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placed by a group method” in which each try realize that pedagogy is a science, that the pupil followed a line of investigation for him- problems of science teaching are clear and self. The results of the three years' experi- definite and must be solved as all science ment he states in the following terms: "and problems have been solved, we can make little as the course continued, the method seemed to
progress in our science instruction. them (the students) increasingly desirable and Mr. MacArthur would make the chief aim successful.” It seems pertinent to enquire of science instruction the development of crehow this was determined. Would it not be ative thought or the ability to think scientificpossible to present the evidence in favor of ally, and this not only in the graduate school this type of work in a more concrete way? In but in the elementary school. fact, if such an investigation is to be a real
It is equally important that the beginnings of a contribution to the science of science teaching,
science be taught by the scientific method as that must the evidence not be presented in a more
graduate work be so carried on. For the early concrete way?
years in any science should be given largely to It is not the aim of the present article to
discovery and original research, as are the early question the value of the article mentioned.
years of childhood. Thinking and first-hand conIt is its ambitious title that challenges criti- tact would better come early, else they may never cism. The average science teacher, even the university teacher, is not yet aware of the
Personally I heartily endorse this statefact that the science of science teaching must
ment. The discovery of the importance of the proceed in exactly the same way that other
scientific method of thinking and its applicasciences have proceeded. The science teacher
tion to the problems of life is one of the great must awake to his pedagogical problems, these
if not the greatest contribution of science to problems must be clearly defined and we must
the life of mankind and it is the greatest conproceed to their solution by the patient ac
tribution that science teaching can make to cumulation of facts, formulation of tentative
the life of the individual. Yet in a class of hypotheses, discovery of additional facts fre
thirty-eight principals and superintendents quently by experimental methods, and on the
this last summer to whom was submitted a list basis of such facts we must reason to the cor
of aims of the elementary science of the high rect solution of the particular problem. To
school with the request that they number them get at the desired facts methods must be de
in order of importance, this matter of trainvised for the evaluation of processes, for meas
ing students in the scientific method of thinkurement of results and these results must be
ing was placed nine in the list of ten. This capable of accurate mathematical expression.
indicates much additional data is required Imagine a chemist who is investigating the problem of the economic production of some
to prove it-what I believe is the general im
pression among the executive officers of the industrial product presenting his results to a scientific body with the statement that “the
secondary schools that training in scientific method seemed to them (the workmen) in
thinking is a relatively unimportant thing in
science instruction. Indeed science instruction creasingly desirable and successful” and having back of that statement no facts which he
is not deemed a matter of great importance.
Less than half the high schools of Illinois could present, no data to convince his audience. I am not criticizing Mr. MacArthur's (48.5 per cent.) require any science for gradstatement. To make even such an indefinite
uation. In 18.8 per cent. of them the requirestatement is a valuable contribution at present
ment is satisfied with one half year of physiolto the methodology of our science instruction, ogy • but it shows the pi lly small progress that
Is it not high time that the science teachers has been made in the science of science teach- of the country be organized into a national ing. Until the science teachers of the coun
(a) to enlist in active propaganda to impress liam T. Shaw, State College of Washington;
the community at large and the educa- J. M. Edson, State Normal School, Bellingtional fraternity in particular with the ham, and George G. Cantwell and Dr. Walter
importance of science instruction; P. Taylor, of the Biological Survey, the last (b) to discuss and agree upon the aims of sci- named being in general charge of the work.
ence instruction, their relative impor. During the fall months Mr. Cantwell con
tance, and proper grade placement; tinued the cross-section, making studies in the (c) to discuss and agree upon the principles Okanogan Highlands just south of the Ca
of selection of the subject-matter for the nadian boundary between Oroville and Marcurriculum and the placement of this cus, Washington. Contrasts in the fauna and subject-matter in the various levels of flora as thus far developed are marked, and the school;
indicate that when the work is completed, ma(d) to stimulate accurate scientific investi- terials will be available for a significant treat
gations along the above lines and also ment of an interesting ecologic transect. It is
in the methods of teaching science; hoped to complete the field work in the state (e) to devise tests to determine in how far we during the present year.
