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use the expressive slang of the day, "regular wanted it. The trustees thought it right, as fellows."

a temporary measure, to take it out of the The last few years have taught us all how reserve fund, and give it to them to pay their small a reserve of food there is even in nor- fees. Under the research scheme it had been mal times. Largely as a result of the cataclys- agreed that as an experiment for a period of mic war famine now stalks over much of the three years the following annual grants be earth. It needs no Malthus to convince us that offered to the universities to be spent in payan adequate food supply will become more and ment of half the salaries of persons engaged more the great problem of mankind. In spite as part-time assistants or lecturers on condiof the haziness that envelops most of our tion that they devoted not less than half their present theories of productivity, one time to research, and that the universities scarcely fail to have faith that it is the half should contribute the other half of the salaries light that precedes dawn. The complex and

from other sources—Glasgow and Edinburgh obscure factors involved in crop production £1,000 each, St. Andrews and Aberdeen £800 need for their solution a far greater number of

each. It was hoped that much good to the botanically trained investigators. With clearer

universities would result from this combinatheoretical understanding of these factors,

tion of teaching and research, and the scheme

had been well received by the universities. there is every reason to believe that the earth will be made to yield more abundantly. It is

Although the amount available for assistance

to students was now fully £60,000, there was to this field of investigation so vital to human

a deficit of £8,538 for 1919–20. The univerwelfare, that I confidently hope botanists will more and more devote their energies, both as

sities were now increasing their tuition fees, a matter of duty to mankind, and as an earnest

and as a result the poor student would be

poorer than ever. Thus the difficulties were of faith in their science and the services it

very great. For many years the trustees had can render.

been able to pay all eligible applicants the CHARLES V. PIPER

whole of their class fees, but in 1911–12 they

had had to have an allowance system, because SCIENTIFIC EVENTS

the income would not cover the whole of the THE CARNEGIE TRUST FOR SCOTTISH fee, and since then the trustees had been payUNIVERSITIES

ing only a part of the fees. The situation The British Medical Journal states that the would be further changed in the current year annual meeting of the Carnegie Trust for owing to the increase in tuition fees. the Universities of Scotland was held in a The discussion in which Lord Haldane, committee-room of the House of Lords, on Lord Sands, and others took part, centered February 9, with Lord Balfour of Burleigh in chiefly in the problem of allocating assistance the chair. Lord Balfour said that the prin- to the students. It was agreed that steps must cipal event of last year was the allocation of be taken to eliminate from the beneficiaries of grants for the quinquennial period of 1920–25. the fund those applicants whose circumstances In addition to the £200,000 from income, it were such as to render assistance unnecessary. had been resolved to allocate from the reserve Proposals were made for strengthening the fund £49,000. The explanation of this was declaration made by applicants and for an that during the war the students at the uni- inquiry into individual circumstances. The versities were fewer, and therefore the trustees suggestions were discussed, but a decision will saved on the payment of fees. It would have not be reached until the alternatives have been absurd to save that money and put it been further considered in the light of the to the reserve, when many of the same stu- views expressed by university authorities and dents were coming back after the war and others interested.

MEETING OF THE ORGANIZING COMMITTEES

been organized to bring about interchange of OF THE SECTIONS OF THE BRITISH

research information among the organizations ASSOCIATION

which are engaged in personal research. It is Nature states that a combined meeting of

reported to the new federation by the Bureau organizing committees of the Sections of the

of Labor Statistics that there are 250 such British Association was held at Burlington organizations in the United States. The PerHouse, on February 25. The meeting was

sonnel Research Federation will collect recalled to consider various suggestions as to number and grouping of sections, presidential through individuals and organizations and

search information, will encourage research addresses, and other subjects discussed in the

will coordinate research activities. recent correspondence in Nature and else

Temporary officers were elected as follows: where, and also to facilitate the arrangement

Chairman: Robert M. Yerkes, representing the of joint programs between two or more seco

