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positions with basic salaries of $2,000 to At the suggestion of Sir Patrick Manson the $2,500 a year, as vacancies occur. Applica
Applica- expedition will visit also certain West Indian tions must be filed with the Civil Service islands, choosing one, such as Barbados, where Commission, Washington, D. C., prior to the the rate of attack is high, and another, such as hour of closing business on April 12, 1921. Grenada, where it is low. It is hoped that by Prospective candidates should apply to the comparing and contrasting the circumstances Civil Service Commission, Washington, D. C., of two such islands light may be thrown on the for a copy of form 1312, stating the title of .conditions which favor filaria. The leader of the examination desired.
the expedition is Professor R. T. Leiper, diThe late Professor Emil Fischer bequeathed
rector of the helminthology department of the 750,000 marks to the Prussian Academy of
London School of Tropical Medicine; the other Sciences, the income of which is to be used to
members are Dr. G. M. Vevers, demonstrator aid young German chemists doing research
of helminthology in the school; Dr. John
Anderson, Dr. Chung Un Lee, and Dr. Mahomwork in organic, inorganic or physical chemistry.
med Khalil of the Egyptian Medical Service.
The expedition will sail this month. The Journal of the American Medical Asso
SIR ERNEST SHACKLETON is planning a new ciation reports that the Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift records that Dr. Lange, of Chi
Polar expedition to the Arctic. He expects cago, has sent to Professor Paltauf, of Vienna,
to be away for two years. According to the 7,000,000 crowns collected in America. Also
London Times he proposes to leave England that another sum of $10,000 has been for
in May or June next, and will take with him warded from America to aid the university
a dozen men, chiefly those who accompanied professors. It was sent to Professor Pirquet him on former expeditions. The Norwegian for distribution. The Rockefeller Foundation whaling boat Foca I., bought in Christiania has also appropriated $60,000 for assistance to
for this new expedition, is now lying at the Vienna clinics. This sum is said to be Tromsö, and will be delivered in England next equivalent to 40,000,000 crowns at the present
month. In all probability Foca I. will go, in rate of exchange. The salaries of the regular the first instance, to Hudson's Bay, where 150 university professors at Vienna were increased
dogs will be taken on board. Thence the exmaterially last year, being 45,000 crowns, in- pedition will proceed via Baffin's Bay—which creasing by 4,000 crowns every fourth year to
will be reached, it is hoped, by the end of a maximum of 70,000. The Münchener medi
July, provided ice conditions are favorable zinische Wochenschrift likewise reports that through Lancaster Sound, to Axel Heiberg's Dr. A. Stein, chief of the Lenox Hill (form- Land. Thence Sir E. Shackleton intends to erly the German) hospital, has recently sent a
explore the islands eastward to Perry Island, large sum collected in America to Frankfort- this being the main object of the expedition. on-the-Main to be applied for scientific pur
These islands have been already visited by poses.
Otto Sverdrup, Godfred Hansen, and others, We learn from the British Medical Journal
but Shackleton believes that there is still that the London School of Tropical Medicine much scientific work to be done in that region. has arranged to send an expedition to British
He will procure his equipment in England, Guiana to investigate filariasis with the view
and hopes to receive a quantity of the mateof obtaining information as to its prevention rial which the English used in Archangel and treatment. The expedition is being sent during the war. He was, it may be rememat the request, made shortly before he left the bered, employed by the British government to Colonial Office, of Lord Milner, who considered see that the troops in North Russia were that the government required further advice as properly equipped for Arctic conditions. to the best method of controlling the disease. Foca I. is said, by experts, to be one of the
best boats in the Norwegian Whaling Fleet. of biology and in its application to the welIt has a large and spacious deck, so that there fare of man are invited to subscribe. Sir will be plenty of room for dogs and sledges. David Prain then delivered his presidential Sir E. Shackleton has told an acquaintance in address on “Some Relationships of Economic Christiania that he has given up the idea of Biology." exploring the South Polar regions, and in future will devote himself to the Artic.
UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL The Journal of Industrial Chemistry reports
NEWS that the International Chemical Conference Ar the Founders' Day Celebration of the last June decided to hold the next conference Johns Hopkins University, announcement was in Poland, at the invitation of Mr. Kowalski. made that the trustees of the university would At that time the situation in that country supplement the fund of $215,000 raised by the seemed fairly settled, but since then affairs Alumni Association for a memorial dormitory have become disturbed, and the council of the building at Homewood, so that the total cost union has decided that the next meeting can of the building might be provided for. not be held in Warsaw. Dr. Parsons has
In response to the recent appeal of the Uniextended an invitation from the American
versity of Edinburgh for £500,000, the sum of Chemical Society to hold the 1921 meeting in
£200,000 has now been subscribed. the United States, but European chemists are not in a position to make this move. There- GENERAL LEONARD Wood has conferred with fore the council has decided to hold the next the trustees of the University of Pennsylvania meeting at Brussels, at the end of June. in regard to accepting the provostship of the However, Mr. Paul Kestner, president of the university, vacant by the retirement of Dr. Société de Chimie Industrielle, will attend the Edgar F. Smith. Canadian meeting of the British Chemical
PROFESSOR FRANK AYDELOTTE, professor of Society as the French delegate, and will re
English in the Massachusetts Institute of turn by way of the United States, where he
Technology, has been elected president of will attend the meetings of the American
Swarthmore College, to succeed Dr. Joseph chemical societies.
Swain. Ar the annual general meeting of the Asso
DR. GUY POTTER BENTON, formerly presiciation of Economic Biologists, as we learn dent of the University of Vermont, has been from Nature, the following were elected
appointed president of the University of the officers and councillors for the year 1921:
Philippines, with a salary and perquisites of President: Sir David Prain. Hon. Treasurer:
33,000 pesos (normally $16,500). The place Dr. A. D. Imms, Hon. Secretary (Gen. and has been vacant two years. Bot.) Wm. B. Brierley. Hon. Secretary:
DR. YANDELL HENDERSON, hitherto professor (Zool.): Dr. S. A. Neave. Hon. Editor (Bot.): Wm. B. Brierley. Hon. Editor
of physiology in the Yale Medical School, has (Zool.): D. Ward Cutler. Council: Dr. W.
been transferred to the Graduate School of
Yale University under the title of professor Lawrence Balls, Professor V. H. Blackman,
of applied physiology. F. T. Brooks, A. B. Bruce, Dr. E. J. Butler, F. J. Chittenden, A. D. Cotton, J. C. F. Fryer, Professor J. B. Farmer, E. E. Green, DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE Dr. G. A. K. Marshall and Dr. E. J. Russell. SECTION L OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION In view of the very great increase in the pub
FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE lishing costs of the Annals of Applied Biology, HAVING been secretary of Section A during it was decided to establish a “ Publication a number of years when this section covered Fund,” to which all interested in the progress both of the subjects mathematics and astron
omy the writer fails to see much force in the differences of opinion as to the most suitable objections raised in the February 18 number temporary name of the section which aims to of SCIENCE to the name “ Historical and Philo- unite the workers in the history of science logical Sciences” for Section L of the Amer- ur land should not be allowed to curtail ican Association for the Advancement of seriously the efforts of those who believe in Science. From the fact that the special com- such a union. If the modern mathematicians mittee appointed by the President of the Asso- and the modern astronomers could work harciation recommended that the words and moniously for so many years it seems clear philological ” be dropped it appears that the that the historians of science have nothing to rest of this name would have been satis- fear from the presence of the philologists, factory to the committee. If this is the case especially in so far as these two types of the main objection to the suggested name scientists are seeking common ground. seems to be due to a fear that the philologists
G. A. MILLER might at some future time “ step in and give UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS rise to a heterogeneous, incoherent group of workers, having no interests in common.”
