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crose in the presence of dextrose ,and of dextrose in peals of a patriotic nature established a the presence of sucrose, and finally of dextrose in sugar production in America, From the labora. the presence of levulose were measured. The re- tory stage to the commercial represents a far sults of this investigation have shown the maxi- greater achievement than is apparent. The folmum concentration which invert sugаr may have lowing sugars are now manufactured commerwithout depositing crystals of dextrose, and sim- cially: l-arabinose, dulcitol, d-galactose, d-glucose, ilarly the maximum concentration which a mixture glycogen, inositol, inulin, invert sugar, lactose, of sucrose and invert sugаr may have without de- d-levulose from invert sugar, d-levulose from positing either sucrose or dextrose.
inulin, levulose, syrupy, maltose, d-mannitol, which contains 29 per cent. of sucrose and 52 per d-mannose, melezitose, raffinose, rhamnose, sorbitol, cent. of invert sugar, or a content with respect to sucrose, trehaiose and d-kylose. A greater achievetotal sugar of 81 per cent., has this maximum ment than this list, however, is the surpassing of concentration. In general, it is practicable to in- the old standards of Kahlbaum and the discreditcrease this concentration even to a slight supersat- ing of another German superman theory. Tho uration without danger. Such a solution is suffi- polariscope with variable sensibility, a device of ciently dense for a good syrup and resists the American invention, and the growing knowlodge of growth of microorganisms. A number of methods how accurately bacteria can detect minute impuriof inverting sugar have been devised. We add the ties has stimulated the new standard. The use of suggestion that the partial inversion can be accom- the rare sugars in America is being extended to plished by the aid of an extremely dilute hydro- physic-chemistry, chemical analysis, diet, intrachloric acid and subsequent neutralization with venous injection, plant pathology, medicine and sodium carbonate. The net result is the addition even to experimental explosives, as well as to adof a minute quantity of common salt. Data are vances in bacteriology. A specific example of the provided for controlling the method. During the importance of the sugars to national health and investigation, the densities of invert sugar solu- epidemiology is the differentiation possible by tions, the contraction of volume accompanying in- their means of the paratyphoid, meat poisoning and version, and the change of viscosity were deter- hog cholera bacilli and the resulting possible mined.
knowledge of the source of an epidemic. The soSome characteristics of imported cane sugars :
lution of the problem of the sugars calls for both O. A. BROWNE. The general trend in the manu
the chemist and bacteriologist in combination, and
in the answer light will be thrown upon morphfacture of raw cane sugar during the past decade is shown to be towards the production of 96 test
ism and bacteria, configuration of sugars, the sugar, which during the past 5 years has made up
asymmetric carbon atom, theory of life and evolu
tion, about 75 per cent. of the total importations. This percentage could be increased considerably if care
Results of sugar cane experiments in St. Croix : were taken to manufacture a drier sugar that LONGFIELD SMITH, would not deteriorate. Some of the chemical,
Use of kieselguhr in the clarification of cane physical, mycological and entomological characteristics of the different grades of imported raw cane
juice: H. S. PAINE and C. F. WALTON, JR. Resugars are discussed. During the past year, con
sults are reported of a comparative study of vari. siderable plantation white sugar, testing between
ous types of kieselguhr, or diatomaceous earth, 98 and 100, has been imported for direct consump
for the purpose of correlating physical properties tion. Some of this sugar is of very good quality
and clarifying efficiency as a possible means of and if care were taken always to make a clean determining relative market values. The investiwhite sugar of uniform character plantation white gation of clarifying efficiency has led to a quantisugar might find a considerable demand even tative study of the colloids removed from cano among the more discriminating class of users. juice by different methods of clarification. These
American progress in bacteriological sugars: experiments included a microscopic examination EDMOND H. EITEL. The history of the rare sugars of the various kieselguhrs, tests of comparativo virtually commences with 1883. The sugars had rate of filtration, sedimentation, fineness by sievbecome essential in bacteriology when in 1914 the ing, solubility in dilute acids and alkali, and the German supply was cut off. The U. S. govern- quantitative determination by dialysis of the col. mont found its work critically handicapped. Ap- loids present in the juice before and after clarifi.
can be determined with reasonable facility and with considerably more accuracy than the sample of molasses can be obtained.
CHARLES L. PARSONS,
cation. The results so far obtained indicate that, provided a sufficient amount of kieselguhr is used to afford the minimum adsorbing surface required for the colloids present, there is little, if any, difference in clarifying efficiency when equal weights are used, even though the various kieselguhrs may differ considerably in physical properties. The dialysis experiments further proved, as has been indicated by the work of previous investigators, that heating and filtration with kieselguhr removo all colloids of such a degree of dispersion as to give a turbidity visible to the eye. Using active decolorizing carbon after preliminary treatment of the juice with kieselguhr, it was found that colloids of such dimensions as to be invisible to the eye were thereby removed.
