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every one must feel in reading a French sci- render to the science of other countries a entific book or memoir.

measure of support commensurate with that The profound use of analytical methods which it receives in turn in the mutual coand the reduction of scientific truth to rigor- operation of all in the discovery of truth. ous yet pleasing mathematical form is char- Up to the present we in America have not acteristic of the French. The mechanical developed either a national spirit or a national view of nature arose among them. They were tradition in scientific investigation. Research the first to set out to see how far science and was not native to our soil and was not introreasoning can go while disregarding the prin- duced by the first settlers. Along with the ciple of individuality. Among them science other portions of our European civilization first became “truly conscious of its true meth- our scientific attitude has come to us by inods, its usefulness, its most becoming style, heritance. But we have now come to the time its inherent dignity, its past errors, its present

when American scientists may begin to protriumphs, the endless career which lies before ceed from an intellectual center of their own it, and the limits which it can not transgress.” and make contributions in a characteristic

Of the three countries which have led in spirit to the intellectual worth of mankind. scientific development it seems to be the im

R. D. CARMICHAEL partial verdict of history that we

owe to

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS France the largest number of works perfect in form and substance and classical for all

SCIENTIFIC EVENTS time; that the greatest bulk of scientific work,

THE PROPOSED NEW CHALLENGER at least in more recent decades, has been pro

EXPEDITION duced in Germany; but that the new ideas Nature announces that the council of the which have fructified science, in earlier times British Association has reluctantly decided and also in the nineteenth century, have that the organization of a new Challenger exarisen more frequently in Great Britain than pedition, such as was suggested by Professorin any other country.

W. A. Herdman in his presidential address to Science is cosmopolitan and flourishes the association at Cardiff last August, on an under many skies. But the spirit of scientific adequate scale can not be profitably promoted work is national. Each great people manifest at the present time. their own characteristics. They develop truth In accordance with the resolution passed by by methods influenced by the peculiar bias the general committee at the Cardiff meeting, native to their temperament and institutions. the council appointed a special oceanographic No prime contributions to knowledge have committee to inquire into the details of the ever been made repeatedly through a long suggested project and to prepare a reasoned period of time by any people other than those statement as to the need for such an expediwho labored from a center situated at the tion and its probable scale, scope, equipment, heart of their life and social organization.

and cost. This memorandum has now been The deep-lying unknown things in nature can completed, and is available for use when the be found out only by one who looks upon her occasion arises; but in view of the present with eyes of his own. A people who seek demand for economy in all national expendiguidance outside of themselves will never be ture, and after consultation with trustworthy led in the paths of high achievement. Only authorities, both scientific and administrative, during their minority can they afford to lean the council at a recent meeting adopted a upon the strength of others more powerful report by the general officers to the effect that, than they. On coming of age it is indis- while retaining the scheme under considerapensable that they shall work from a center tion, no further action should be taken until of their own.

circumstances seem more favorable for public American science should now begin to expenditure upon such an undertaking.

The oceanographic committee will remain in existence with a watching and organizing brief ready to revive the project whenever a favorable opportunity arises, and the council will doubtless report upon the whole matter to the meeting of the general committee of the association at Edinburgh next September. It is hoped that the proposed expedition is postponed only for a season, and that the interval may be usefully employed in perfecting plans and making other essential preparations.

ents from governmental employees and is an entering wedge for further legislation to empower the Trade Commission to receive patents from nongovernmental inventors or owners.

An exclusive license would have to be granted, at least for a few years, to induce any one to undertake the almost always necessary development expense, and the Trade Commission would surely be charged with favoritism in granting such a license. In order to protect its licensees, the Trade Commission would have to sue infringers, a most unfortunate activity for the government. The industries would close their doors to the gove ernment employees fearing to disclose to them their secrets or unpatented inventions, and research by the industries would be discouraged for fear that government employees, using government facilities, might reach the result first and patent it.

THE NOLAN PATENT OFFICE BILL THE American Engineering Council of the Federated American Engineering Societies will seek at the opening of the special session of Congress to have the Nolan Patent Office Bill passed.