National Research Council. tions for the annual assembly at Edinburgh

Vice-chairman: Samuel Gompers, representing in September next. At the general session it

the American Federation of Labor. was agreed that the number of sections should

Treasurer: Robert W. Bruere, representing the not be reduced, but that voluntary grouping

Bureau of Industrial Research. for the consideration of subjects of common Secretary: Alfred D. Flinn, representing the interest was desirable. The council (through Engineering Foundation, the general officers) was empowered to fix Acting Director: Beardsley Ruml, assistant to hours of addresses and discussions, and the the president of Carnegie Corporaton of New York, view was approved that the oral delivery of

The aims of the new organization are inpresidential addresses should be optional, as

creased efficiency of all the personnel elements well as that the addresses themselves might

of industry-employer, manager, worker-and be used to open discussions. It was also improved safety, health, comfort and relationdecided that the council should invite the

ships. recorders of sections, or their nominees, to be

The immediate purposes of the Personnel present at meetings of council when presi- Research Federation will be to learn what dents of sections are elected. Organizing organizations are studying one or more probcommittees will thus, through their represen- lems relating to personnel and the scope of tatives, be able to put forward their views as

their endeavors, and to determine whether to new sectional presidents. Several joint dis

these endeavors can be harmonized, duplicacussions were arranged for the forthcoming

tion minimized, neglected phases of the probEdinburgh meeting, among them being one

lems considered and advanced work underbetween the Sections of Physics and Chem

taken. istry on Dr. Langmuir's theory of the atom,

On November 12, 1920, a preliminary conand another between the Sections of Eco

ference was held in Washington under the nomics, Education, and Psychology on voca

auspices of the National Research Council tional education and psychological tests.

and the Engineering Foundation, attended by

forty persons, including representatives of THE PERSONNEL RESEARCH FEDERATION

national organizations of scientists, engineers, UNDER the auspices of the National Re- labor, capital, managers, educators, economists search Council and the Engineering Founda

and sociologists. The question under discustion, in the building of the National Research sion was the practicability of bringing about Council, Washington, the organization of the cooperation among the many bodies conductPersonnel Research Federation was effected ing research relating to men and women in on March 15. This federation includes in industry and commerce, from management its membership scientific, engineering, labor, to unskilled labor. Such topics as the relamanagement and educational bodies. It has

tions of persons doing different parts of the

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ZOOLOGY

Two hundred dollars to Dr. P. W. Whiting, of St. Stephens College, in addition to previous grants in support of his study of genetics in insects.

Four hundred and fifty dollars to Dr. N. A. Cobb, of the United States Department of Agriculture, for aid in a series of researches into the physiology of the cell; also to defray cost of publication of results already on hand.

One hundred and fifty dollars to Professor W. F. G. Swann, of the University of Minnesota, for the investigation of atmospheric electric phenomena in the upper air,

Two hundred and fifty dollars to Professor H. M. Randall, of the University of Michigan, in support of his work on the infra-red rotational absorption spectra of gases.

Two hundred dollars to Professor Walter G. Cady, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut, in support of his work on electrical reactions produced by piezo-electric crystals in high frequency circuits, and the internal viscosity of elastic solids.

One hundred dollars to Professor Paul F. Gaehr, of Wells College, for his study on the specific heat of tungsten at incandescent temperatures.

One hundred dollars to Professor Arthur L. Foley, of Indiana University, in continuation of a previous grant for his experiments on the speed of sound close to the source.

BOTANY

Three hundred dollars to Professor George B. Rigg, of the University of Washington, for work on the sphagnum bogs of the Puget Sound region.

Five hundred dollars to Professor J. M. Greenman, Missouri Botanical Garden, toward the completion of his work on the Senecio and related genera.

PSYCHOLOGY

CHEMISTRY

One hundred and fifty dollars to Professor T. R. Garth, of the University of Texas, for a psychological study of Indiana children in the United States Indian Schools at Chilocco, Oklahoma, and Albuquerque, New Mexico.