Determination of the density of molasses: W. B. NEWKIRK. The picnometer suggested permits a greater accuracy in the determination of the density of molasses than has been possible heretofore. It is essential for commercial reasons that an accurate method of determining the density be used. The interfering obstacles in the determination of densities of molasses are due to the high viscosity, included gases and dissolved gases. The picnometer suggested is adaptable in the presence of these difficulties. It consists of a bottle fitted with an enlargement at the top ground optically flat and closed off by another optical flat. An expansion chamber is ground on to the bottle to permit the expansion of the included gas to permit of its easy removal and is fitted with a vacuum connection and stop cock in order to put the contents of the bottle under greatly reduced pressure and maintaining the same for a considerable length of time, without the loss of moisture. The evaporation is negligible. The change in temperature of the picnometer after closing is reduced by very thick walls over the neck of the flask. This reducing temperature changes on handling. Two methods of deaerating were studied—the application of heat to reduce its viscosity and the application of air to expand the entrained gas. The heating causes considerable decomposition and has a deleterious effect in the determination of the density. The vacuum method removes entrained gas and does not have the bad features of heating or dilution. The accidental errors are shown to be very small and the total error in any one direction is shown to be within .1 of 1° rix, and the majority of determinations can be made within a few hundredths of 1° Brix. Densities with this apparatus
ASSOCIATION OF AMERICAN
GEOGRAPHERS THE annual meeting of the Association of American Geographers was held with the department of geography of the University of Chicago during Convocation Week. Five sessions were held at which forty-one papers were read, nine by title.
Especial interest centered in the joint meeting with the Ecological Society of America and the session devoted to invited papers on industrial geography. The papers given at the joint meeting were as follows: Experimental animal climatology: V. E. SHELFORD. Geography in zoological museums: A. G. RUTHVEN. The relation of plants to new habitats: D. T. Mac
DOUGALL. Ecology and geographic boundaries: H. C. COWLES.
Owing to the necessary absence of President Gregory, because of an emergency telegram, his presidential address on “Geographic basis of the political problems of the Pacific” was omitted. The following papers on Industrial Geography were given during the afternoon session of the same day. The significance of vegetable oils in the economic
development of the tropics: V. C. FINCH. Geographical influences in marketing ; illustrated
by the meat industry: Guy C. SMITH. Geographic factors in dairy farming in southern
New England: RICHARD E. DODGE.
The papers presented at the remaining sessions were as follows: Rainfall maps of Latin America: EUGENE VAN
CLEEF. The trade winds and anti-trades of Porto Rico:
OLIVER L. FASSIG. Progress in organization of the Climatological
Service of the West Indies: OLIVER L. FASSIG. Rise in temperature on mountain summits earlier
than on valley floors: H. J. Cox. Cold surf with offshore winds: CHARLES F.
BROOKS. Vertical gradients of evaporation and soil mois
ture in desert and coastal mountains: FORREST
SHREVE. Stream and ocean terraces in relation to recent
earth movements: R. S. HOLWAY.
The status of the general magnetic survey of the the association by the Geographic Society of Chiearth: L. A, BAUER.
cago and by an informal lunch given by the deA significant contrast between the Atlantic and Pa- partment of geography of the University of Chi. cific regions: W. H. HOBBS.
cago. Both these events gave an opportunity for Intermont basins: W. M. DAVIS. (By title.) social greeting and discussion that was much apThe importance and permanence of the physical preciated, for in the rush and demands of so large
factors in determining the utilization of land for a meeting, and group of meetings, there is but
agricultural and forest production: 0. E. BAKER. little chance for social get-togethers unless they Problems of land classification: CARL O, SAUER. are deliberately planned for. Distribution of sunlight and moonlight over the During the sessions the Couneil met and acted earth: ZONIA BABER,
upon a number of important plans. W. M. Davis Chili: a land where immigrants need not apply: was appointed representative of the association in MARK JEFFERSON.
the Division of Geology and Geography of the NaSome aspects of the geography of South Dakota: tional Research Council. He succeeds himself for S. S. VISHER. (By title.)
a period of three years, Finland as an independent republic: J. J. SEDER- It was voted to hold the next annual meeting in HOLM. (By title.)
the city of Washington during Christmas week, The Armenian frontier: LAWRENCE MARTIN. (By 1921; and to recommend to the Council of 1921 title.)
that the meeting for 1922 be held in the east and The geography of part of southeastern Idaho: G. that for 1923 in the mid-west. R. MANSFIELD. (By title.)