Failure of the measure in the last session is attributed to the presence of the Federal Trade Commission section which Edwin J. Prindle, of New York, chairman of the American Engineering Council's Patents Committee in a report to L. W. Wallace, executive secretary of the council, asserts should not be enacted into law in any form even as a separate bill. The committee reports:

The bill for the imperatively necessary relief of the Patent Office, after passing the House of Representatives with satisfactory provisions for the Patent Office, failed to pass the Senate at the session just closed with those same provisions, solely because of the presence in it of an unrelated section known as the Federal Trade Commission Section.

The former opposition in the Senate to the Patent Office relief and that which forced the unacceptable reductions in salaries and numbers of examiners and clerks (which the Conference Committee was persuaded to set aside) is largely and seemingly almost wholly overcome.

But the opposition in the Senate to the Federal Trade Section is determined and has expressed an intention to prevent the Patent Office from getting the desired relief unless the Federal Trade Section is removed from the bill.

More than preventing the Patent Office relief, however, the Federal Trade Section is believed to be a dangerous measure in itself. It provides that the Federal Trade Commission may receive assignments of and administer inventions and pat

THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY

THE American Philosophical Society will hold its general meeting in the hall of the society on Independence Square on April 21, 22 and 23. The program includes the following discussions : The Application of the Method of the Interfer

ometer to certain Astronomical Researches: To astrophysical problems: HENRY NORRIS Rus

SELL, Ph.D., professor of astronomy, Prince

ton University. To the measurement of double stars: FRANK

SCHLESINGER, Ph.D., director, Yale University

Observatory. To the determination of stellar parallaxes:

John A. MILLER, Ph.D., director, Sproul Ob

servatory, Swarthmore, Pa. Atomic structure: DAVID WEBSTER, professor of physics, Leland

Stanford University. WILLIAM DUANE, director of radium institute,

Harvard Medical School, Boston. BE

EN Davis, professor of physics, Columbia University. On Friday evening there will be a reception in the hall of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, when Dr. James H. Breasted, professor of Egyptology and Oriental history, University of Chicago, will speak on “ Following the trail of our earliest ancestors illustrated by lantern slides.

Award will be made of the society's Henry M. Phillips Prize of two thousand dollars for

the best essay on, “ The control of the foreign personnel being as follows: J. C. Merriam, relations of the United States: the relative chairman, Carnegie Institution of Washingrights, duties and responsibilities of the Pres- ton, Washington, D. C.; Isaiah Bowman, ident, the Senate and the House, and of the American Geographical Society, New York judiciary, in theory and practise," and pres- City; H. S. Graves, 1731 H Street, N.W., entation of John Scott Medals "For Useful Washington, D. C.; Barrington Moore, 925 Inventions,” by Owen Roberts, Esq., on be- Park Avenue, New York City; V. E. Shelhalf of the Board of City Trusts of Phila- ford, University of Illinois, Urbana, Ill. delphia.

DR. HAVEN EMERSON, formerly commis

sioner of health of New York City, has been SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS

appointed medical adviser and assistant direcTHE National Institute of Social Sciences

tor of the Bureau of War Risk Insurance. has awarded its gold medal to Mme. Curie.

Dr. P. G. NUTTING, organizer and for the MR. HERBERT C. HOOVER has been elected a

past four years director of the scientific retrustee of the Carnegie Institution of Wash

search of the Westinghouse Electric Comington.

pany, will not be with that company after PROFESSOR A. S. EDDINGTON has been elected May 1. Dr. Nutting was for ten years with president of the Royal Astronomical Society the Bureau of Standards, leaving in 1912 to in succession to Professor A. Fowler.

assist Dr. Mees in the organization and deMR. C. TATE REGAN has been appointed

velopment of the research work of the East

man Kodak Company. keeper of zoology at the British Natural History Museum, South Kensington.

Dr. L. A. MIKESKA has resigned from the

Color Laboratory of the Bureau of Chemistry, DR. JOHAN HJORT, director of the Norwegian Fisheries, has received the degree of

U. S. Department of Agriculture, to join the doctor of science from the University of Cam

staff of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical

Research, New York City. bridge.