FOSSILS-ARE THEY MERELY “PREHISTORIC,"
OR MUST THEY ALSO BE “ GEOLOGIC"? It is not much more than a century ago that the philologists opened for mathematical
I am perfectly willing in my proposed defihistorians rich fields by the discovery of a
nition of " fossils” to accept a substitute for
the term key to the cuneiform inscriptions of the
age,” as suggested by Professor
Field in his contribution to SCIENCE for Febancient Babylonians and the discovery of a key to the writings of the ancient Egyptians.
ruary 4, if only authorities can agree on what
it shall be. Of the various terms used for geoThe history of the ancient scientific developments is fundamentally connected with the
logical and archeological time divisions-era,
period, epoch, age-each have been used as languages of the people of antiquity and hence there seems to be little reason to object
designations for the time since the Pleisto
cene. LeConte refers to this time indifferently to a closer contact between the philologists
as “Psychozoic era, and the historians of science, especially
age of man," and "re
cent epoch." Schuchert practically agrees during the early stages of the development of
with these designations, Chamberlin and Salthe history of science in our country. As an
isbury call it the "human period," Professor instance of the fruitfulness of this contact it
Field in the contribution above referred to, may be noted that L. J. Richardson, pro
speaks of it in one place as the “Psychozoic fessor of Latin in the University of Cali
era,” and in another as “ the recent geological fornia, contributed an interesting article on
epoch.” For other coordinate or subordinate “ Digital reckoning among the ancients” to
divisions we read in various works such exthe first volume of the American Mathe
pressions as "Quaternary period” and “Quamatical Monthly after it became the official
ternary epoch" (Brigham), “Neolithic peorgan of the Mathematical Association of
riod,” “ Gunz glacial stage” (Osborn), “ Sixth America in 1916.
glacial period” (Geikie), “Reindeer period” During the Chicago meeting of the Amer
(Lartet), “ Prehistoric period” (Lubbock). ican Association for the Advancement of Sci
We see in the above variations in usage the ence a good beginning was made towards the
usual fate of recommendations of scientific encouragement of workers in the history of
congresses when they attempt to reform and science in our country. It would seem that draft into the exacting service of science words only the most serious considerations should be that have long led a life of freedom as a part allowed to interfere with the continuance of of our common vernacular. this encouragement under the influence of a “Prehistoric,” however, is not a term of this strong national organization. In particular, character. From the time (1851) when it was
first coined by Sir David Wilson in bis “Pre
THRICE TOLD TALES historic Annals of Scotland” to express the TO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: Referring to “whole period” (age or epoch) “ disclosed to the letters of Professor Woodi and Professor us by archeological evidence as distinguished T. C. Mendenhalla (semper juvenis), I too from that known by written records," down to have a story about the Lick Observatory; and the present it has retained in scientific litera- following their lead, hasten to make it public; ture its original meaning. It distinctly refers
and then will patiently wait for the various to a portion of the human period (epoch or transmutations. Perhaps some one will prove age). I fail to find Dr. Schuchert anywhere
a similar occurrence in the days of Archiusing it in any different sense.
He certainly medes! nowhere “ begins the Psychozoic era” with the Going up to the observatory in the stage “historic period” as claimed by Professor
with its load of Saturday night tourists, Field. In spite of the latter's protest, there- suddenly one of them asked aloud—“Who was fore, I fail to see wherein I have misstated his this Mr. Lick, any how? Did he invent position. For in between his “mastodon"
the telescope?" (mammoth ?) " preserved in the arctic ice," Shades of Galileo! It is time to come which is admitted to be a fossil and his “ leaf
forth and be filmed as Professor Mendenhall buried in the gutter," which is not, there is a
suggests. In the cast we could have a tourist, vast deal of time, from younger to older
species Professor Mendenhall's historic, prehistoric and geologic-from only “ damned fraud person. He will be shown the last of which the glacial or interglacial asking—“Who is this Mr. Galileo anyhow? portion-would traces of organisms be con- Did he build this leaning tower ? sidered fossil. Neolithic man is not fossil;
ALEXANDER MCADIE some of the remains of Paleolithic man are
BLUE HILL OBSERVATORY, fossil. Both are prehistoric.
