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« The control of the foreign relations of the United States: the relative rights, duties and responsibilities of the President, the Senate and the House, and of the judiciary, in theory and practise," and presentation of John Scott Medals “For Useful Inventions,” by Owen Roberts, Esq., on behalf of the Board of City Trusts of Philadelphia.

SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS THE National Institute of Social Sciences has awarded its gold medal to Mme. Curie.

MR. HERBERT C. HOOVER has been elected a trustee of the Carnegie Institution of Washington.

PROFESSOR A. S. EDDINGTON has been elected president of the Royal Astronomical Society in succession to Professor A. Fowler.

MR. C. TATE REGAN has been appointed keeper of zoology at the British Natural History Museum, South Kensington.

DR. JOHAN HJORT, director of the Norwegian Fisheries, has received the degree of doctor of science from the University of Cambridge.

We learn from Nature that the following were elected fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh at the ordinary meeting on March 7: Dr. Nelson Annandale, Mr. W. Arthur, Mr. B. B. Baker, Dr. Archibald Barr, Mr. J. Bartholomew, Mr. A. Bruce, Mr. Andrew Campbell, Dr. Rasik Lal Datta, Dr. John Dougall, Dr. C. V. Drysdale, Mr. G. T. Forrest, Dr. W. Gibson, Dr. J. W. H. Harrison, Mr. J. A. G. Lamb, the Rev. A. E. Laurie, Mr. Neil M'Arthur, Mr. D. B. M'Quistan, Dr. T. M. MacRobert, Dr. J. M'Whan, Mr. J. Mathieson, Sir G. H. Pollard, Professor E. B. Ross, the Right Hon. J. P. Smith, Professor N. K. Smith, and Dr. I. S. Stewart.

At the Chicago meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the council established a committee on conservation to cooperate with similar committees of other organizations. This new committee on conservation has now been appointed, its

personnel being as follows: J. C. Merriam, chairman, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D. 0.; Isaiah Bowman, American Geographical Society, New York City; H. S. Graves, 1731 H Street, N.W., Washington, D. C.; Barrington Moore, 925 Park Avenue, New York City; V. E. Shelford, University of Illinois, Urbana, Ill.

DR. HAVEN EMERSON, formerly commissioner of health of New York City, has been appointed medical adviser and assistant director of the Bureau of War Risk Insurance.

Dr. P. G. NUTTING, organizer and for the past four years director of the scientific research of the Westinghouse Electric Company, will not be with that company after May 1. Dr. Nutting was for ten years with the Bureau of Standards, leaving in 1912 to assist Dr. Mees in the organization and development of the research work of the Eastman Kodak Company.

DR. L. A. MIKESKA has resigned from the Color Laboratory of the Bureau of Chemistry, U. S. Department of Agriculture, to join the staff of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, New York City.

DR. HENRY E. CRAMPTON, of Barnard College and the American Museum of Natural History, has returned from a nine months' trip to the tropics and the islands in the Pacific.

John W. GILMORE, professor of agronomy at the University of California, has been appointed exchange professor from the United States to the University of Chile for the academic year 1921–1922.

DR. LAFAYETTE B. MENDEL, professor of physiological chemistry, Yale University, spoke before 500 members of the Chicago Section of the American Chemical Society on Friday, March 18. Preceding the talk, a dinner in honor of Dr. Mendel was served at the Quadrangle Club, University of Chicago.

ON March 12, the Mayo Foundation, Rochester, Minn., was addressed by Dr. James Ewing, President George E. Vincent and Dr. Charles Choyce.

PROFESSOR Douglas Johnson, of Columbia The titles are to be given to men of distinUniversity, addressed the annual open meeting guished attainments who devote most of their of the Syracuse University chapter of Sigma time to research rather than to teaching. It Xi, March 16, on The rôle of geography in

was voted

That the title of research assoworld affairs.” On March 17, he spoke at Col

ciate should be confined to men of real disgate University on the same subject.

tinction in research and productive scholar

ship, and that it should carry with it inclusion THE Council of the Paris Faculty of Medi

in the list of 'Professors and other officers of cine, has received a gift of 50,000 francs from

professorial rank, the object of the position Mme. Mathias Duval, widow of the eminent

being to attract to the university men of professor of histology. The sum having been

eminence, who usually wish greater freedom given without any conditions as to the manner

in the use of their time for research than proin which it shall be expended, a committee has fessorial appointments permit." been appointed to decide how it can best be

