological professor of geology in Western Reserve Uni

Laboratory of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts versity, Cleveland, and for about the same

and Sciences, which is located at Cold Spring time geologist in the Adirondack region for

Harbor, Long Island, New York, will be held the Geological Survey of New York, died on

next summer. The regular course work exApril 14.

tends from July 6 to August 16. Courses are

given in field zoology by Drs. H. E. Walter, of The late Harold C. Lloyd, a British sub

Brown University; S. I. Kornhauser, of Deniject residing in São Paulo, has bequeathed son University, and H. M. Parshley, of Smith all his property in São Paulo to the Instituto

College; in comparative anatomy by Professor Oswaldo Cruz, of which Professor Carlos H. S. Pratt, of Haverford College; in prinChagas is director, at Manguinhos, near Rio ciples of genetics by Professor H. S. Fish, of de Janeiro. The bequest is to be applied ex- the University of Pittsburgh; in systematic clusively to promote research on prevention and field botany by Dr. O. E. Jennings, of and treatment of infectious diseases.

the University of Pittsburgh, and Mr. C. A.

Stiteler; in advanced botany by Dr. J. W. Harshberger, University of Pennsylvania. Opportunities for research are freely open to independent investigators. For the announcement address the Biological Laboratory at Cold Spring Harbor, N. Y.

TAE twelfth annual meeting of The American Oil Chemists Society, formerly The Society of Cotton Products Analysts, will be held on May 16 and 17, the two days immediately preceding the twenty-fifth Annual Convention of the Inter-State Cottonseed Crushers' Association, at the Congress Hotel, Chicago. Besides the several committee reports addresses will be presented. In order to conserve time for discussion, it is planned to have abstracts of all committee reports in the hands of the members at the meeting, and to request that the discussion of these abstracts be prepared in writing in as many cases as possible. The annual banquet will be held Tuesday evening. The local committee has arranged a number of trips about the city to points of general interest to visitors and of special interest to chemists.

UNDER the auspices of the Wild Flower Preservation Society of America in cooperation with Community Center Department of the Public Schools the following lectures have been given in Washington:

February 9. The lure of Rock Creek Park: Dr. F. Lamson-Scribner.

February 16 and 23. Seeds, fruits and seedlings, Professor F. H. Hillman.

March 2. Roots and underground stems: Albert A. Hansen,

March 9. Stems, buds and their winter study: Dr. A. S. Hitchcock.

March 16. Leaf shapes, modifications and functions : Dr. Paul Bartsch.

March 23. Flowers and their functions: P. L. Ricker.

March 30. Where wild flowers grow and why: Dr. Edgar T. Wherry.

FREE public lectures were delivered in the Central Display Greenhouse of the New York Botanical Garden on Sunday afternoons during April at 3:15 o'clock, as follows:

April 3. Fiber plants: Dr. A. B. Stout.

April 10. Milk-trees and other lactiferous plants: Dr. W. A. Murrill.

April 17. Air plants: Dr. H. A. Gleason.
April 24. Desert plants: Mr. G. V. Nash.

THE fifteenth French Congress of Medicine will be held in Strasbourg from October 3 to 5, under the chairmanship of Dr. Bard, professor of clinical medicine in the University of Strasbourg. These are the subjects to be discussed: (1) the anatomic and functional adaptation of the heart to pathologic conditions of the circulation; papers by Dr. Cottin, of Strasbourg, and Dr. Demeyer, of Brussels; (2) glycemia; papers by Professor Ambard, Strasbourg; Dr. Chabanier, Paris, and Dr. Baudoin, Paris; and (3) antianaphylaxis; papers by Professor Widal, Paris; Drs. Abrami and Pasteur-Vallery-Radot, Paris, and Dr. Péhu, Lyons.

Chemical Abstracts has in process of printing a Formula Index to the 1920 volume. The indexing of chemical compounds by formulas, which is done in addition to the indexing by names, is a new departure for a chemical abstract journal. This index will contain about seven thousand entries.

The interchange of publications between Germany and the United States, which was suspended when this country entered the World War in 1917, has been resumed by the International Exchange Service of the Smithsonian Institution.

A SCIENTIFIC expedition to Spitzbergen is being organized by Oxford University, with the necessity of procuring £3,000 to carry out the work.

A NEw launch for use at the Macbride Lakeside Laboratory of the University of Iowa on Lake Okoboji, has been provided by a gift from Mr. Felix Hirschel, of Davenport.

