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placed by a group method” in which each try realize that pedagogy is a science, that the pupil followed a line of investigation for him- problems of science teaching are clear and self. The results of the three years' experi- definite and must be solved as all science ment he states in the following terms: “and problems have been solved, we can make little as the course continued, the method seemed to progress in our science instruction. them (the students) increasingly desirable and Mr. MacArthur would make the chief aim successful.” It seems pertinent to enquire of science instruction the development of crehow this was determined. Would it not be ative thought or the ability to think scientificpossible to present the evidence in favor of ally, and this not only in the graduate school this type of work in a more concrete way? In but in the elementary school. fact, if such an investigation is to be a real
It is equally important that the beginnings of a contribution to the science of science teaching,
science be taught by the scientific method as that must the evidence not be presented in a more
graduate work be so carried on. For the early concrete way?
years in any science should be given largely to It is not the aim of the present article to
discovery and original research, as are the early question the value of the article mentioned.
years of childhood. Thinking and first-hand conIt is its ambitious title that challenges criti- tact would better come early, else they may never cism. The average science teacher, even the university teacher, is not yet aware of the
Personally I heartily endorse this statefact that the science of science teaching must
ment. The discovery of the importance of the proceed in exactly the same way that other
scientific method of thinking and its applicasciences have proceeded. The science teacher
tion to the problems of life is one of the great must awake to his pedagogical problems, these
if not the greatest contribution of science to problems must be clearly defined and we must
the life of mankind and it is the greatest conproceed to their solution by the patient ac
tribution that science teaching can make to cumulation of facts, formulation of tentative
the life of the individual. Yet in a class of hypotheses, discovery of additional facts fre
thirty-eight principals and superintendents quently by experimental methods, and on the
this last summer to whom was submitted a list basis of such facts we must reason to the cor
of aims of the elementary science of the high rect solution of the particular problem. To
school with the request that they number them get at the desired facts methods must be devised for the evaluation of processes, for meas
in order of importance, this matter of train
ing students in the scientific method of thinkurement of results and these results must be
ing was placed nine in the list of ten. This capable of accurate mathematical expression.
indicates—much additional data is required Imagine a chemist who is investigating the
to prove it—what I believe is the general improblem of the economic production of some industrial product presenting his results to a
pression among the executive officers of the
secondary schools that training in scientific scientific body with the statement that "the method seemed to them (the workmen) in
thinking is a relatively unimportant thing in
science instruction. Indeed science instruction creasingly desirable and successful” and hav
is not deemed a matter of great importance. ing back of that statement no facts which he could present, no data to convince his audi
Less than half the high schools of Illinois ence. I am not criticizing Mr. MacArthur's
(48.5 per cent.) require any science for gradstatement. To make even such an indefinite
uation. In 18.8 per cent. of them the requirestatement is a valuable contribution at present
ment is satisfied with one half year of physiolto the methodology of our science instruction,
ogy. but it shows the pitifully small progress that
Is it not high time that the science teachers has been made in the science of science teach- of the country be organized into a national ing. Until the science teachers of the coun
(a) to enlist in active propaganda to impress liam T. Shaw, State College of Washington;
the community at large and the educa- J. M. Edson, State Normal School, Bellingtional fraternity in particular with the ham, and George G. Cantwell and Dr. Walter
importance of science instruction; P. Taylor, of the Biological Survey, the last (b) to discuss and agree upon the aims of sci- named being in general charge of the work.
ence instruction, their relative impor. During the fall months Mr. Cantwell con
tance, and proper grade placement; tinued the cross-section, making studies in the (c) to discuss and agree upon the principles Okanogan Highlands just south of the Ca
of selection of the subject-matter for the nadian boundary between Oroville and Marcurriculum and the placement of this cus, Washington. Contrasts in the fauna and subject-matter in the various levels of flora as thus far developed are marked, and the school;
indicate that when the work is completed, ma(d) to stimulate accurate scientific investi- terials will be available for a significant treat
gations along the above lines and also ment of an interesting ecologic transect. It is
in the methods of teaching science; hoped to complete the field work in the state (e) to devise tests to determine in how far we during the present year.
are succeeding in accomplishing the de-
THE PRESERVATION OF NATURAL CONDITIONS methods in vogue;
THE Ecological Society of America's Com(f) to employ a national secretary for part mittee on the Preservation of Natural Condi
time at the outset and ultimately for all tions has been listing and describing areas of his time who would extend the in- with original flora and fauna, preserved and fluence of the organization, make it effi
desirable for reservation for scientific purcient and coordinate the work of indi- poses, and is now just entering on the more vidual investigators along the above extensive field work, with three additional lines.
joint chairman added. The plan of work and Elliot R. DOWNING men in charge are as follows: Professor V. E. THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION,
Shelford, University of Illinois, Urbana, Ill. UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO
(senior chairman, research and publication)
is continuing preparation of the list which SCIENTIFIC EVENTS
is to serve a manual on natural areas BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE STATE OF with sections on the care, management and WASHINGTON
R. B. Miller, state forester, Urbana, DURING the past year biological investiga- Ill. (chairman, publicity state organization) tions of the distribution and habits of the wishes to enlist the cooperation of one organibirds and mammals of the state of Washing- zation interested in science in each state and ton have been continued by the Bureau of province. Dr. F. B. Sumner, Scripps InstiBiological Survey, U. S. Department of Agri- tution, La Jolla, Calif. (chairman, organizaculture, in cooperation with the State College tion of research interests) is working on a of Washington, and the State Normal School, union of research interests in natural areas, Bellingham, Washington. Early in July, 1920, as represented by scientific societies, museums, there was begun a biological cross-section of and universities, into an organization to prothe state, which, when completed, will extend vide needed funds. C. F. Korstian, U. S. from Bellingham on Puget Sound to the Pend Forest Service, Ogden, Utah (chairman, Natd'Oreille country in the extreme northeastern ural Areas in National Forests) is working corner of the state. During the summer sea- on the selection of suitable natural areas son more than 200 miles were traversed by which may be set aside within the existing pack train in the northern Cascade Moun- national forest. Those having knowledge of taing, the party consisting of Professor Wil- areas preserved suitable for preservation, es
pocially those who have studied special areas, are requested to communicate with V. E. Shelford at once as the list is soon to be Completed.
SCIENTIFIC LECTURES AT OTTAWA
MEMBERS of the Department of Mines, Canada, are giving in the auditorium of the Victoria Memorial Museum, Ottawa, lectures as follows: March 4: “The building of the continent,” by D.
B. Dowling, geologist. March 11: “The anthropological field in Canada,'
by Dr. Edward Sapir, anthropologist. March 25: "Zoological work in Canada,” by R.
M. Anderson, zoologist. April 8: “A recent chapter in the geological his.
tory of Canada" (illustrated with slides of the Greenland Ice Cap), by Edward M. Kindle,
paleontologist. February 12: “The fur-bearing animals of Can
ada,” by Clyde L. Patch. February 19: “The birds of Bonaventure Island”
(with motion pictures), by Clyde L. Patch. February 26: “The Canadian Arctic coast,” by K.
G. Chipman. March 5: “Wanderings with the Eskimo," by D.
Jenness. March 12: "Roads to wealth in our northern forest, or mineral development in northern On
tario” (with motion pictures), by T. L. Tanton. March 19: “Hunting giant dinosaurs in the Bad
lands of Alberta,” by Charles M. Sternberg. March 26: "Ottawa three times submerged and
how we know it” (with motion pictures), by M.
E. Wilson. April 2: “Conquering the desert with irrigation"
(with motion pictures), by Harlan I. Smith. April 9: “ Asbestos or fireproof cotton" (with
motion pictures), by R. Harvie. April 16: “My summer among the Ojibwa In
dians,” by F. W. Waugh. April 23: “The frogs, salamanders and snakes of
Ottawa,” by Clyde L. Patch.
his home in California after commencement. The following resolutions have been passed by the faculty of the medical school:
The faculty of medicine have learned with deep regret of the resignation of Dr. Joseph Marshall Flint from the chair of surgery, which he has so ably and faithfully filled since 1907.
Coming to this university with a broad and thorough scientific training, and with high ideals, Dr. Flint became the original full-time professor, and has done great service both by precept and by ex. ample, in upholding high standards of teaching, research and practise.
He has always shown great tenacity of purpose and devotion to principle. Whatever success the Yale School of Medicine may have in the future will have been made possible by the loyalty and steadfastness of Dr. Flint and Dr. Blumer, whose joint service at a time of great stress succeeded in tiding over the crisis that economic conditions and new developments in medical education had brought on.
The faculty desire to place on record their high appreciation of Dr. Flint's services to the university, to the nation and to science, and to express their keen sense of loss at his leaving. They wish him full and speedy recovery of health and a large measure of success in his future work.
THE INTERNATIONAL UNION OF RADIO
An American Section of the International Union of Scientific Radio Telegraphy has been formed and has adopted a constitution which provides:
1. The American Section of the International Union of Scientific Radio Telegraphy shall consist of an executive committee and of the members of the technical committees provided for in paragraphs 2 and 3 below.
2. The executive committee of the American Section shall consist of the chairmen of the di. visions of physical sciences and of engineering of the National Research Council (ex officio); one member each of the following: The Army, the Navy, the Department of Commerce, the Institute of Radio Engineers; four members at large to be appointed by the president of the National Academy of Sciences; and (ex officio) officers of the International Union of Scientific Radio Telegraphy resident in the United States.
THE RESIGNATION OF PROFESSOR FLINT
YALE UNIVERSITY announces the resignation on account of poor health of Dr. Joseph Marshall Flint, professor of surgery since 1907, to take effect at the close of the present university year. Dr. Flint is planning to go to
3. The duties of the executive committee shall be: To act as the representatives of the United States in the International Union of Scientific Radio Telegraphy in the interim between its reg. ular meetings; to organize the American Section, including its technical committees, and to arrange for a meeting of the American Section shortly preceding each regular meeting of the International Union; to select delegates to the meetings of the Union; and in general to deal with all scientific radio questions involving the participation of the United States. The chairman of the executive committee of the American Section shall be a member (ex officio) of the Division of Foreign Relations of the National Research Council.
The first officers of the section are:
Corresponding secretary, Augustus Trowbridge, chairman, division of physical sciences, National Research Council (ex offioio).
Technical secretary, J. H. Dellinger.
Execut committee, Louis W. Austin, U. S. Navy; Comfort A. Adams, chairman, division of engineering, National Research Council; E. F. W. Alexanderson, Radio Corporation of America; J. H. Dellinger, Bureau of Standards; Alfred H. Goldsmith, editor, Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers; F. B. Jewett, Western Electric Company; A. E. Kennelly, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Major-General G. 0. Squier, chief signal officer, U. S. A.; Lieutenant-Commander A. Hoyt Taylor, U. S. Navy; Augustus Trowbridge.
The following have been appointed chairmen of technical committees:
Committee on Static, Dr. Austin.
Committee on Physics of the Electron Tube, Dr. Jewett.
Committee on Radio Interference (not yet appointed).
DR. EDWARD LAURENS MARK, for forty-four years instructor and professor of zoology and anatomy at Harvard University, will retire from active teaching at the close of this year and has been appointed Hersey professor of anatomy emeritus.
DR. ROBERT F. Ruttan, head of the department of chemistry, McGill University, has been appointed to succeed Dr. Duncan G. MacCallum, as administrative chairman of the Advisory Council for Scientific and Industrial Research in Canada.
DR. CHARLES W. RICHARDSON received the honorary degree of doctor of science recently from the George Washington University.
The University of Cambridge has awarded its doctorate of laws to Sir Patrick Manson, of the London School of Tropical Medicine, and Dr. Albert Calmette, of the Paris Pasteur Institute.
Sir W. H. BRAGG has been elected president of the London Physical Society. The vicepresidents who have filled the office of president are Dr. C. Chree, Professor H. L. Callendar, Professor R. B. Clifton, Sir Richard Glazebrook, Sir Oliver J. Lodge, Professor C. H. Lees, Professor A. W. Reinold, Sir Arthur Schuster, Sir J. J. Thomson and Professor C. V. Boys.