EUGENE E. HASKILL, S.E., dean of the comemployed.

bined colleges of civil and mechanical engiPlans to broaden the scope of the Gorgas neering at Cornell University has resigned. Memorial Institute in Panama into a research His resignation is to take effect in June of and teaching institution of international scope this year after his sabbatic leave, which he is are being developed by the provisional board now enjoying. Dean Haskill has been at the of directors for the United States.

head of the college of civil engineering at ERNEST JOSEPH LEDERLE, the sanitary engi

Cornell since 1905, prior to which he was in neer, died on March 7, at the age of fifty-six charge of the United States geodetic survey

of the Great Lakes. Dean Haskill is a gradyears. Dr. Lederle was health commissioner

uate of Cornell University, class of 1879; his of New York City under Mayor Low and

successor, Professor F. A. Barnes, is also a Mayor Gaynor.

Cornell graduate, having been granted his

degree in 1897. UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL

Dr. Paul WEATHERWAX, for the past two NEWS

years associate professor of botany in the UniThe latest report on the Worcester Poly- versity of Georgia, has resigned to accept an technic Institute Endownient Fund indicates associate professorship in Indiana University, pledges of over $900,000 to date. The com- where he was formerly instructor. mittee in charge has no doubt that the entire PROFESSOR Irving H. CAMERON, for many $1,000,000 will be pledged before commence

years professor of surgery in the medical dement Day. This is the second million of the

partment of the University of Toronto, has $2,000,000 fund undertaken, the first million

relinquished that chair, and Dr. Alexander having already been pledged, partly in the Primrose has been appointed to succeed him form of scholarship funds given by industrial temporarily. corporations in Worcester.

DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE An appropriation by the Oregon legislature of $271,000 has been made for medical work ARE THE LANCE AND FORT UNION in Portland by the University of Oregon.

FORMATIONS OF MESOZOIC TIME? The corporation of Yale University has

TO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: Under the above adopted regulations with reference to research

title Professor Charles Schuchert has recently associates and research fellows. Research as

reviewed in SCIENCE (issue of January 14) a sociates are to have professorial rank, and 1 Published with the permission of the director résearch fellows assistant professorial rank. of the U. S. Geological Survey.

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publication of the Geological Survey by Dr. which Professor Schuchert disagrees, on T. W. Stanton on “ The Fauna of the Cannon- consideration of all available evidence. ball Marine Member of the Lance Formation.” Investigations of the Rocky Mountain Following the review Profesor Schuchert an- Province and adjacent lower country to east nounces his opinion that the evidence

and west, made within 30 years past, have binds invertebrate paleontologists and geologists surely proved that the older idea of the together in the conviction that the Lance and the diastrophism which characterized the transiFort Union are of Mesozoic time. The U. S. Geo- tion from the Cretaceous to the Eocene period logical Survey should now reverse its former con

was very faulty. The change was gradual, clusion and adapt itself to the fuller evidence.

not abrupt, and, while over a large area the In the first conclusion Professor Schuchert

great Cretaceous succession was ended, the adopts the view of Dr. Stanton and of Messrs.

uplift was epeirogenic for a long period durLloyd and Hares, who described and named

ing which erosion and prevailingly continental the Cannonball beds in 1915, as to the Lance

deposition proceeded, and there was no such formation, but goes even further than they abrupt environmental change affecting life do in assigning the Fort Union to the Meso

upon the land as has been assumed. In genzoic. However, it does difficult to

eral the newer picture of Rocky Mountain justify a separation of these formations, development, after Laramie time, gives no making one Cretaceous and the other Eocene. basis for the belief that dinosaurs and some As a geologist long interested in the Cre

other dominantly Mesozoic land forms could taceous-Eocene problem of the Rocky Moun- not survive into the Eocene. - In fact, dino-' tain region, I wish to comment that Professor

saurs of the type found in the Lance lived in Schuchert is not warranted in assuming to the Denver epoch, that is, they survived durspeak for geologists inasmuch as he does not