During the Boston meeting of the American Medical Association in June there will be in the room used for exhibits on the floor of the special libraries at the Boston Public Library, an exhibit of early texts (Hippocrates to Sydenham) dealing with fevers and with specific infections. These will be arranged in

chronological order. In addition to the texts, physical anthropology of this island. About there will be considerable illustrative material 1,000 adults, men and women, were measured. touching on hospitalization and treatment, the The fine series of ancient bones which Prouse of baths, venesection, new remedies, pest fessor Zammit excavated in the Hypogæum banners, broadsides and medals, also Saint at Hal-Saflieni and elsewhere was collected Roch and Saint Sebastian, and various as- together and measured. A long series of pects of the plague and syphilis dealt with in skeletal remains from a modern ossuary were the graphic arts. General texts illustrating the also examined. A special visit, lasting for Greek, Byzantine, Mohammedan and medieval two days, was paid to Gozo by Mrs. Jenkinson practise in fevers will occupy half of the space and Miss Moss to work at the physical anthroallotted. The other half will contain tracts pology of that island. The expedition has on the plague and syphilis, original descrip- collected an immense mass of valuable matetions, new diseases and primary treatises on rial, which will take some time to arrange and the doctrine of contagium vivum. A descrip- digest. As soon as this work is sufficiently tive catalogue will be ready for distribution far advanced Mr. Buxton hopes to submit a at the time of the annual session.

preliminary account of the results of the ex

pedition to the Royal Anthropological InTHE London County Council according to

stitute. the British Medical Journal has adopted the recommendations of the committee appointed

UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL by the Illuminating Engineering Society to

NEWS inquire into eyestrain in cinematograph halls.

By the will of Edmund Cogswell Converse, These recommendations will be put into force

who died on April 4 in Pasadena, California, at once so far as new halls are concerned, and

Amherst College receives a bequest of about will be applied to existing halls as opportunity

$250,000. Of this amount $200,000 will be offers. The chief recommendation sets out

used for the upkeep and development of the the limit of the vertical angle of view. The

Converse library, for the building of which committee believes that ocular discomfort

Mr. Converse donated $250,000 in 1916, the arises mainly from the abnormal angle at

building to be a memorial to his brother, which very often the eyes of spectators are

James B. Converse. The remaining $50,000 directed upwards, and that conditions suitable

of the bequest will be used to establish an for the eyes would be secured if a moderate

Edmund Cogswell Converse scholarship fund. value for the angle of elevation were adopted. It is therefore proposed that the angle of ele

The Journal of the American Medical Asvation subtended at the eye of any person

sociation writes that “much disappointment seated in the front row by the length of the

is being expressed in university circles in

Toronto at the failure of the Ontario governvertical line dropped from the center of the top edge of the picture to the horizontal plane

ment to take action during the present session passing through the observer's eye shall not

of the legislature on the report of their own

appointed special commissions which has been exceed 35 degrees. In some of the London halls this condition is complied with, and in

inquiring into the status of the universities

of the province. As the University of Toronto others it is approached, but in others again

expected $1,000,000 from the Rockefeller the angle in question exceeds 60 degrees.

Foundation there will be for the present no Nature states that the members of Mr. L. available funds for further expansion as it H. Dudley Buxton's expedition have now re- will be doubtful if even this sum will be forthturned from a stay of some weeks in the coming owing to the failure of the governIsland of Malta. The object of the expedi- ment to come to the assistance of the unition was to collect material for a study of the versity.”

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The trustees of the estate of the late John professors: Edwin W. Schultz and William L. W. Sterling, to whom the residue of the Holman in bacteriology; William M. Proctor estate was left in the interest of Yale Uni- in education; Charles N. Cross in mechanical versity, have established two additional Ster- engineering; Frank W. Weymouth in physling professorships at Yale; one of these is to iology; John E. Coover in psychology. Asbe assigned for the present to mathematics, sistant clinical professor to be assistant pro

to physiological chemistry. Professor fessor: Henry G. Mehrtens, in medicine. InErnest W. Brown, of the department of structors to be assistant professors: Elizabeth mathematics, has been assigned to one of L. Buckingham, and Edith R. Mirrielees in these professorships, and Professor Lafayette English; Edward B. Towne in surgery; James B. Mendel, professor of physiological chem- P. Baumberger in physiology; Gordon F. istry has been assigned to the other. Four Ferris in entomology (zoology). Sterling professorships have now been estab

PROFESSOR BRAUS, of Heidelberg, has been lished, the other two being the new professor- proposed as the successor to Professor 0. ship of education recently filled by the ap

Hertwig, of Berlin, who has sent in his pointment of Frank E. Spaulding, formerly

resignation. superintendent of public schools in Cleveland, Ohio, and the new professorship of chemistry

DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE recently filled by the appointment of Professor John Johnston, formerly secretary of

GENETICS OF THE “ CHINCHILLA" RABBIT the National Research Council. Each of these A CONSIDERABLE interest exists in the raising professorships has an endowment of about of rabbits for fur, stimulated no doubt by the $225,000. After meeting the salary of the

extensive use and high price of fur garments professor, “the university shall have the in recent years, and by the fact that wild furright to use any surplus income of these bearing animals are on the decrease. Rabbit funds in advancing the work of the said fur has long been used as a substitute for professorship through the appointment of

other furs and sold misbranded but is coming assistants, aid in publication, opportunity for

to be used under its own name and on its own study or investigation in New Haven or else- merits. One impetus to such use comes from where, or in other ways."