are succeeding in accomplishing the de-
THE PRESERVATION OF NATURAL CONDITIONS methods in vogue;
THE Ecological Society of America's Com(f) to employ a national secretary for part mittee on the Preservation of Natural Condi
time at the outset and ultimately for all tions has been listing and describing areas of his time who would extend the in- with original flora and fauna, preserved and fluence of the organization, make it effi
desirable for reservation for scientific purcient and coordinate the work of indi- poses, and is now just entering on the more vidual investigators along the above extensive field work, with three additional lines.
joint chairman added. The plan of work and Elliot R. DOWNING men in charge are as follows: Professor V. E. THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION,
Shelford, University of Illinois, Urbana, Ill. UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO
(senior chairman, research and publication)
is continuing preparation of the list which SCIENTIFIC EVENTS
is to serve a manual on natural areas BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE STATE OF with sections on the care, management and WASHINGTON
R. B. Miller, state forester, Urbana, DURING the past year biological investiga- Ill. (chairman, publicity state organization) tions of the distribution and habits of the wishes to enlist the cooperation of one organibirds and mammals of the state of Washing- zation interested in science in each state and ton have been continued by the Bureau of province. Dr. F. B. Sumner, Scripps InstiBiological Survey, U. S. Department of Agri- tution, La Jolla, Calif. (chairman, organizaculture, in cooperation with the State College tion of research interests) is working on a of Washington, and the State Normal School, union of research interests in natural areas, Bellingham, Washington. Early in July, 1920, as represented by scientific societies, museums, there was begun a biological cross-section of and universities, into an organization to prothe state, which, when completed, will extend vide needed funds. C. F. Korstian, U. S. from Bellingham on Puget Sound to the Pend Forest Service, Ogden, Utah (chairman, Natd'Oreille country in the extreme northeastern ural Areas in National Forests) is working corner of the state. During the summer sea- on the selection of suitable natural areas son more than 200 miles were traversed by which may be set aside within the existing pack train in the northern Cascade Moun- national forest. Those having knowledge of taing, the party consisting of Professor Wil- areas preserved suitable for preservation, es
pocially those who have studied special areas, are requested to communicate with V. E. Shelford at once as the list is soon to be Completed.
SCIENTIFIC LECTURES AT OTTAWA
MEMBERS of the Department of Mines, Canada, are giving in the auditorium of the Victoria Memorial Museum, Ottawa, lectures as follows: March 4: “The building of the continent,” by D.
B. Dowling, geologist. March 11: “The anthropological field in Canada,'
by Dr. Edward Sapir, anthropologist. March 25: "Zoological work in Canada,” by R.
M. Anderson, zoologist. April 8: “A recent chapter in the geological his.
tory of Canada" (illustrated with slides of the Greenland Ice Cap), by Edward M. Kindle,
paleontologist. February 12: “The fur-bearing animals of Can
ada,” by Clyde L. Patch. February 19: “The birds of Bonaventure Island”
(with motion pictures), by Clyde L. Patch. February 26: “The Canadian Arctic coast,” by K.
G. Chipman. March 5: “Wanderings with the Eskimo," by D.
Jenness. March 12: "Roads to wealth in our northern forest, or mineral development in northern On
tario” (with motion pictures), by T. L. Tanton. March 19: “Hunting giant dinosaurs in the Bad
lands of Alberta,” by Charles M. Sternberg. March 26: "Ottawa three times submerged and
how we know it” (with motion pictures), by M.
E. Wilson. April 2: “Conquering the desert with irrigation"
(with motion pictures), by Harlan I. Smith. April 9: “ Asbestos or fireproof cotton" (with
motion pictures), by R. Harvie. April 16: “My summer among the Ojibwa In
dians,” by F. W. Waugh. April 23: “The frogs, salamanders and snakes of
Ottawa,” by Clyde L. Patch.
his home in California after commencement. The following resolutions have been passed by the faculty of the medical school:
The faculty of medicine have learned with deep regret of the resignation of Dr. Joseph Marshall Flint from the chair of surgery, which he has so ably and faithfully filled since 1907.
Coming to this university with a broad and thorough scientific training, and with high ideals, Dr. Flint became the original full-time professor, and has done great service both by precept and by ex. ample, in upholding high standards of teaching, research and practise.