ing the period in which the entire Cretaceous regard much of the geological evidence. Nor section was removed from a large part of does he give due weight to paleontological Colorado and adjacent regions. data, aside from those of the mollusca. More- The Lance and Fort Union formations of over, it seems gratuitous to assume that the

eastern Montana and adjacent portions of the Geological Survey, because it has not adopted Dakotas present an exceptionally interesting the conclusion reached by Professor Schuch

and important association of stratigraphic ert, has not considered in its decisions the

and paleontologic data, the subject of conbearing of facts concerning the Lance secured

flicting ideas which must eventually be harby its own investigators some years ago. The

monized. Their correct interpretation will Survey geologists have also secured much

contribute. much to our understanding of other evidence.

Rocky Mountain history. The most striking Now it is perfectly well known to Professor

data will be briefly specified. Schuchert that the question as to the age of the Lance and Fort Union beds is a part of a

The Lance in some places rests with very large problem, involving a conception of

erosional unconformity on the Fox Hills ~ the geologic evolution of the whole Rocky

Cretaceous, the gap being of undemonstrated Mountain Province from Mexico to far north

extent. It may be large, and not small, as in Canada. More than a score of more or

Schuchert assumes.

In some districts Lance less local formations, younger than the great

and Fort Union form an apparently concontinuous Cretaceous section and older than tinuous section reaching 5,000 or more feet the Wasatch Eocene, are to be correlated and

in thickness. In one limited area only, the interpreted. These formations present a great Ludlow lignitic and Cannonball marine shale deal of varied evidence as to the history of members are seen to separate the formations. the Cretaceous-Eocene transition period. The A well defined flora runs through both Survey has, in fact, based its action, with Lance and Fort Union. It is considered

clearly Eocene by Knowlton. This view was Professor Schuchert has gained wide repunot seriously opposed until the flora, first tation for his broad studies in paleogeography. found in the Fort Union, was traced down His mature opinion was no doubt expressed through the Lance almost to its base. The in his “ Text-book of Geology," (1915, p. 581) flora thereby lost much of its interest to verte

where he says: brate and invertebrate paleontologists, but not

It is, therefore, the principles of diastrophism to paleobotanists or geologists.

and paleogeography that will eventually correctly The Fort Union beds have a mammalian

define the periods or systems. fauna of small forms considered to prove the Eocene age of the strata containing them It may seem at first thought that this prinuntil allied types were found in the Lance ciple guided Professor Schuchert in his opinassociated with dinosaurs and other sup

ion that two paleogeographic maps presented posed Cretaceous forms. The significance of by Stanton “are a most striking summation of the poor little mammals has seemed to dis- the problem in hand ...." That judgment appear, from certain standpoints, but not seems, to the writer, far from the truth. from all. The Ceratops fauna of the Lance

One of these maps (after Schuchert) repreis closely similar to that of the Denver beds, sents the Pierre Cretaceous ocean as extendcorrelated by the Geological Survey, together ing from the Gulf of Mexico through the with other Colorado and New Mexico forma- Rocky Mountain region far toward the Arctic, tions, with the early Eocene beds of the Gulf with a land barrier reaching from the east region.

at least to the boundary of Colorado and New The Cannonball shales demonstrate the Mexico. This barrier may have extended temporary return of marine waters from an further. The other map shows the supposed unknown and as yet undiscussed region to early Eocene limits of the Gulf sea and the the Dakota district, after an absence which

geographic position of the Cannonball area. was of considerable duration. Where was

What is needed is a paleogeographic map, or this sea meanwhile? The known Cannonball several of them, to express a reasonable fauna consists of two sharks, several corals hypothesis of the course of retreat of the sea and foraminifera, all of which range into the

as the land barrier rose and apparently cut Tertiary, and 60 molluscan species. The off entirely a restricted northern ocean from molluscan group, according to Stanton, has the Gulf sea, perhaps before Fox Hills time. “the general aspect of a Tertiary fauna," Somewhere there was an open sea, insisted on but he considers 24 species to be identical by Dr. Stanton, cut off from the Atlanticwith forms in the Fox Hills or Pierre Gulf ocean, in which the Fox Hills fauna was formations of the Cretaceous nearby, while modified to that found in the Cannonball. not one is identical with any known form in Unfortunately Dr. Stanton does not discuss the lowest Eocene of the Gulf region and 35

the origin, the position, the extent, or the are new species.