One hundred and fifty dollars to Professor E. G. Boring, Clark University, for the preparation of

Two hundred dollars to Dr. Gerald L. Wendt, Unversity of Chicago, for investigations at high temperatures.

ANTHROPOLOGY

PHYSIOLOGY AND MEDICINE

a set of steel acoustic cylinders to be used in de- adjournment, of Rear-Admiral E. R. Stitt to termining the nature of sensory response under the position of Surgeon-General of the Navy, conditions of normal psychometric situation.

succeeding Rear-Admiral Braisted, retired, has been sent again to the Senate by Presi

dent Harding. Two hundred dollars to Professor A. L. Kroeber, of the University of California, for bibliograph

HONORARY membership in the Chemists' ical and clerical assistance in connection with an

Club of New York City was conferred upon ethnological investigation to determine the culture four American and four foreign chemists at areas of aboriginal South America.

the dinner commemorating the tenth anniOne hundred and fifty dollars to Miss Helen H. versary of the opening of its present home at Roberts, of the American Museum of Natural 52 East Forty-first Street. The foreign chemHistory, for a study of negro folk-music in Ja

ists were Dr. Giacomo Giamician, professor maica.

of general chemistry at the University of

Bologna, Italy; Dr. Henri Louis Le Chatelier, One hundred and fifty dollars to Professor Carl

professor at the Collège de France and at J. Wiggers, Western Reserve University, in con

L'Ecole des Mines; Dr. Ernest Solvay, of tinued support of his investigation on the physiol.

Brussels, Belgium, founder of the ammoniaogy of the circulation, One hundred and fifty dollars to Professor

soda process, and Sir Edward Thorpe, proFrank A. Hartman, University of Buffalo, for aid

fessor of chemistry emeritus of the Imperial in the study of suprarenal insufficiency, including

College of Science and Technology, South circulatory, respiratory, temperature, and fatigue Kensington, England. The Americans were changes, as well as possible histological alterations Dr. John Uri Lloyd, of Cincinnati, former in the ductless glands.

president of the American Pharmaceutical As. Two hundred dollars to Professor W. E. Garrey, sociation; Dr. William Henry Nichols, of Tulane University, for the purchase of apparatus

New York, former president of the American for hydrogen ion determination.

Chemical Society, the Society of Chemical One hundred and fifty dollars to Professor F. P.

Industry and the Eighth International ConKnowlton, Syracuse University, in support of a study of the blood flow and gaseous metabolism in

gress of Applied Chemistry; Dr. Edgar Fahs the thyroid gland.

JOEL STEBBINS,

Smith, of Philadelphia, President of the Secretary Committee on Grants

American Chemical Society and until recently URBANA, ILLINOIS

provost of the University of Pennsylvania,

and Dr. Edward Weston of Newark, N. J. SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS

Dr. FRANK WIGGLESWORTH Clark and Dr. H. DR. WILLIAM CROCKER, associate professor

S. Washington have been elected foreign of botany in the University of Chicago, has

members of the Geological Society of London. been appointed director of the newly founded The following fifteen candidates have been Thompson Institute for Plant Research at selected by the council of the Royal Society Yonkers, New York. He will enter on his to be recommended for election into the work next autumn. The board of trustees of society: Dr. W. E. Agar, Dr. F. W. Aston, the new foundation will consist of three Professor W. L. Bragg, Dr. W. T. Calman, business men and three scientific men. Pro- Dr. A. Church, Professor G. Dreyer, Professor John M. Coulter, head of the depart- fessor W. H. Eccles, Dr. J. C. G. Ledingham, ment of botany at the University of Chicago, Mr. C. S. Middlemiss, Professor K. J. P. and Kaymond F. Bacon, of the Mellon Insti- Orton, Dr. J. H. Parsons, Professor J. C. tute of Pittsburgh, will be two of the scientific Philip, Dr. A. A. Robb, Sir E. Tennyson men, and these two will select the third. D' Eyncourt, and Mr. G. Udny Yule.

The nomination made ex-President The council of the Chemical Society has Wilson, not confirmed by the Senate before awarded the Longstaff medal to Professor J. F.

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Thorpe. The presentation was made at the a range of forty degrees of latitude. Over a annual general meeting on March 17.

thousand numbers were secured, in most part LIEUTENANT EUGENE F. Du Bois has been supplemented by phanerogamic specimens of given the Navy cross“ for distinguished serv

the hosts. The collection is notable for its ice in the line of his profession while attached

large proportion of grass rusts. to the U. 8. Submarine N-5 upon the occasion

DR. F. GOWLAND HOPKINS, professor of bioof a collision between that vessel and the chemistry at the University of Cambridge, will Charles Whittemore.

deliver the ninth Harvey Society lecture at PROFESSOR A. A. MICHELSON, head of the de

the New York Academy of Medicine on Satpartment of physics at the University of Chi- urday evening, April 2. His subject will be

The chemical dynamics of muscle." Sir cago, has been appointed exchange professor at the University of Paris. His course of lec

Walter Fletcher, secretary of the Medical Retures will be on the general subject of " Phys

search Committee of Great Britain, will deics” and will be given in the French language.

liver a Harvey lecture on April 16. The sixth Guthrie lecture in connection with THE following Mayo Foundation lectures the Physical Society of London, was delivered have recently been delivered: President Ray on March 11 by Professor Michelson, whose

Lyman Wilbur, of Leland Stanford Univer.subject was “ Some recent applications of in- sity, “ Botulism”; Dr. J. Whitridge Williams, terference methods."

professor of obstetrics in and dean of Johns

Hopkins Medical School, “ A critical review of The Rumford Committee of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences has recently

twenty-one years' experience with Cesarean made the following appropriations: To Pro

section"; Dr. G. Carl Huber, professor of anatomy, University of Michigan,“

“ Experi,fessor P. W. Bridgman, of Harvard Univer

mental observations on bridging nerve defects." sity, $400 in aid of his research on the thermal and optical properties of bodies under high

DR. EDWARD C. FRANKLIN, professor of orpressure; to Professor Paul F. Gaehr, of Wells

ganic chemistry at Stanford University, will College, $250 in aid of his research on the spe

give a series of three lectures on the “ Amcific heat of tungsten.

monia system of acid bases and salts,” at the

University of Wisconsin, on May 2 and 3. THE Carnegie Institution of Washington

A COURSE of twelve lectures on petroleum has appropriated $750 for the support of the

geology and the engineering phases of pework of Dr. S. J. Holmes, professor of zoology in the University of California, on the

troleum development was delivered during factors of evolution in man.

March at Harvard University by Frederick G.

Clapp. Mr. Clapp also lectured before the MR. EDWIN KIRK, who resigned from the U.

Geological Conference in Cambridge, on “A S. Geological Survey in April, 1920, to do

geologist's trip through China." private work in South America, has been rein

DR. CHARLES A. Shull, head of the departstated as geologist with the Survey.

ment of botany of the University of KenPROFESSOR EDWARD KREMERS has returned to tucky, has received an invitation from Dr. active service in the University of Wisconsin, E. J. Russell, director of the Rothamsted Exafter a semester's leave of absence spent largely perimental Station at Harpenden, England, to on historical studies.

present a paper on “ Osmotic Phenomena PROFESSOR E. W. D. HOLWAY, of the Univer- related to soil moisture, before the Faraday sity of Minnesota, and Mrs. Holway, have re- Society at its next annual meeting at London turned from a year's exploration of the west- in May. The meeting of the Faraday Society ern slopes of the Andes in search of plant will be devoted this year to a symposium rusts. They went southward about as far as and general discussion on “Physico-chemical the island of Chiloé and northward to Quito, Problems relating to the Soil.” The subject

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