He has always shown great tenacity of purpose and devotion to principle. Whatever success the Yale School of Medicine may have in the future will have been made possible by the loyalty and steadfastness of Dr. Flint and Dr. Blumer, whose joint service at a time of great stress succeeded in tiding over the crisis that economic conditions and new developments in medical education had brought on.
The faculty desire to place on record their high appreciation of Dr. Flint's services to the university, to the nation and to science, and to express their keen sense of loss at his leaving. They wish him full and speedy recovery of health and a large measure of success in his future work.
THE INTERNATIONAL UNION OF RADIO
An American Section of the International Union of Scientific Radio Telegraphy has been formed and has adopted a constitution which provides:
1. The American Section of the International Union of Scientific Radio Telegraphy shall consist of an executive committee and of the members of the technical committees provided for in paragraphs 2 and 3 below.
2. The executive committee of the American Section shall consist of the chairmen of the di. visions of physical sciences and of engineering of the National Research Council (ex officio); one member each of the following: The Army, the Navy, the Department of Commerce, the Institute of Radio Engineers; four members at large to be appointed by the president of the National Academy of Sciences; and (ex officio) officers of the International Union of Scientific Radio Telegraphy resident in the United States.
THE RESIGNATION OF PROFESSOR FLINT
YALE UNIVERSITY announces the resignation on account of poor health of Dr. Joseph Marshall Flint, professor of surgery since 1907, to take effect at the close of the present university year. Dr. Flint is planning to go to
3. The duties of the executive committee shall DR. EDWARD LAURENS MARK, for forty-four be: To act as the representatives of the United years instructor and professor of zoology and States in the International Union of Scientific
anatomy at Harvard University, will retire Radio Telegraphy in the interim between its reg.
from active teaching at the close of this year ular meetings; to organize the American Section,
and has been appointed Hersey professor of including its technical committees, and to arrange for a meeting of the American Section shortly pre
anatomy emeritus. ceding each regular meeting of the International DR. ROBERT F. Ruttan, head of the departUnion; to select delegates to the meetings of the ment of chemistry, McGill University, has Union; and in general to deal with all scientific
been appointed to succeed Dr. Duncan G. radio questions involving the participation of the
MacCallum, as administrative chairman of United States. The chairman of the executive com
the Advisory Council for Scientific and Inmittee of the American Section shall be a member
dustrial Research in Canada. (ex officio) of the Division of Foreign Relations of the National Research Council.
DR. CHARLES W. RICHARDSON received the The first officers of the section are:
honorary degree of doctor of science recently
from the George Washington University. Chairman, Louis W. Austin. Corresponding secretary, Augustus Trowbridge,
The University of Cambridge has awarded chairman, division of physical sciences, National
its doctorate of laws to Sir Patrick Manson, Research Council (ex officio).
of the London School of Tropical Medicine, Technical secretary, J. H. Dellinger.
and Dr. Albert Calmette, of the Paris Pasteur Executive committee, Louis W. Austin, U. S. Institute. Navy; Comfort A. Adams, chairman, division of
SIR W. H. BRAGG has been elected president engineering, National Research Council; E. F. W.
of the London Physical Society. The viceAlexanderson, Radio Corporation of America; J. H. Dellinger, Bureau of Standards; Alfred H.
presidents who have filled the office of presiGoldsmith, editor, Proceedings of the Institute of dent are Dr. C. Chree, Professor H. L. CallenRadio Engineers; F. B. Jewett, Western Electric dar, Professor R. B. Clifton, Sir Richard Company; A. E. Kennelly, Massachusetts Insti- Glazebrook, Sir Oliver J. Lodge, Professor C. tute of Technology; Major-General G. 0. Squier, H. Lees, Professor A. W. Reinold, Sir Arthur chief signal officer, U. S. A.; Lieutenant-Com
Schuster, Sir J. J. Thomson and Professor mander A. Hoyt Taylor, U. S. Navy; Augustus C. V. Boys. Trowbridge.
We learn from Nature that the twenty-fifth The following have been appointed chair
anniversary of the discovery of the “ Zeeman men of technical committees :
effect" will take place on October 31 next. A Committee on Static, Dr. Austin.
committee has been formed by scientific men Committee on Transmission, Dr. Kennelly. in Holland to mark the occasion by showing
Committee on Physics of the Electron Tube, Dr. their appreciation of the importance of the Jewett.
discovery and of the distinguished services Committee on Radio Interference (not yet ap- which Professor Zeeman has rendered to scipointed).