A canvass of the ballots showed the following Geographical regions of the fisheries of Asiatic officers elected for the year: President, Ellen Russia: S. J. NOVAKOVSKY.
Churchill Semple; Vice-presidents, A. J. Henry The grain trade of ancient Athens : ELLEN and Curtis F. Marbut; Secretary, Richard E. CHURCHILL SEMPLE.
Dodge; Treasurer, George B. Roorbach; CounGeography and man in Cuba: R. H. WHITBECK. cillors, Eliot Blackwelder, Ray H. Whitbeck, Geography and man at Panama: R. H. WHITBECK. Nevin M. Fenneman, (By title.)
The spring joint meeting with the American Physiography and man in Porto Rica: A. K. Lo- Geographical Society will be held at the society's BECK,
building in New York City on April 22 and 23, Notes on the geography of Honduras: N. A. 1921. Program will be published as soon as comBENGSTON.
pleted so that all who are interested in the papers A geographic study of the Saginaw Valley as an to be given may attend. The secretary will be
area of gentle relief: F. W. FROSTIC. (By title.) glad to receive the names of those who would like Population changes in Nebraska since 1880: to be informed of meetings of the association so ESTHER S. ANDERSON.
that they may receive programs of papers as issued. Nashville and the central basin of Tennessee: K, C.
RICHARD ELWOOD DODGE, MCMURRY.
Secretary The world's markets: a map based on natural re- STORRS, Conn.
gions: EUGENE VAN CLEEF. Significant geographic problems of the outwash
plains of southern Michigan: D. H. DAVIS. Census maps of the United States with some sug
A Weekly Journal devoted to the Advancement of gestions for improvement from the standpoint of Science, publishing the official notices and progeography: R. M. BROWN. (By title.)
ceedings of the American Association for Development of productive scholarship among
the Advancement of Science American geographers: W. W. ATWOOD. (By
Published every Friday by title.) Bering's two expeditions to determine the relation THE SCIENCE PRESS
of America to Asia: W. L. G. JOERG. Geography as regional economics: CARL 0. SAUER.
GARRISON, N. Y, The enjoyable and stimulating sessions were
NEW YORK, N. Y. supplemented by an evening dinner tendered to Entered in the post-office at Lancaster, Pa., u second dan matter
CORNELL UNIVERSITY to
Syracuse University College of Medicine
or in ciond. in . rogistored colloge or Requirements School of Solomoo, which must bachado
Phygios, Chemistry, Biology, and Freaal or Guman. Six and seven years' combt
pation couras aro od orod. MEDICAL COLLEGE
The First Two anapent ia mastering, by laboratory
matbods the sciencos fundamental to
Years alinical medicino.
The Third Year kastemaatio nad olinical and is devoted to
the study of the natural history of doon,
no diagnosis and to thoropoutics. la this NEW YORK CITY
year the systematic courses in Medialno,
Bargery and Obstetrics are completed.
Dove throughout the year u olinisal alorlas
undor oarotul supervision. The aliniqa derk takes the history, makes tho pbysical examination and the laboratory examinations, arrives at a dapaord whicla bo must detond, outlined the treateneat under his instrootor and obearvu nad records the realt. In cap. of operation of autopsy be follows the speatosan and identifies its pathological pasure. Two rece
oral boupitals, one of which is owned nad For Information Address
pontralled by the University, one specie! hospital and the municipal hospitals and
laboratorios an open to opar students. The THE SECRETARY
afternoons are part in the College Dispens
mary, sad in alinical work in medioal and 477 FIRST AVENUE
surgical specialties and in conferences.
Summer Sahool- rummor course in pathology covering NEW YORK, N. Y.
a period of six mooks during Juno and July will be given in caso thoro to a sufficient Dumber of applioante.
Addron the Secretary of the College, 307 Orange Street
Syracuse, N. Y.
Johns Hopkins University Tulane University of
Louisiana SCHOOL OF MEDICINE
Medical School The Medioal School is an Integral part of the University and is in close Affiliation with the Johns Hopkins Hospital
ADMISSION Candidates for admission must be graduates of approved colleges or scientific schools with at least two year's instruction, including laboratory work, in Chemistry, and one year each in
(Established in 1834) physics and biology, together with evidence of a reading knowl- ADMISSION: All students entering the Freshman edge of French and German.
