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government of India, the following officers of JOHN BURROUGHS, the distinguished natthe Survey of India will accompany the ex- uralist, died on March 29, aged eighty-four pedition: Major H. T. Morshead and Captain years. Wheeler. The expedition will assemble at DR. DELOS FALL, formerly of the faculty of Darjeeling about May 10.

Albion College and for forty-one years head Miss E. M. WAKEFIELD, F.L.S., mycologist, of the department of chemistry of that inRoyal Botanical Gardens, Kew, England, is stitute, died at Bradentown, Florida, on visiting the eastern United States and Canada February 19. on her way home from the British West

It is announced that the 20-inch lens for Indies. She was the guest of honor at a the telescope at Van Vleck Observatory of dinner given by the women mycologists and Wesleyan University has been delivered. The pathologists of the U. S. Department of Agri- lens was ordered in 1914 from Jena, a few days culture on March 23.

before war was declared. DR. CHARLES A. KOFOID, of the University THROUGH the gift of Miss Annie M. Alexof California, delivered on March 29, at the ander who has pledged more than $8,000 anCleveland Medical Library, the third Hanna nually for a period of years, the University of lecture on “ The clinical and medical signifi- California has been enabled to organize a Mucance of parasitic infections of the human seum of Palæontology. Effected primarily for intestine with especial reference to hookworm, the advancement of research in palæontology amebic and flagellate infections.”

and historical geology, it is expected that the

investigators on the fossil mammals and fossil At a joint meeting of the Washington

reptiles of the Pacific coast, begun by PresiAcademy of Sciences and the Biological So

dent John Campbell Merriam, of the Carnegie ciety of Washington on April 2, Dr. A. D.

Institution of Washington, formerly professor Hopkins, U. S. Bureau of Entomology, de

of palæontology and historical geology and livered an address on “ International prob

dean of the faculties, will be continued in the lems in natural and artificial distribution of

new department. Dr. Bruce L. Clark, assistant plants and animals."

professor of paleontology, has been named diPROFESSOR WILLIAM DUANE, head of the de- rector of the museum, while E. L. Furlong, aspartment of bio-physics at the Harvard Med- sistant in paleontology, is expected to be apical School, gave on March 31 the first of pointed curator of the vertebrate collections. three lectures open to the public at the Jeffer

Included in the staff will be Chester Stock, inson Physical Laboratory. Professor Duane structor in palæontology, and Mr. Charles spoke on "Radio Activity and X-rays." Camp, to be named vertebrate palæontologists.

Comprising thousands of specimens of fossil DR. GEORGE E. VINCENT, president of the

plants, vertebrates and invertebrates, the presRockefeller Foundation, recently delivered

ent collections will be turned over to the muthe second of the Marshall Woods lectures

seum, and the department of palæontology will at Brown University, his subject being “ The

cease to have a separate existence. Proper oruniversity and public health."

ganization of this and other collections is The annual meeting of the Wisconsin stated to be one of the most important purAcademy of Sciences, Arts and Letters will poses for which the museum has been founded. be held at the University of Wisconsin on

The museum of natural history of the UniApril 15 and 16. President E. A. Birge will versity of Illinois has recently acquired the deliver his presidential address at an informal collection of mollusks made by the late Anson diner for members of the academy and their A. Hinkley, of Du Bois, Illinois. It contains friends to be held on Saturday evening, upwards of 200,000 specimens, including the April 16.

types or cotypes of 113 new species and five new


genera and subgenera. It is rich in the little- number of the edition is reserved for free known regions of Alabama and other places distribution to libraries, educational instituin the southern states, and contains extensive tions and specialists who have not received material from Guatemala, Venezuela, Mexico, the first edition, and the remainder are offered and other parts of Central and South Amer- in single copies to institutions and individuals ica. Mr. Hinkley was a careful collector and at the cost of the reprint. the material includes valuable data as to place

THE death of Dr. John Iridelle Dillard and habitat. It is the most valuable scientific