It is intended to raise a fund to be
placed at his disposal for researches to be conSCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS ducted in the physical laboratory of the UniDR. C. L. ALSBERG, chief of the Bureau of versity of Amsterdam. Chemistry of the United States Department MR. GEORGE L. HARRINGTON recently reof Agriculture, has been appointed director turned from South America, where he had of the Food Research Institute which is to be been engaged in private work, and resumed established at Stanford University by the work in the Alaskan Division of the U. S. Carnegie Corporation. He will assume his Geological Survey. He has now returned to new work on July 1.
MR. J. W. GIDLEY, assistant curator of school, died on February 22, aged eighty-three vertebrate paleontology at the National Mu- years. seum, left Washington in January for a two
DR. WILLIAM FISKE WHITNEY, John Barnard months' exploratory trip in Arizona, Cali
Swett Jackson curator of the Warren Anatfornia and Nebraska for the U. S. Geological omical Museum of Harvard University, died Survey and to secure fossil mammals for the
at his home in Boston on March 4, in the museum collection. Important finds of Pleis
seventy-first year of his age. tocene mammal remains in the vicinity of Benson, Arizona, are reported.
DR. JOSEPH RANSOHOFF, professor of sur
gery at the University of Cincinnati, died on SIR G. SIMs WOODHEAD has retired from
March 10. the editorship of the Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology, which he founded in 1893,
WILHELM VON WALDEYER, professor of anatand is succeeded by Drs. A. E. Boycott and
omy at the University of Berlin, has died at H. R. Dean.
the age of eighty-five years.
THE deaths are announced of William The Brown Chapter of Sigma Xi held its
Odling, lately professor of chemistry at initiation and banquet on March 4. Two members of the faculty, four graduate stu
Oxford University, and of Robert Bellamy
Clifton, lately professor of experimental phidents and seventeen members of the senior
losophy. Dr. Odling was ninety-one years of class were elected members. The speaker at
age, and Dr. Clifton eighty-five years of age. the banquet was Dr. Oscar Riddle, of the Cold Spring Biological Laboratory of the Carnegie At a meeting of the council of the AmerInstitution.
ican Mathematical Society held on February
26, 1921, it was voted to accept the invitation DR. ARTHUR F. Coca, of the medical school
of the American Association for the Advanceof Cornell University, editor of the Journal
ment of Science to become one of the scienof Immunology, gave an address on Hyper
tific societies affiliated with the association. sensitiveness before a recent meeting of the
According to the arrangements for the affiliaUniversity of Kansas chapter of Sigma Xi.
tion of scientific societies with the American Dr. Coca had been studying, for a few weeks
Association all members of the newly affiliated previous, the hypersensitiveness of Indian
society, who are not already members of the students of Haskell Institute of Lawrence.
association, have the privilege of becoming SIR NORMAN MOORE, president of the Royal members of the association without the payCollege of Physicians, has appointed Dr. ment of the usual entrance fee. Herbert Spencer to deliver the Harveian
The United States Civil Service Commission oration in October and Dr. Michael Grabham,
announces an examination for the position of of Madeira, to deliver the Bradshaw lecture superintendent and director of biological stain November. Dr. Major Greenwood will
tions in the service of the United States Budeliver the Milroy lectures in 1922.
reau of Fisheries. Applicants will be rated SHERBURNE WESLEY BURNHAM, professor of
chiefly upon education and experience. Two practical astronomy at the University of
vacancies for the above named position now Chicago from 1902 to his retirement in 1914
exist in the Bureau of Fisheries, one at Beauand astronomer at the Yerkes Observatory,
fort, N. C., carrying a salary of $1,500 per andied on March 11, in his eighty-third year.
num, and one at Key West, Florida, with a sal
ary of $1,800. In each case the additional PROFESSOR CHARLES H. FERNALD, from 1886 increase granted by Congress of $20 per month to 1910 professor of zoology and entomology is allowed, and living quarters, unfurnished, at the Massachusetts Agricultural College, are available, free of cost to the appointee. and for several years director of the graduate There are opportunities for promotions to