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sludge process, which will be tested from raw sewage to clarified effluent and to dried sludge.
CHARLES L. PARSONS,
ice from distilled water is rapidly being replaced by production of ice from raw water, due principally to cheap dependable power and water softening. The requisite characteristics of first quality ice are clearness, firmness and freedom from discoloration. In freezing water, by far the greatest part of the substances dissolved in it freeze out in the ice produced. Ice made from impure water is opaque, discolored and brittle, depending on the nature of the impurities. Limesoda softening, followed by sand filtration, is the most efficient purification of raw water to be frozen. The most objectionable impurities are compounds of magnesium, calcium and iron, organic matter, silica and alumina, and sodium salts. Softening with lime eliminates temporary hardness, magnesium and iron, and reduces organic matter, silica and alumina. Recent investigations indicate that soda may be omitted from treatment, as removal of permanent hardness appears to be unimportant if all of magnesium is replaced by calcium. Temporary hardness is particularly objectionable, causing gritty white sediments in center of cake, white deposits in clear ice, weak structure, and probably crackings and also necessitates one or more core pumpings. Zeolite softening of the raw water has been shown to be unsuitable for ice making, due to the relatively large quantity of sodium salts which it leaves in the treated water to retard freezing and form deposits, to the fact that bicarbonates, which are in some manner connected with cracking, are not removed, and to the nonremoval of iron, organic matter, alumina and silica.
THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR
THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE SECTION E-GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY SECTION E of the American Association for the Advancement of Science held its sessions this year in conjunction with the Geological Society of America and the Association of American Geographers, in Rosenwald Hall of the University of Chicago, from December 28 to January 1. In accordance with the agreement whereby the affiliated societies take charge of the program whenever they meet jointly with Section E, the Section had no program of its own. The address of the retiring vice-president, Dr. Charles Kenneth Leith, of the University of Wisconsin, upon the subject, “The structural failure of the lithosphere,”
was deliv. ered on the evening of December 28 at the annual smoker of the Geological Society of America. It has been published in SCIENCE. The papers of the general sessions will appear in the Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, Vol. 32, and in the Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 11.
At the regular meeting of the Sectional Committee the following were nominated for sectional officers:
Vice-president and Chairman of the Section, Dr. Willet G. Miller, director of the Ontario Bureau of Mines,
Secretary for 4 Years, Dr. Elwood S. Moore, Pennsylvania State College.
The election of a committee member was not required this year.
ROLLIN T. CHAMBERLIN,
Specifications for glassware for waterworks laboratories: HARRY E. JORDAN.
Hardness of surface waters in the United States : W. D, COLLINS.
The new sewage testing station of the Illinois State Water Survey Division: EDWARD BARTOW. With the cooperation and assistance of the Sanitary Districts in Illinois, The State Water Survey Division has started again the sewage testing station that was operated from 1914–17 and in which work was practically discontinued during the war. It is proposed to test all processes of sewage disposal that may be applicable to Illinois conditions, as time and funds permit. The first test will be of the Dorr-Peck modification of the activated
A Weekly Journal devoted to the Advancement of Science, publishing the official notices and proceedings of the American Association for
the Advancement of Science
Published every Friday by THE SCIENCE PRESS LANCASTER, PA.
GARRISON, N. Y, NEW YORK, N. Y. Entered in the post-office at Lancaster, Pa., a second class matter
Syracuse University College of Medicine CORNELL UNIVERSITY
Two yuan d a recognised oduno in arts or in science ta . registored oolloge or Babool of Banos which must includo Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Franola er German. Bis and soon yours' combination courses are offered.
First Avenue and Twenty-eighth Street
NEW YORK CITY
The First Two are spent in mastering, by laboratory
motbodo the saintes fundamental to
the study of the natural history of digen.se,
Surgery and Obstetrics are complotod.
Door throughout the year w clinical alorks
in hospitals uador onreful supervision. The clinical alork takes the history, pake the physical examination and the laboratory Caminations, arrives at a diagnosis which bo must defond, outlines the treatment under bis instructor and obperros and records the result. In case of opention or of autopay ho follows the specimen and identific its pathological nature. Two gonoral bospitals, ono of which is owned and controlled by the University, one spoca! hospital and tho municipal hospitals and laboratories an open to our students. The afternoons aro sport in the College Disponsary sad in clinical work in modical and rurgioul specialtion and in oonforences.
For Information Address
477 FIRST AVENUE
Brummer School-a rummor course in pathology covering a seried of six weeks during Juno and July will bo diven in nano there a mufficient number of applicants.
Address the Secretary of the College, 307 Orange Street
Syracuse, N. Y.
Louisiana SCHOOL OF MEDICINE
the same ter will not be ther institutior third year
Johns Hopkins Univers
Medical School The Medical School is an Integral Part of the University and is in close Afiliation with the Jobns Hopkins Hospital
ADMISSION Candidates for admission must be graduates of approved colleges or scientific schools with at least two year's instruction, including laboratory work, in Chemistry, and one year each in
(Established in 1834) physics and biology, together with evidence of a reading knowledge of French and German.