the development chiefly in France of breeds

whose fur is attractive in its natural colors. PROFESSOR PAUL H. M.-P. Brinton, head of

Among such breeds are the chocolate or Hathe department of chemistry at the Univer

vana," the French silver of " champagne sity of Arizona, has accepted appointment as

d'argent," and the “ Chinchilla.” This last is professor of analytical chemistry in the school

an especially pleasing color variety of a pearl of chemistry at the University of Minnesota.

gray color. The coat is similar to that of a PROFESSOR HALE Houston, head of the de

wild gray rabbit except that (1) it contains no partment of civil engineering at Clemson Col

yellow whatever, the yellow ticking of gray lege, S. C., has been elected associate professor

rabbit fur being replaced with white, and (2) of engineering at Washington and Lee Uni- the black portions of the gray fur are toned versity, the appointment being effective on

down to a slaty blue. Both these differences September 1.

appear to follow from a single genetic change,

a mutation in the color factor less extreme Ar Stanford University associate professors than that which has occurred in the white or have been promoted to be professors as fol- albino variety, yet affecting the same genetic lows: William A. Manning in applied mathe- factor or “gene.” matics; Leroy Abrams in botany; Jesse B. If a chinchilla rabbit is crossed with any of Sears in education; Thomas Addis in medi- the common color varieties other than white, cine. Assistant professors to be associate the chinchilla character behaves as a receg

neous.

sive in heredity, in which it agrees with the heritance renders all other young valuable, behavior of the albino character. But if it is since all will be chinchillas. W. E. CASTLE crossed with the albino variety itself, offspring

BUSSEY INSTITUTION are produced all of which are chinchillas, and in later generations both chinchilla and white

THE EARLY HISTORY OF LITMUS IN

BACTERIOLOGY young are to be expected. These facts indicate that it is an alternative form or allelo

The writer is indebted to Professor F. G. morph of albinism. It constitutes the fourth Novy, of the University of Michigan, for the recorded albino allelomorph in rabbits, the

correction of a statement in a recent article series in the order of decreasing pigmentation

entitled Chemical Criteria of Anaerobiosis being (1) ordinary pigmentation, (2) chin

with Special Reference to Methylene Blue," chilla, (3) Himalayan albinism, (4) ordinary published in the Journal of Bacteriology, albinism (snow white). A similar but not

January, 1921, Volume 6, page 1. identical series of albino allelomorphs was de

The statement in question is as follows: scribed for the guinea pig several years ago by "The earliest authentic reference to the bacterioSewall Wright.1 Chinchilla seems to be sub- logical use of litmus appears to be that of Wurtz stantially equivalent to the guinea-pig albino (1892) who introduced litmus lactose agar as a allelomorph seen in the red-eyed silver agouti

differential medium for Bact. coli and Bact. variety. A homologous albino allelomorph in

typhosum. It was impossible to confirm Novy's the rat has been described by Whiting and

(1893) allusion (copied by Hunziker, 1902) to

Buchner (1885) and Cohen (1) as first to use litKing, under the name of ruby-eyed dilute

mus acid and reduction changes respectively, the gray.

last reference apparently being altogether erroOne defect of the new fur varieties of rabbits is their relatively small size. Furriers

Professor Novy points out in a letter, which desire larger, stronger pelts, such as can be obtained only from large-sized animals. In

is quoted by permission, that many of the

workers of that period, including himself, had the case of the chinchilla variety the desired

used litmus for several years prior to the date improvement can be obtained easily and speed

of Wurtz's paper.

As Professor Novy says, ily. The desired size is found in varieties

“ Wurtz was a late comer.” My reference to raised chiefly for meat, such as the Flemish Giant. Various color varieties occur in this

Wurtz as apparently the first can be defended breed including the albino, known as " white

only upon the admittedly uncertain grounds Flemish." By mating a pure chinchilla with

that having attempted in vain to find a refer

ence to litmus in Buchner's article as quoted white Flemish rabbits, young will be obtained

by Novy and Hunziker, and having failed all of which will be chinchillas in color yet will have increased size, intermediate or a little

to find even an article by Cohen, I took what greater than intermediate between the sizes of

seemed at the time the earliest authentic

reference. the respective parents. By further crossing of the improved chinchillas with white Flemish,

The following is quoted verbatim from Prostill larger chinchillas may be obtained, and

fessor Novy's letter: in a very short time the full size of the Flem- It is true that the references are not correct; ish breed may be substantially secured in a

whether it be due to failure to send me proof, or rabbit having the chinchilla coat. In this

to my own carelessness I am unable to say.

The only reference which I give to Buchner is to process of improvement there will be no

E. Buchner, the chemist, and concerns his hydrowasters, unless the fifty per cent. of whites are

gen culture work. My text (p. 597) mentioned so regarded, for the peculiar method of in

Buchner (unqualified) and, as was more or less the 1 Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publica- custom of the day, it meant the bacteriologist, tion No. 241, 1916.

Hans Buchner. Unfortunately, through some slip 2 Jour. Exp. Zool., 26, 1918.

no reference to his work is given,

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