February 16 Recurring to the propriety or the practise of using the term “fossil” in other than its AMERICAN PUBLICATIONS AND INTERNAstrict scientific sense, the question presents
TIONAL EXCHANGE itself: how about the use of other geological In a note just received from Professor terms in analogous senses? In an article in Charles Julin, of Liége, he mentions the the last Geographical Review entitled “Race present unequal international exchange and Culture and Language," the author, Griffith
how difficult it is, in consequence, for the Taylor, is found applying the terms “inlier" Belgian universities to obtain foreign publicaand "outlier” (giving credit to geology for
tions. He says that separata from our Amerthe idea) to certain races in Europe. The
ican workers will be most welcome, and asks former is applied to the Basques, because they
that this suggestion be brought to our stu
dents. I think the fact is quite generally constitute an island of ancient people surrounded by younger races, and the latter is
appreciated, but it can do only good to bring
it again to our attention. applied to the Finns because they are a body
MAYNARD M. METCALF separated from the main ethnic group to which they belong, and with which they were once continuous. Most of us, I think, will be
SCIENTIFIC BOOKS disposed to congratulate Professor Taylor on
History and Bibliography of Anatomic Illusthe felicity of these expressions, regardless of
tration. By LUDWIG CHOULANT. Transhow much Professor Field may shake his head
lated and Edited by MORTIMER FRANK. The over the liberty taken with geological terminology.
University of Chicago Press, 1920.
1 SCIENCE, January 14, 1921. UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY
2 SCIENCE, February 11, 1921.
The purpose of this book is a presentation of The book is a handsome volume and the the history and bibliography of representations of press-work is well up to the standard of the human anatomy by graphic means. Due considera
other publication from this press. Garrison's tion has been given both to anatomic illustration
memorial notice of Mortimer Frank introand to representations belonging to the graphic
duces the book to the reader. This is followed and plastic arts.
by Frank's biographical sketch of Choulant, WHILE engaged in the preparation of the thus making available for the first time in list of the anatomists of the world one of the English, the life of this important worker. most useful works of reference was found to The succeeding pages are occupied with the be J. Ludwig Choulant's “Geschichte und translation of the history and the reproducBibliographie der anatomischen Abbildung," tion of the bibliography to which important which had been published in 1852 in Leipzig additions are made, thus revising and bringby this energetic physician. It was likewise
ing the work up to date. of great value in studying the sources of The illustrations of the original publication anatomical literature and in other ways has are well reproduced in the translation and add proven its value as an aid in the study of the
great value to the work in the hands of stuhistory of anatomy. Its importance in the dents of art. An unfortunate feature is the history of medicine is indicated by the nine arrangement of the descriptions of the figures, references to Choulant's work in Garrison's these being placed in the back of the book “History of Medicine.”
with no references to them on the plates. In Unfortunately this important work has long this arrangement Dr. Frank simply followed been out of print and there are few copies Choulant's plan in the German edition. available for the younger generation of stu- Choulant's original discussions of the dents. It was thus with great interest that various artists who forwarded the study of we welcomed the announcement from the Uni- anatomy by their illustrative work may seem versity of Chicago Press of the forthcoming
to the art student somewhat unequal and this translation of this important historical docu
same inequality is apparent in the translament by Mortimer Frank, a Chicago phys- tion; but in making such a criticism one must ician who had already earned fame by his con- keep in mind that Choulant's idea was the tributions to medical history. As an associate discussion of the work of each man as he had editor of the Annals of Medical History he aided in the development of anatomical illusmade his influence felt in the development of tration. His very brief account of Michaelthis important journal. His great collection
angelo's work is not in any disparagement of of early medical works and engravings, since this eminent Italian's work but is due to the his lamented death deposited in the library of fact that the great sculptor left few contrithe University of Chicago, gave him a grasp butions to anatomical illustration. of his subject such as few men are given to The history and bibliography already has attain.
its place in the literature and Dr. Frank's Dr. Frank did not live to see his book off
translation will make the work available to the press and his untimely death was greatly
all students of the subject. While we regret mourned by the profession at large but espe
that our fellow worker was not given the joy cially was his loss keenly felt by those whose
of seeing the book off the press, yet we may interests were similar to his own. His friend,
rejoice that he was enabled to leave the work Fielding H. Garrison, acted as editor and saw
so nearly complete as to warrant the publicathe book through the press.
tion of this important contribution. 1 Published in Eycleshymer's “Anatomical
Roy L. MOODIE Names," New York, 1917, pp. 177–354.
2 This subject was discussed by the writer in COLLEGE OF MEDICINE, American Naturalist, LI., 193-208, April, 1917.
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS