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prepared a splendid and also unique outline of the “Proposed periods in the history of astronomy in America." Dr. Rufus showed clearly by six successive steps, or periods, how each developed and expanded into a "two-dimensional form," or system,

Beginning with the introductory period (1490– 1600) he stated how astronomy played its part in early navigation and explorations. Following the colonial period (1600–1780) was the beginning of observational astronomy, dominated by John Winthrop and David Rittenhouse. Next was the apparent stationary period (1780–1830), the beginning of mathematical astronomy, established by Nathaniel Bowditch and Benjamin Peirce. Following this came the popular period (1830–1860), the beginning of practical astronomy and the rapid rise of college observatories. New astronomy (1860–1890) was the beginning of astrophysics—the study of the chemical and physical properties of the star light. The last is the contemporary or correlation period (1890- ), the beginning of quantitative astrophysics.

In each of these six successive periods of course there is the overlapping in time—there is no clear demarcation setting off one period from another. Such an outline as presented by Dr. Rufus should form the basis of the history of the physical sciences in America. This paper is to appear in print in the course of a few months.

The last paper before the History of Science section was that by Dr. H. A. Bumstead, of the National Research Council and of Yale University. Dr. Bumstead presented the paper “The history of physics,” which was one of a series of lectures on the History of Science given before the Yale faculty and students.

The history of experimental physics from the time of Newton to the present was given so ably and charmingly that one might almost say a standard of scholarly presentation of a scientific topic had been reached. Fortunately this paper also is to appear in one of the early numbers of the Soientific Monthly, and later to appear in book form. This marked the last public address of Dr. Bumstead, for on the followng day, en route to Washington, he died. The richness of Dr. Bumstead's singularly attractive personality, and the depth of his scholarship and culture have left an indelible mark on all those who have ever come in contact with him.

During the Wednesday session the election for officers of the section was held—and the following were accordingly elected:

For Vice-president: Dr. William A. Locy, Northwestern University.

For Sectional Committee: Dr. Florian Cajori, University of California; Dr. George Sarton, Carnegie Institution; Dr. Walter Libby, University of Pittsburgh; Dr. Louis C. Karpinski, University of Michigan,

For Secretary: Frederick E. Brasch, John Crerar Library, Chicago.

This holding of two conferences by two different organizations, marks the beginning of a new phase of scientific learning and scholarship in America.

In Europe much has been accomplished in the advancement of the History of Science studies, especially so in England. Oxford and Cambridge universities and University of London have recognized the cultural value and have established facilities for research work. Also, independent sections for the History of Science have been organized by the “Versammlung Deutscher Naturforscher und Aerzte,” and by the “Società Italiana per il Progresso delle Scienze."

The activity of the Italian historians of science is evidenced by the new publication—"Archivio di Storia della Scienza,” edited by Aldo Micli; besides other historical publications that are appearing. And it is to be desired similar publications be encouraged and supported in this country. Therefore, it is to be hoped that through cooperation and coordination the History of Science movement, thus fostered and encouraged by the American Historical Association and the American Association for the Advancement of Science, can likewise aid in this New Humanism.” FREDERICK E, BRASCH,

Secretary

THE OPTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA

THE Optical Society of America was organized in 1916. As stated in its constitution, “It is the aim and purpose of this society to increase and diffuse the knowledge of optics, to promote the mutual interests of investigators of optical problems, of designers, manufacturers and users of optical instruments and apparatus of all kinds and to encourage cooperation among them." While the society pays especial attention to "applied” optics and, on this account, covers a field not previously covered, it is not to be regarded as a technological society in contradistinction to a society devoted to "pure" science. The aim of the society is to cover the field of optics, including "pure" optics as well as "optical engineering."

It solicits the support and membership of all persons “interested in optics” whatever their par. ticular interest may be. The actual present scope of the society's activities will be best indicated by the contents of its journal and the program of its latest meeting given below.

The present membership of the society is about two hundred and twenty and is increasing rapidly. The officers for 1921 are:

President, J. P. C. Southall, Columbia University, New York City.

Vice-president, C. E. Mendenhall, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis.

Secretary, Irwin G. Priest, Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C.

Treasurer, Adolph Lomb, Bausch & Lomb Optical Co., Rochester, N. Y.

Éditor, Paul D. Foote, Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C.

MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL IN ADDITION TO ABOVE

OFFICERS Past-president (1920), F. K. Richtmyer, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.

Elected Members at Large 1921: P. G. Nutting, Westinghouse Research Laboratory, East Pittsburgh, Pa.; C. E. K. Mees, Eastman Research Laboratory, Rochester, N. Y.; L. A. Jones, Eastman Research Laboratory, Rochester, N. Y.; W. E. Forsythe, Nela Research Laboratory, Nela Park, Cleveland, Ohio.

Recent' meetings were held in New York February 26–27, 1920, and Chicago, December 27-29, 1920. The program of the Chicago meeting follows: Courses in optics and optometry in Columbia Uni

versity: JAMES P. C. SOUTHALL, Columbia Uni

versity. Thermal expansion of wires used in glass seals: C.

G. PETERS and C. H, CRAGOE, Bureau of Stand

ards. Refractive index of glass through the annealing

range: C. G. PETERS and C. H. CRAGOE, Bureau

of Standards. Notes on the_theory of photographic spectropho

tometers: E. D. TILLYER, American Optical

Company. A new ocular micrometer: HERMANN KELLNER,

Bausch & Lomb Optical Co. Presentation and Discussion of the Reports of the

Committees on Nomenclature and Standards: P.
.G. NUTTING, General Chairman.

1. Colorimetry, L. T. Troland.
2. Lenses and Optical Instruments, J. P. C.

Southall,
3. Optical Glasses, George W. Morey.
4. Photographic Materials, W. F. Meggers.
5. Photometry and Illumination, E. C. Crit-

tenden,
6. Polarimetry, F. E. Wright.
7. Projection, L. A. Jones.
8. Pyrometry, W. E. Forsythe.
9. Reflectometry, A. H. Taylor.
10. Refractometry, C. A. Skinner,

11. Spectacle Lenses, E. D. Tillyer.
12. Spectrophotometry, A. H. Pfund.
13. Spectroradiometry, W. W. Coblentz.
14. Visual Sensitometry, Prentice Reeves.

15. Wave Lengths, W. F. Meggers. (About half of the above reports were presented before the general meeting by title only.) A comparison of monochromatic screens for optical

pyrometry: W. E. FORSYTHE, Nela Research Laboratory, An improved form of Pickering polarimeter for gloss measurements (by the

polarization method): L. R. INGERSOLL, University of Wis

consin, An unfamiliar anomaly of vision and its relation

to certain optical instruments: W. B. RAYTON,

Bausch & Lomb Optical Co. Double refraction of glass tubing as indicating the

strains present: A, Q. TooL and C. G. EICHLIN,

Bureau of Standards. Monocular and binocular perception of contrast

and brightness: PRENTICE REEVES, Eastman

Kodak Company. Systems of color standards: A. AMES, JR., Dart

mouth College. A new study of the leucoscope and its application

to pyrometry. (Extension of work reported at N. Y., February, 1920): IRWIN G. PRIEST, Bu

reau of Standards. Address of the retiring president of the Optical

Society of America. Some outstanding problems of physiological optics: F. K. RICHTMYER,

Cornell University. Atmospheric corrections for the Harcourt Stand

ard Pentane lamp: E. B. Rosa, E. C. CRITTEN

DEN, A. H. TAYLOR, Bureau of Standards. Some major problems in photometry: E. C. CRIT

TENDEN and J. F. SKOGLAND, Bureau of Stand

ards. Comparative tests as to the accuracy of various

methods for precision measurements of focal lengths (by title): W.O. LYTLE and A. K. BEN

NETT, Bureau of Standards. The diffusion of light in a searchlight beam (by

title) : ENOCH KARRER and U. M. SMITH, Bureau

of Standards, Further results on the heat of absorption of glass :

A. Q. Tool and C. G. EICHLIN, Bureau of Stand.

ards. A recent new system of formulæ for tracing rays

through a combination of lenses : JAMES P. C. SOUTHALL, Columbia University. Notes on lens computation: HERMANN KELLNER,

Bausch & Lomb Optical Co. A new astronomical lens: FRANK E. Ross, East

man Kodak Company. Note on the extended theory of the sectored disk

used in photometry (by title) : ENOCH KARRER,

Bureau of Standards. Measurements of aberrations of the eye: C. A.

PROCTOR and A. AMES, JR., Dartmouth College. Characteristics of retinal image: A. AMES, JR.,

and C. A. PROCTOR, Dartmouth College. Some notes on condenser correction in optical pro

jection (by title): G. W. MOFFIT, Eastman Ko

dak Company. The use of the Ulbricht sphere in measuring reflec

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tion and transmission factors (by title): ENOCH

KARRER, Bureau of Standards A comparison of retinoscopic, subjective and

finally acceptable ocular corrections: CHARLES

SHEARD, American Optical Company. A new method of joining glass: C. 0. FAIRCHILD,

Bureau of Standards. The effect of variations in intensity of illumina

tion of functions of importance to the working eye (by title): C. E. FERREE and G. RAND, Bryn

Mawr College. Optical determination of stress in transparent materials: A. L. KIMBALL, General Electric Co.

The following papers were contributed by the Optical Society to a joint meeting with the Ameri

Phy Soc Photographic reproduction of tone: L. A, JONES,

Eastman Kodak Company. The spectral distribution of energy required_to

evoke the gray sensation : IRWIN G. PRIEST, Bu

reau of Standards. The propagation of light in rotating systems: L.

SILBERSTEIN, Eastman Kodak Company,

The next meeting will be held in Rochester in October, 1921. Because of the optical industries centered in and near Rochester and the proximity to universities in which much attention is given to optics, it is expected that this will be a particularly notable and profitable meeting. The program will be announced about the end of September. Titles may be submitted to the secretary at any time prior to that date.

An important feature of the society's work lies in its continuous Committee on Standards and Nomenclature. This committee includes a number of subcommittees dealing with specific fields, such as: colorimetry, photographic materials, photometry, polarimetry, projection, pyrometry, reflectometry, refractometry, spectacle lenses, spectrophotometry, spectroradiometry, visual refraction, visual sensitometry and wave-lengths. Through the work of these committees the society is gradually bringing into being a body of standard data and standard nomenclature which will contribute materially to the progress of science.

The first number of the Journal of the Optical Society was issued under date of January, 1917. The publication was designated as “bi-monthly," but during the war the dates of issue were necessarily irregular and the publication discontinuous. Librarians and others will be interested in the following statement of issues. During the calendar years 1917–1919 inclusive there were six separate issues designated as follows:

Vol. I., No. 1, January, 1917.
Vol. I., Nos. 2–3, March-May, 1917.
Vol. I., No. 4, July, 1917.

Vol. I., Nos. 5-6, September-November, 1917. Vols. II.-III., Nos. 1-2, January, March, 1919.

Vols. II.-III., Nos. 3–6, May-November, 1919. There were no issues in the calendar year 1918.

Beginning with January, 1920, the size and style of the journal were changed, and it is now issued regularly bi-monthly.

The by-laws state eligibility to membership as follows: “Any person who has, in the opinion of the council, contributed materially to the advancement of optics shall be eligible to regular membership in the society. Any person or corporation interested in optics is eligible to associate membership.” Associate members have the same privileges and duties as regular members except that they may not vote nor hold office.

The annual dues are five dollars for both classes of individual members and fifty dollars for corporation members. Dues include subscription to the journal.

Applications for membership should be addressed to Irwin G. Priest, secretary, Optical Society of America, c/o Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C.

Payment of dues should not accompany application. Bill will be sent after action is taken on the application.

Information in regard to the journal may be obtained by addressing Paul D. Foote, editor, Journal Optical Society of America, c/o Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C.

Sample copies of the journal can not be furnished free, but the complete table of contents for 1920 will be mailed free on request

A cordial invitation to become members is extended to all persons who are interested in the purposes and activities of the society.

IRWIN G. PRIEST,

Secretary

SCIENCE

A Weekly Journal devoted to the Advancement of Science, .publishing the official notices and proceedings of the American Association for

the Advancement of Science

Published every Friday by THE SCIENCE PRESS LANCASTER, PA.

GARRISON, N. Y. NEW YORK, N. Y. Entered in the poet-office at Lancaster, Pa., as second class mattes

CORNELL UNIVERSITY

MEDICAL COLLEGE

Western Reserve University

School of Medicine

First Avenue and Twenty-eighth Street

NEW YORK CITY

Only Medical School in the City

of Cleveland Admits only college degree students and seniors in absentia.

Excellent laboratories and facilities for research and advanced work.

Large clinical material. Sole medical control of Lakeside, City, Charity and Maternity Hospitals, and Babies Dispensary. Clinical Clerk Services and individual instruction.

Wide choice of hospital appointments for all graduates.

Fifth optional year leading to A. M. in Medicine.

Vacation courses facilitating transfer of advanced students.

Session opens September 29, 1921, closes
June 15, 1922. Tuition, $200.00.
For catalogue, information and application

blanks, address
The Registrar 1353 €. 9th St., Cleveland

For Information Address
THE SECRETARY

477 FIRST AVENUE
NEW YORK, N. Y.

Johns Hopkins Universi

Tulane University of Medical School The Medical School is an Integral part of the University and

Louisiana is in close Afiliation with the Johns Hopkins Hospital ADMISSION

SCHOOL OF MEDICINE Candidates for admission must be graduates of approved colleges or scientific schools with at least two year's instruction, including laboratory work, in Chemistry, and one year each in

(Established in 1834) physics and biology, together with evidence of a reading knowledge of French and German.

ADMISSION: All students entering the Freshman Each class is limited to 90 students, men and women being Class will be required to present credits for two admitted on the same terms. Except in unusual circumstances,

years of college work, which must include applications for admission will not be considered after Juhy ich If vacancies occur, students from other institutions desiring

Chemistry (General and Organic), Physics and advanced standing may be admitted to the second or third year Biology, with their laboratories, and at least provided they fulfill all of our requirements and present ex one year in English and one year in a modern coptional qualifications.

foreign language. INSTRUCTION

COMBINED COURSES: Premedical course of two The academic year begins the Tuesday nearest October 1 and closes the third Tuesday in June. The course of instructon,

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leading to the B.S. degree at the end of the TUITION

second year in the medical course. The charge for tuition is $250 per annum, payable in three instalmente. Tbere are no extra fees except for rental of microscope, certain expensive supplies, and laboratory breakage.

School of Pharmacy, School of Dentistry and The annual announcement and application blanks may be Graduate School of Medicine also. obtained by addressing the

Dean of the Johns Hopkins Medica School | Women admitted to all Schools of the Washington and Monument Sts. BALTIMORE, M.D

College of Medicine
SUMMER WORK FOR GRADUATES
IN MEDICINE

For bulletins and all other information, address Beginning Tuesday, June 6th, and ending Thursday, July

Tulane College of Medicine Ion, a course in medical diagnosis, including laboratory exercises in clinical pathology and demonstrations in pathological anatomy, will be offered. The course will be limited to twenty

P. O. Box 770 students, fee $100. Applications should be made to the Dean's Office.

New Orleans, La,

Yale University

Stanford University

Medical School The Medical School of Leland Stanford Jr. University is an integral part of the University, an its Faculty controls the Lane and the Stanford University Hospitals, which together with the Lane Medical Library, are administered by the Trustees of the University. Admission Three years of University instruction, in

cluding English and Physics, Chemistry, and Biology with laboratory work in each, also a satisfactory reading knowledge of French or German, are required for admission to candidacy for the degree of Doctor of Medicine. For these special requirements see the Medical School Announce ment which may be obtained on applica

tion to the Dean of the Medical School. Instruction The work in Medicine begins the first of

October each year and closes about the middle of June. The first five quarters of the four years Medical instruction are given in the laboratories of the University at Palo Alto, California, the last seven quarters and the required inierne year, in the buildings of the Medical School in San Francisco. The degree of A.B. is granted upon completion of the first three quarters of the Medical curriculum ; the degree of M. D. upon completion of the interne year. Students wishing to transfer from other institutions are advised to enter in the sum. mer quarter, beginning the middle of June,

in order to make up deficiencies. Tuition The tuition fee is $50 per quarter for twelve

quarters, payable at the beginning of each

quarter. For information address THE DEAN of the Stanford University Medical School, 2398 Sacramento Street, San Francisco, California

SCHOOL OF MEDICINE Affiliated with the New Haven Hospital and New Haven Dispensary

109th Session

Reorganized on a full-time basis Entrance Requirements : A minimum

of two years (or its equivalent) of college including general biology, physics, general and organic chemistry, physical chemistry or laboratory physics, and either French or German.

ALL OF THE GENERAL FACILITIES OF THE UNIVERSITY ARE AVAIL. ABLE TO MEDICAL STUDENTS

As the number admitted to each class is limited, applications must be made before June 15.

Dean, Yale University School

of Medicine NEW HAVEN, CONN.

Marine Biological Laboratory

Woods Hole, Mass.

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