DR. HENRY E. CRAMPTON, of Barnard ColWe learn from Nature that the following

lege and the American Museum of Natural were elected fellows of the Royal Society of

History, has returned from a nine months' Edinburgh at the ordinary meeting on March

trip to the tropics and the islands in the 7: Dr. Nelson Annandale, Mr. W. Arthur,

Pacific. Mr. B. B. Baker, Dr. Archibald Barr, Mr. J. Bartholomew, Mr. A. Bruce, Mr. Andrew

John W. GILMORE, professor of agronomy Campbell, Dr. Rasik Lal Datta, Dr. John

at the University of California, has been apDougall, Dr. C. V. Drysdale, Mr. G. T. For- pointed exchange professor from the United rest, Dr. W. Gibson, Dr. J. W. H. Harrison, States to the University of Chile for the Mr. J. A. G. Lamb, the Rev. A. E. Laurie,

academic year 1921-1922. Mr. Neil M'Arthur, Mr. D. B. MʻQuistan, DR. LAFAYETTE B. MENDEL, professor of Dr. T. M. MacRobert, Dr. J. M'Whan, Mr. physiological chemistry, Yale University, J. Mathieson, Sir G. H. Pollard, Professor spoke before 500 members of the Chicago E. B. Ross, the Right Hon. J. P. Smith, Section of the American Chemical Society on Professor N. K. Smith, and Dr. I. S. Stewart. Friday, March 18. Preceding the talk, a dinAt the Chicago meeting of the American

ner in honor of Dr. Mendel was served at the Association for the Advancement of Science,

Quadrangle Club, University of Chicago. the council established a committee on con- ON March 12, the Mayo Foundation, servation to cooperate with similar committees Rochester, Minn., was addressed by Dr. James of other organizations. This new committee Ewing, President George E. Vincent and Dr. on conservation has now been appointed, its Charles Choyce.

PROFESSOR Douglas JOHNSON, of Columbia The titles are to be given to men of distinUniversity, addressed the annual open meeting guished attainments who devote most of their of the Syracuse University chapter of Sigma time to research rather than to teaching. It Xi, March 16, on “The rôle of geography in

was voted “ That the title of research assoworld affairs." On March 17, he spoke at Col- ciate should be confined to men of real disgate University on the same subject.

tinction in research and productive scholar

ship, and that it should carry with it inclusion THE Council of the Paris Faculty of Medi

in the list of Professors and other officers of cine, has received a gift of 50,000 francs from

professorial rank,' the object of the position Mme. Mathias Duval, widow of the eminent

being to attract to the university men of professor of histology. The sum having been

eminence, who usually wish greater freedom given without any conditions as to the manner

in the use of their time for research than proin which it shall be expended, a committee has fessorial appointments permit.” been appointed to decide how it can best be employed.

EUGENE E. HASKILL, S.E., dean of the com

bined colleges of civil and mechanical engiPLANS to broaden the scope of the Gorgas neering at Cornell University has resigned. Memorial Institute in Panama into a research His resignation is to take effect in June of and teaching institution of international scope this year after his sabbatic leave, which he is are being developed by the provisional board now enjoying. Dean Haskill has been at the of directors for the United States.

head of the college of civil engineering at ERNEST JOSEPH LEDERLE, the sanitary engi

Cornell since 1905, prior to which he was in

charge of the United States geodetic survey neer, died on March 7, at the age of fifty-six

of the Great Lakes. Dean Haskill is a gradyears. Dr. Lederle was health commissioner

uate of Cornell University, class of 1879; his of New York City under Mayor Low and

successor, Professor F. A. Barnes, is also a Mayor Gaynor.

Cornell graduate, having been granted his

degree in 1897. UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL

Dr. Paul WEATHERWAX, for the past two NEWS

years associate professor of botany in the UniThe latest report on the Worcester Poly- versity of Georgia, has resigned to accept an technic Institute Endownient Fund indicates associate professorship in Indiana University, pledges of over $900,000 to date. The com- where he was formerly instructor. mittee in charge has no doubt that the entire PROFESSOR IRVING H. CAMERON, for many $1,000,000 will be pledged before Commence

years professor of surgery in the medical dement Day. This is the second million of the

partment of the University of Toronto, has $2,000,000 fund undertaken, the first million relinquished that chair, and Dr. Alexander having already been pledged, partly in the Primrose has been appointed to succeed him form of scholarship funds given by industrial temporarily. corporations in Worcester.

An appropriation by the Oregon legislature DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE of $271,000 has been made for medical work ARE THE LANCE AND FORT UNION in Portland by the University of Oregon.

FORMATIONS OF MESOZOIC TIME? The corporation of Yale University has

TO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: Under the above adopted regulations with reference to research

title Professor Charles Schuchert has recently associates and research fellows. Research as

reviewed in SCIENCE (issue of January 14) a sociates are to have professorial rank, and i Published with the permission of the director research fellows assistant professorial rank. of the U. S. Geological Survey.

а

publication of the Geological Survey by Dr. which Professor Schuchert disagrees, on T. W. Stanton on “ The Fauna of the Cannon- consideration of all available evidence. ball Marine Member of the Lance Formation." Investigations of the Rocky Mountain Following the review Profesor Schuchert an- Province and adjacent lower country to east nounces his opinion that the evidence

and west, made within 30 years past, have binds invertebrate paleontologists and geologists surely proved that the older idea of the together in the conviction that the Lance and the diastrophism which characterized the transiFort Union are of Mesozoic time. The U. S. Geo- tion from the Cretaceous to the Eocene period logical Survey should now reverse its former con

was very faulty. The change was gradual, clusion and adapt itself to the fuller evidence.

not abrupt, and, while over a large area the In the first conclusion Professor Schuchert great Cretaceous succession was ended, the adopts the view of Dr. Stanton and of Messrs. uplift was epeirogenic for a long period durLloyd and Hares, who described and named

ing which erosion and prevailingly continental the Cannonball beds in 1915, as to the Lance deposition proceeded, and there was no such formation, but goes even further than they abrupt environmental change affecting life do in assigning the Fort Union to the Meso

upon the land as has been assumed. In genzoic. However, it does seem difficult to

eral the newer picture of Rocky Mountain justify a separation of these forınations, development, after Laramie time, gives no making one Cretaceous and the other Eocene.

basis for the belief that dinosaurs and some As a geologist long interested in the Cre

other dominantly Mesozoic land forms could taceous-Eocene problem of the Rocky Moun

not survive into the Eocene. - In fact, dino-' tain region, I wish to comment that Professor

saurs of the type found in the Lance lived in Schuchert is not warranted in assuming to the Denver epoch, that is, they survived durspeak for geologists inasmuch as he does not

ing the period in which the entire Cretaceous regard much of the geological evidence. Nor section was removed from a large part of does he give due weight to paleontological Colorado and adjacent regions. data, aside from those of the mollusca. More

The Lance and Fort Union formations of over, it seems gratuitous to assume that the

eastern Montana and adjacent portions of the Geological Survey, because it has not adopted Dakotas present an exceptionally interesting the conclusion reached by Professor Schuch

and important association of stratigraphic ert, has not considered in its decisions the

and paleontologic data, the subject of conbearing of facts concerning the Lance secured

flicting ideas which must eventually be harby its own investigators some years ago. The

monized. Their correct interpretation will Survey geologists have also secured much

contribute much to our understanding of other evidence.

Rocky Mountain history. The most striking Now it is perfectly well known to Professor

data will be briefly specified. Schuchert that the question as to the age of

The Lance in the Lance and Fort Union beds is a part of a

some places rests with very large problem, involving a conception of erosional unconformity on the Fox Hills the geologic evolution of the whole Rocky

Cretaceous, the gap being of undemonstrated Mountain Province from Mexico to far north

extent. It may be large, and not small, as in Canada. More than a score of more or

Schuchert assumes. In some districts Lance less local formations, younger than the great

and Fort Union form an apparently con- v continuous Cretaceous section and older than

tinuous section reaching 5,000 or more feet the Wasatch Eocene, are to be correlated and in thickness. In one limited area only, the interpreted. These formations present a great

Ludlow lignitic and Cannonball marine shale deal of varied evidence as to the history of members are seen to separate the formations. the Cretaceous-Eocene transition period. The A well defined fora runs through both Survey has, in fact, based its action, with Lance and Fort Union. It is considered

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