We learn from Nature that the twenty-fifth anniversary of the discovery of the “ Zeeman effect” will take place on October 31 next. A committee has been formed by scientific men in Holland to mark the occasion by showing their appreciation of the importance of the discovery and of the distinguished services which Professor Zeeman has rendered to science. It is intended to raise a fund to be placed at his disposal for researches to be conducted in the physical laboratory of the University of Amsterdam.
MR. GEORGE L. HARRINGTON recently returned from South America, where he had been engaged in private work, and resumed work in the Alaskan Division of the U. S. Geological Survey. He has now returned to South America.
SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS DR. C. L. ALSBERG, chief of the Bureau of Chemistry of the United States Department of Agriculture, has been appointed director of the Food Research Institute which is to be established at Stanford University by the Carnegie Corporation. He will assume his new work on July 1.
MR. J. W. GIDLEY, assistant curator of school, died on February 22, aged eighty-three vertebrate paleontology at the National Mu
years. seum, left Washington in January for a two
DR. WILLIAM FISKE WHITNEY, John Barnard months' exploratory trip in Arizona, Cali
Swett Jackson curator of the Warren Anatfornia and Nebraska for the U. S. Geological
omical Museum of Harvard University, died Survey and to secure fossil mammals for the
at his home in Boston on March 4, in the museum collection. Important finds of Pleis
seventy-first year of his age. tocene mammal remains in the vicinity of Benson, Arizona, are reported.
Dr. Joseph RansoHOFF, professor of sur
gery at the University of Cincinnati, died on SIR G. Sims WOODHEAD has retired from
March 10. the editorship of the Journal of Pathology
WILHELM VON WALDEYER, professor of anatand Bacteriology, which he founded in 1893, and is succeeded by Drs. A. E. Boycott and
omy at the University of Berlin, has died at
the age of eighty-five years. H. R. Dean.
THE deaths are announced of William THE Brown Chapter of Sigma Xi held its
Odling, lately professor of chemistry at initiation and banquet on March 4. Two
Oxford University, and of Robert Bellamy members of the faculty, four graduate stu
Clifton, lately professor of experimental phidents and seventeen members of the senior
losophy. Dr. Odling was ninety-one years of class were elected members. The speaker at
age, and Dr. Clifton eighty-five years of age. the banquet was Dr. Oscar Riddle, of the Cold Spring Biological Laboratory of the Carnegie At a meeting of the council of the AmerInstitution.
ican Mathematical Society held on February
26, 1921, it was voted to accept the invitation DR. ARTHUR F. Coca, of the medical school
of the American Association for the Advanceof Cornell University, editor of the Journal
ment of Science to become one of the scienof Immunology, gave an address on Hyper
tific societies affiliated with the association. sensitiveness before a recent meeting of the
According to the arrangements for the affiliaUniversity of Kansas chapter of Sigma Si.
tion of scientific societies with the American Dr. Coca had been studying, for a few weeks
Association all members of the newly affiliated previous, the hypersensitiveness of Indian
society, who are not already members of the students of Haskell Institute of Lawrence.
association, have the privilege of becoming SIR NORMAN MOORE, president of the Royal members of the association without the payCollege of Physicians, has appointed Dr. ment of the usual entrance fee. Herbert Spencer to deliver the Harveian
The United States Civil Service Commission oration in October and Dr. Michael Grabham,
announces an examination for the position of of Madeira, to deliver the Bradshaw lecture superintendent and director of biological stain November. Dr. Major Greenwood will tions in the service of the United States Budeliver the Milroy lectures in 1922.
reau of Fisheries. Applicants will be rated SHERBURNE WESLEY BURNHAM, professor of
chiefly upon education and experience. Two
vacancies for the above named position now practical astronomy at the University of Chicago from 1902 to his retirement in 1914
exist in the Bureau of Fisheries, one at Beauand astronomer at the Yerkes Observatory,
fort, N. C., carrying a salary of $1,500 per andied on March 11, in his eighty-third year.
num, and one at Key West, Florida, with a sal
ary of $1,800. In each case the additional PROFESSOR CHARLES H. FERNALD, from 1886 increase granted by Congress of $20 per month to 1910 professor of zoology and entomology is allowed, and living quarters, unfurnished, at the Massachusetts Agricultural College, are available, free of cost to the appointee. and for several years director of the graduate There are opportunities for promotions to