Hinds is announced, at the age of seventycollection received by the university in many

three years. Dr. Hinds was one of the foundyears. The estate of the late Dr. W. A. Nason,

ers of the American Chemical Society. He of Algonquin, Ill., has presented Dr. Nason's

was born in North Carolina, educated in the collections to th

These consist of

preparatory schools of Arkansas, was for over about 50,000 insects, mostly American and

forty years professor of chemistry in Cumberlargely Illinois, 10,000 land, fresh water, and

land University, the University of Nashville marine mollusks, and about 2,000 plants.

and Peabody College. At the time of his death SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY has come into posses- he was chemist for the Geological Survey of sion, by gift, of the personal herbarium of Tennessee. Gertrude Norton, a native of Syracuse, and a former student in Syracuse University.

UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL Miss Norton taught for some years in Salt

Lake City, Utah, where she died in 1919.
This herbarium embraces a collection of

DR. ERNEST Fox NICHOLS, for the past year about one thousand specimens of the rare or director of physical research at the Nela Park more characteristic plants of Utah and of the Laboratory, Cleveland, recently professor of Flathead region of Montana.

physics at Colgate, Dartmouth, Columbia and The state of Illinois has printed for the

Yale and president of Dartmouth College, has

been elected president of the Massachusetts Natural History Survey of the state a second edition of a report by S. A. Forbes and R. E.

Institute of Technology, to succeed the late Richardson on the fishes of Illinois, the

Richard C. Maclaurin. original edition, published in 1908, having GEORGE Hoyt WHIPPLE, director of the been out of print for several years. This re- Hooper Foundation at the University of Caliport contains an account of the topography fornia, has been appointed dean of the school and hydrography of Illinois, a chapter on

of medicine, dentistry and surgery of the Unithe distribution of Illinois fishes within the

versity of Rochester. state and throughout the country, and full

PROFESSOR GEORGE H. PARKER has been apdescriptions and many illustrations of the 150

pointed director of the Harvard Zoological species of fishes found in Illinois, with accounts of their distribution, habits, food, and

Laboratory to succeed Professor E. L. Mark,

who will retire from active teaching at the uses so far as these are known. It is illustrated by 76 black and white figures and

close of the current year with the title of procolored plates of 68 species. The main re

fessor emeritus, after having spent forty-four port of 492 pages is accompanied by an atlas

years in the service of the university. The of 102 maps of the state showing its stream

new director, Professor Parker, has been asso

ciated with Harvard University since his systems, its glacial geology, the localities from which collections of fishes have been

graduation in 1887, and has held a full promade by the Natural History Survey, and

fessorship of zoology since 1906. those from which each of the 98 more abun- DR. OLOF LARSELL, associate professor of dant species has been taken. A limited zoology at Northwestern University, has ac

cepted the position of professor of anatomy in periods. The entire problem of early patholthe medical school of the University of Oregon, ogy is, however, still an open one and hasty

conclusions must not be made on insufficient




UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, It is always an interesting matter to be able

CHICAGO to call attention to the earliest appearance in geological time of any phenomenon of nature THE CHROMOSOMES OF CONOCEPHALUM which is common at the present time. It is

CONICUM especially important in ancient pathology to DURING the winter and spring of 1919-20 a point out the similarity in form of the results study was made of the chromosomes of Conoof infective processes of ancient times with cephalum conicum for the purpose of deterthose of recent epochs. It is evident that the mining whether or not there exists any visible results of pathological processes have under- difference between the chromosome groups of gone no particular evolutionary change and the two sexes. No such difference was found, one untrained in the study of fossil objects is but the chromosome number (haploid) is able to recognize an example of osteomyelitis plainly nine instead of eight as reported by from the Permian if he is acquainted with Farmer, Bolleter, and Escoyez. One of the modern pathology.

chromosomes is very minute and may have The present specimen which shows this in- been overlooked by these workers, or there teresting phase of pathology is a posterior may possibly be a difference in respect to the dorsal spine of a reptile of the Dimetrodon type chromosome number between the European and was collected in the Red Beds of Texas by and the American races which are ascribed Mr. Paul C. Miller, of the University of Chi- to this species. It is planned to secure plants cago. The spine had been fractured near its from different localities and continue the base in a simple transverse break, the line of study with reference to the chromosome which is still evident, and from an ensuing number. infection a chronic osteomyelitis developed in

Amos M. SHOWALTER the shaft of the bone producing a sinus-filled DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY, tumefaction which is to-day so characteristic UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN of that condition. This argues for the presence of infective bacteria during the Permian

THE COST OF GERMAN PUBLICATIONS such as have been demonstrated by the mag- TO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: Concerning this nificent researches of Renault in the Paleozoic topic I may be allowed, as one not long ago of France.

from a neutral country, to answer Mr. Howe's This is the oldest vertebrate fossil showing and Mr. Dock's letters (SCIENCE, Nov. 26, the results of infection which has been seen or 1920, and Dec. 24, 1920, resp.) as follows: described, as it is likewise the oldest example When, before the war, the Germans sold of osteomyelitis. These statements apply only goods to this country at a lower price than to fossil vertebrates for I have not sufficient they were sold in Germany, this fact was knowledge of invertebrate forms to make a much resented here. sweeping statement covering all fossil forms, When nowadays, after the war, the Germans but so far as my studies go I have seen no ex- sell goods to this country at a higher price, ample of bacterial infection during the life of nominally, than they are sold in Germany, any Paleozoic form older than the reptile re- this fact is much resented here again. ferred to above. This of course brings up the Note the inconsistency ! question as to the existence of a very mild If German books could be imported into form of pathology during the early geological this country at prices prevailing in Germany

the result, most probably, would be that the ferred, Dr. W. Engelmann of Leipzig, has American publishers would urge Congress to likewise informed me that he, at least, has put high import

duties on them, as has been abolished all foreign surtaxes on journals the case with scientific instruments. Or else, published by his firm. (It is a matter of another group of people would get alarmed regret to him that he is not (yet?) at liberty, at the flood of German literature coming into owing to the binding regulations of the the country and would interpret it as a re- “Börsenverein” to do the same with his own vival of German propaganda.

books.) Nevertheless he finds it hard to get In either case it is easy to conjecture as to as few as 150 subscriptions to some of his who is finally to become the loser. There is publications, a modest figure indeed, the atno doubt but that in either case the scientist tainment of which is necessary to continue the will suffer the most, the broad-gauge scientist publication of such invaluable periodicals as who holds the view that science has no polit- the Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Zoologie; ical limits or national boundaries.

Groth's Zeitschrift für Kristallographie und Only a week or so ago I received a letter Mineralogie, (now under the editorship of from my German book-dealer, a prominent the eminent. Swiss mineralogist, Professor publisher, by the way, who has from the start P. Niggli, of Zürich); the Botanische Jahrstrongly opposed the placing of any surtax, bücher; and others. Two or three dollars whatsoever, on the export of German books in German money now enables an American and publications. He informed me that at scientist to take out a personal subscription last the German government has urged the for a whole year. I trust an appeal to inter“ Börsenverein des deutschen Buchhandels" nationally minded scientists and others is not (the central organization that controls the out of place here. Subscriptions for foreign price of books in Germany and abroad) to periodicals are needed and are most timely lower its export-tax (Valuta-zuschlag). The at the present writing in that they will help suggestion was acted upon favorably by this

over times of difficulties such highly impororganization and as a result the tax has been

tant journals of international scope as have lowered and fixed, for the time being, at 200

been mentioned. Such an aid now is sure to per cent. above the current price in Germany.

benefit all parties concerned, both immediately

and in the future. To all appearances this percentage is not

In conclusion I may add that another scilikely to go any higher since the rate of exchange, which has so far determined the sur

entific journal of high worth must receive

financial support, either through subscriptions tax, has an upward trend. Even at the

or voluntary gifts, if it is to be saved from present rate a German book would cost much

permanent suspension. I am this time reless in this country than before the war.