Each class is limited to 90 studenta, men and women being Class will be required to present credits for two admitted on the same terms. Except in unusual circumstances,
years of college work, which must include applications for admission will not be considered after July 1st. If vacancies occur, students from other institutions desiring
Chemistry (General and Organic), Physics and advanced standing may be admitted to the second or third year Biology, with their laboratories, and at least provided they fulfill all of our requirements and present ex
one year in English and one year in a modern ceptional qualifications.
foreign language. INSTRUCTION
COMBINED COURSES: Premedical course of two The academic year begins the Tuesday nearest October 1 and closes the third Tuesday in June. The course of instructon,
years is offered in the College of Arts and oocupies four years and especial emphasis is laid upon prac
Sciences, which provides for systematic work #cal work in the laboratories, in the wards of the Hospital and leading to the B.S. degree at the end of the in the Dispensary.
in the medical course,
year The charge for tuition is $250 per annum, payable in threo Instalments. Tbere are no extra fees except for rental of microscope, certain expensive supplies, and laboratory breakage.
School of Pharmacy, School of Dentistry and The annual announcement and application blanks may be Graduate School of Medicine also. obtained by addressing the Denn of the Johns Hopkins Media School
Women admitted to all Schools of tho Washington and Monwent Sts. BALTIMORE, M.D
College of Medicine SUMMER WORK FOR GRADUATES
For bulletins and all other information, addrew IN MEDICINE Beginning Tuesday, June 6th, and ending Thursday, July 16th, a course in medical diagnosis, including laboratory exer
Tulane College of Medicine cises in clinical pathology and demonstrations in pathological anatomy, will be offered.
P. O. Box 770 The course will be limited to twenty studente, fee $100. Applications should be made to the Dean's
New Orleans, La, Hoe
Marine Biological Laboratory
Woods Hole, Mass.
INVESTIGATION Facilities for research in Zoology,
Embryology, Physiology, and Bot-
tories, $100 each for pot over three
for such a table is $50.00. INSTRUCTION
Courses of laboratory instruction
with lectures are offered in InverteJune 29 to August 9
brate Zoology, Protozoology, Em
bryology, Physiology and Morph-
ology and Taxonomy of the Algae.
ing, and in embryonic stages. 'PreDEPARTMENT served material of all types of
animals and of Algae, Fungi, LiverOpen the Entire Year worts and Mosses furnished for
classwork, or for the museum, Liv-
SCHOOL OF MEDICINE
of two years (or its equivalent) of college
ABLE TO MEDICAL STUDENTS
The Philippine Journal of
The publications of the Institution now number over 400 volumes, the subjects including Anatomy, Archæology, Astronomy, Botany, Chemistry, Climatology, Economics and Sociology, Embryology, Experimental Evolution and Heredity, Engineering, Folk-Lore, Geology, History, International Law, Literature, Mathematics, Medicine, Nutrition, Paleon
Published by the Bureau of Science of the Governtology, Philology, Physics, Stereochemistry, Terrestrial Magnetism, Zoology. Classified and descriptive lists will be
ment of the Philippine Islands sent postpaid on application.
A monthly periodical devoted to the scientific and 134. Churchill, William. The Polynesian Wanderings.
commercial interest of ths Tropics Tracks of the Migration deduced from an Examination of the Proto-Samoan Content of Efate and other Languages of
Melanesia. Octavo, viii +516 pages, 2 plates . $3.50 154. Churchill, William. Beach-la-mar: The Jargon or Trade Speech of the Western Pacific. Octavo, 58 pages, 80.50
The Journal is now being issued monthly; the 174. Churchill, William. Easter Island, Rapanui Speech, former sections are discontinued. The January, and
the Peopling of Southeast Polynesia. Octavo, vi +346 1920, number begins Volume 16. Subscription pages 244. Churchill, William. Sissano: Movements of Migration price, $5.00 per year.
within and through Melanesia. Octavo, vi +181 pages, 17 charts.
A list of the publications of the Philippine Bureau 184. Finley, J. P., and William Churchill. The Subanu: Studies of a Sub-Visayan Mountain Folk of Mindanao. Oc of Science and a sample copy of the Philippine Jourtavo, iv +236 pp., 2 pls. .
nal of Science will be sent upon request. 253. Ivens, Walter G. Dictionary and Grammar of the
Language of Sa'a and Ulawa, Solomon Islands. With appendices. Octavo, vii +249 pp., 12 plates, 1 fig.
$3,00 Subscriptions and orders for publications should be Recently Issued
sent to 300. Iyens, Walter G. A Grammar and Dictionary of the Lau Language. Octavo, 64 pages, 3 plates.
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