climatic and other conditions of the open sea Dr. Stanton has given, in the excellent pub- in which this modification took place. He lication reviewed by Professor Schuchert, a considers that the Fox Hills is the approxicareful description of the Cannonball fauna mate equivalent of the upper part of the and discussed its relationships to Cretaceous Exogyra costata zone, which is near the upper and Gulf Eocene faunas. Elsewhere he has limit of the Cretaceous in the Atlantic-Gulf discussed the age of the Lance on general region. He nevertheless recognizes “considergrounds but he has always given the greatest able differences” in the faunas, which he weight to the character of the invertebrate attributes to lithologic facies, geographic fauna, as is natural considering his special separation, and possibly to climate. point of view.

It seems to a geologist necessary for the invertebrate paleontologist to give some at- Fort Union flora is attested by its affiliation tention to the possibility that a northern with many European Eocene deposits of isolated sea existed into early Eocene time definite, acknowledged position, as Ardtun in and that its conditions produced a modifica- Mull, Gelinden in Belgium, and Sezanne in tion of the Cretaceous molluscan fauna nat- the Paris Basin, as well as the Eocene urally different from that arising during the in Greenland and Alaska. This affiliation same time in the Gulf region. Does not the amounts to many identical and closely related Cannonball fauna show what modification had species, as well as identical and related genera. been reached at a time which, under the exist- Several Fort Union species are believed to be ing conditions, must be placed in the general still living, a condition not known for any time scale by utilizing, instead of ignoring, earlier American deposit. the other facts of the Lance and Fort Union The flora of the Lance formation is also a formations, and also the concordant knowl- rich one, comprising about 125 forms, some edge of Rocky Mountain history?

of which, however, are so fragmentary and

WHITMAN CROSS obscure as to be incapable of more than WASHINGTON, D. C.,

generic determination. After eliminating the

new forms and those that can not be specificTO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: In SOIENCE for ally named there are 87 species that are posiJanuary 14, 1921, Professor Schuchert, in re- tively identified, all but 15 of which (about viewing Dr. Stanton's recent paper on The

80 per cent.) are found in the Fort Union. fauna of the Cannonball marine member of It is unmistakably a Fort Union flora, and the Lance formation,” proceeds to answer this occurs through the whole vertical range of the query in a most emphatic and unreserved Lance formation, some of the most characteraffirmative. He assumes to speak with au- istic Fort Union plants being found within thority for geologists and vertebrate and in- four feet of the base of the beds. Of the vertebrate paleontologists, but he admits that entire known Lance-Fort Union flora less than the “floral brethren” will, of course, continue 15 species have been reported from Cretaceous to dissent. The problem of establishing the beds anywhere, and this number will be reline between Cretaceous and Tertiary time in duced instead of enlarged by revision of the the Rocky Mountain province has been more floras involved. or less of a storm center for a number of

Sedimentation was undoubtedly continuous years, but the question can only be settled through the Lance and Fort Union formawhen all the available lines of evidence have tions; in fact, it is impossible to draw any been evaluated and harmonized. Drawing satisfactory line between them. The highest this line at the top of the Fort Union will point at which dinosaurs occur is taken as profoundly affect other areas and other prob- the top of the Lance, but where these remains lems, many of which Professor Schuchert are absent it has no recognized or recognizable appears to have underestimated if not indeed top. If the Cannonball marine member of the overlooked.

Lance formation is Cretaceous then both The faith that is in the “ floral brethren" Lance and Fort Union are Cretaceous, for is strong! This evidence has been set forth there is no stopping point short of the top of at length on several occasions, but a brief the Fort Union. Professor Schuchert even recapitulation may not be without interest. holds that there is here a continuous and Up to the present time, with one or two minor unbroken series of deposits from the Pierre exceptions, the Fort Union has been every- and Fox Hills into the top of the Fort Union, where accepted as of Eocene age. It has a and that the reported erosion contacts between very large flora of approximately 500 species. the several formations are due to nothing Aside from local stratigraphic and paleonto- more than changes from marine to brackish logic considerations, the Eocene age of the and fresh-water deposition, or to irregularities

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