ferring to a publication devoted to soils, Before one may pass judgment on the cases

namely the International Review of Pedology that seem discriminatory to the disadvantage

or, as it is designated abroad in French and of the foreign buyer in favor of the German,

in German respectively: Revue internationale one should consider the fact that nowadays

de pédologie and Internationale Mitteilungen and for a long time to come, the outlay for a

für Bodenkunde. A group of Dutch agriculbook of say 60 marks entails a much greater

tural chemists have taken steps to insure the sacrifice for the German scientist than three

continuation of that publication and voluntimes or even five times that amount in Ger

tary gifts and subscriptions are solicited. man marks to the scientist in America.

Correspondence should be addressed to Dr. It is the principle of "Relativity” that

D. J. Hissink, in care of the Agricultural should guide us more in our judgments if Experiment Station, Groningen, Holland. they are to be unbiased.

M. W. SENSTIUS The German publisher to whom I have re- SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY


open its columns to the study of that question. ROUMANIA

I am at the disposal of the readers of TO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: Foreseeing the

SCIENCE who would desire any explanation high soar of science in the United States and

about our university and who would like to desiring to be acquainted with the scientific

transmit us directly their ideas or proposievents in that country and to pursue the ac


E. G. RACOVITZA, tivity of my numerous American friends and

University professor, director of the acquaintances, I have been for twenty years

Institute of Speology a subscriber to SCIENCE.

UNIVERSITY OF CLUJ, In December last, I renewed my subscrip- ROUMANIA tion of seven dollars, which cost now in Roumanian money 595 lei instead of 35 lei in 1914. REQUESTS FOR BIOLOGICAL PUBLICATIONS

In the university library of Cluj, otherwise PROFESSOR CARL J. CORI has resumed his well furnished, and in the libraries of the vari- academic relations with the German univerous institutes, the American publications are sity at Prague, Czecho-Slovak republic, in almost completely wanting; in the laborator- consequence of the transfer of the Marine ies and clinics of our university there is no Biological Station at Trieste, of which he was instrument or apparatus of American fabri- formerly director, from Austrian to Italian cation. The Hungarian administration, that control. He desires to receive reprints and had governed this university until 1919, bad

other biological works, especially those pubnot yet discovered America.

lished since the outbreak of the war, which The leaders and professors of the actual

American biologists may wish to send him, Roumanian University are very desirous to

at the Zoological Institute of the German uniacquire the American books and periodicals; versity at Prague.

CHARLES A. KOFOID they would like to make use of the best instruments and apparatus constructed in the United States. They can not conceive that a

SCIENTIFIC BOOKS modern and progressive university, as theirs, Root Development in the Grassland Formashould lack the intellectual and technical co- tion, a Correlation of the Root Systems of operation of the American science.

Native Vegetation and Crop Plants. By But a microtome “Spencer” cost me 15,000 JOHN E. WEAVER. Carnegie Inst. Washinglei and a binocular “ Spencer” 12,000 lei, to ton Publ. 292. 18 X 26 cm., 151 pp., 25 pl., which must be added the transport and insur- 39 text fig. Washington, 1920. ance expenses, etc.

Students of plant physiology, ecology, agriThere is no scientific institute that could

culture and forestry, when they have taken afford such an expenditure, and no Rouman- occasion to survey the general field in which ian institution can make scientific pur- their own particular interests lay, must often chases” in the United States as long as the have been greatly impressed with the extreme dollar is worth 90 lei.

paucity of our knowledge of plant roots. I take leave to draw the attention of the Plant species have been described and redereaders of your journal to this sad result of scribed, typical individuals have been photothe world's war and to ask them if there might graphed and painted, and thousands of pages not be found any means to cure this evil, in our libraries are devoted to the results of which is detrimental to both our nations. these descriptive studies and to their theo

I have great hopes that from the American retical interpretation-but the far greater part practical spirit and high love of science will of our accumulated knowledge of higher spring the best solution of this great difficulty plants is closely confined to those portions of and therefore I beg the.editor of SCIENCE to the plants that are readily seen and may be

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