ADMISSION: All students entering the Freshman Each class is limited to 90 students, men and women being Class will be required to present credits for two admitted on the same terms. Except in unusual circumstances,
years of college work, which must include applications for admission will not be considered after July 1st.
Chemistry (General and Organic), Physics and If vacancies occur, students from other institutions desiring advanced standing may be admitted to the second or third year Biology, with their laboratories, and at least provided they fulfill all of our requirements and present ex
one year in English and one year in a modern ooptional qualifications.
foreign language. INSTRUCTION
COMBINED COURSES: Premedical oourse of two The academic year begins the Tuesday nearest October 1 and closes the third Tuesday in June. The course of instructon,
years is offered in the College of Arts and oocu ples four years and especial emphasis is laid upon prac
Sciences, which provides for systematic work dical work in the laboratories, in the wards of the Hospital and leading to the B.S. degree at the end of the in the Dispensary. TUITION
second year in the medical course, The charge for tuition is $250 per annum, payable in three Instalments. Tbere are no extra fees except for rental of microscope, certain expensive supplies, and laboratory breakage.
School of Pharmacy, School of Dentistry and The annual announcement and application blanks may be Graduate School of Medicine also. obtained by addressing the Dern of the Johns Hopkins Medica School
Womon admitted to all Schools of the Washington and Monument Sts. BALTIMORE, M.D
College of Medicine
For bulletins and all other information, address Beginning Tuesday, June 6th, and ending Thursday, July 16th, a course in medical diagnosis, including laboratory exer Tulane College of Medicine cises in clinical pathology and demonstrations in pathological anatomy, will be offered. The course will be limited to twenty
P. O. Box 770 students, fee $100. Applications should be made to the Dean's
New Orleans, La, Office.
Situated in Chicago in close proximity to important Hospitals with an abundance of clinical material. Admission Requirements—Two years of College credit
including a satisfactory course in Physics, Chemistry,
Biology or Zoology, and French or German. Course of Study-leading to the degree of Doctor of
Medicine Four years in the Medical School and a fifth year either as Interne in an approved hospital or devoted to research in some branch of Medical
in courses leading to the degree of Master of Arts or Doctor of Philosophy. Research Foundation - The James A. Patten Endow
ment for Research affords unusual opportunities for advanced students of Medical Science to pursue
special investigations. Research Fellowships-Four fellowships of the value
of $500 each are awarded annually to promote
scholarly research. Tuition Fees—The tuition fee for undergraduate stu.
dents is $180.00 a year.
SCHOOL OF MEDICINE Affiliated with the New Haven Hospital and New Haven Dispensary
Reorganized on a full-time basis Entrance Requirements : A minimum
of two years (or its equivalent) of college including general biology, physics, general and organic chemistry, physical chemistry or laboratory physics, and either French or German. ALL OF THE GENERAL FACILITIES OF THE UNIVERSITY ARE AVAIL
ABLE TO MEDICAL STUDENTS As the number admitted to each class is limited, applications must be made before June 15. Dean, Yale University School
of Medicine NEW HAVEN, CONN.
For information address
C. W. PATTERSON, Registrar 2431 South Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois
Marine Biological Laboratory
Woods Hole, Mass.
INVESTIGATION Facilities for research in Zoology,
Embryology, Physiology, and Boto
any. Eighty-four private labora-
for such a table is $50.00. INSTRUCTION
Courses of laboratory, instruction
with lectures are offered in Invert eJune 29 to August 9
brate Zoology, Protozoology, Em
bryology, Physiology and Morph.
ology and Taxonomy of the Algae,
ing, and in embryonic stages. PreDEPARTMENT served material of all types of
animals and of Algae, Fungi, LiverOpen tho Entire Year
worts and Mosses furnished for
The Medical School of Leland Stanford Jr. University is an
cluding English and Physics, Chemistry,
tion to the Dean of the Medical School. Instruction The work in Medicine begins the first of
October each year and closes about the middle of June. The first five quarters of the four years Medical instruction are given in the laboratories of the University at Palo Alto, California, the last seven quarters and the required interne year, in the buildings of the Medical School in San Francisco. The degree of A.B. is granted upon completion of the first three quarters of the Medical curriculum; the degree of M.D. upon completion of the interne year. Students wishing to transfer from other institutions are advised to enter in the summer quarter, beginning the middle of June,
in order to make up deficiencies. Tuition The tuition fee is $50 per quarter for twelve
quarters, payable at she beginning of each
quarter. For information address THE DEAN of the Stanford University Medical School, 2398 Sacramento Street, San Francisco, California.
Do not fail to write for our descriptive circular of models. Special Offer General Biological Supply House 1177 East 55th Street
THIRD EDITION-IN PRESS FOR EARLY PUBLICATION AMERICAN MEN OF SCIENCE
A BIOGRAPHICAL DIRECTORY
Price, Ten Dollars, Net, Postage Paid
indirectly interested in scientific work. (1) Men of Science will find it indispensable. It gives not only the names, addresses, scientific records and the like of their fellow workers, but also an invaluable summary of the research work of the country, completed and in progress.
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The third edition of the Directory will contain nearly 10,000 sketches as compared with 4,000 in the first edition and 5,500 in the second edition.
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