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sludge process, which will be tested from raw sewage to clarified effluent and to dried sludge.



ice from distilled water is rapidly being replaced by production of ice from raw water, due principally to cheap dependable power and water softening. The requisite characteristics of first quality ice are clearness, firmness and freedom from discoloration. In freezing water, by far the greatest part of the substances dissolved in it freeze out in the ice produced. Ice made from impure water is opaque, discolored and brittle, depending on the nature of the impurities. Limesoda softening, followed by sand filtration, is the most efficient purification of raw water to be frozen. The most objectionable impurities are compounds of magnesium, calcium and iron, organic matter, silica and alumina, and sodium salts. Softening with lime eliminates temporary hardness, magnesium and iron, and reduces organic matter, silica and alumina. Recent investigations indicate that soda may be omitted from treatment, as removal of permanent hardness appears to be unimportant if all of magnesium is replaced by calcium. Temporary hardness is particularly objectionable, causing gritty white sediments in center of cake, white deposits in clear ice, weak structure, and probably crackings and also necessitates one or more core pumpings. Zeolite softening of the raw water has been shown to be unsuitable for ice making, due to the relatively large quantity of sodium salts which it leaves in the treated water to retard freezing and form deposits, to the fact that bicarbonates, which are in some manner connected with cracking, are not removed, and to the nonremoval of iron, organic matter, alumina and silica.


THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE SECTION E-GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY SECTION E of the American Association for the Advancement of Science held its sessions this year in conjunction with the Geological Society of America and the Association of American Geographers, in Rosenwald Hall of the University of Chicago, from December 28 to January 1. In accordance with the agreement whereby the affiliated societies take charge of the program whenever they meet jointly with Section E, the Section had no program of its own. The address of the retiring vice-president, Dr. Charles Kenneth Leith, of the University of Wisconsin, upon the subject, “The structural failure of the lithosphere,”

was deliv. ered on the evening of December 28 at the annual smoker of the Geological Society of America. It has been published in SCIENCE. The papers of the general sessions will appear in the Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, Vol. 32, and in the Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 11.

At the regular meeting of the Sectional Committee the following were nominated for sectional officers:

Vice-president and Chairman of the Section, Dr. Willet G. Miller, director of the Ontario Bureau of Mines,

Secretary for 4 Years, Dr. Elwood S. Moore, Pennsylvania State College.

The election of a committee member was not required this year.



Specifications for glassware for waterworks laboratories: HARRY E. JORDAN.

Hardness of surface waters in the United States : W. D, COLLINS.


The new sewage testing station of the Illinois State Water Survey Division: EDWARD BARTOW. With the cooperation and assistance of the Sanitary Districts in Illinois, The State Water Survey Division has started again the sewage testing station that was operated from 1914–17 and in which work was practically discontinued during the war. It is proposed to test all processes of sewage disposal that may be applicable to Illinois conditions, as time and funds permit. The first test will be of the Dorr-Peck modification of the activated

A Weekly Journal devoted to the Advancement of Science, publishing the official notices and proceedings of the American Association for

the Advancement of Science

Published every Friday by THE SCIENCE PRESS LANCASTER, PA.

GARRISON, N. Y, NEW YORK, N. Y. Entered in the post-office at Lancaster, Pa., a second class matter

Syracuse University College of Medicine CORNELL UNIVERSITY



Two yuan d a recognised oduno in arts or in science ta . registored oolloge or Babool of Banos which must includo Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Franola er German. Bis and soon yours' combination courses are offered.

First Avenue and Twenty-eighth Street


The First Two are spent in mastering, by laboratory

motbodo the saintes fundamental to
Years clinical medicine.
The Third Yoar is systemstio nad aliajoal and is devoted to

the study of the natural history of,
1. disanosis and to therapeution. In this
yoar the wystamatio couro, in Medioino.

Surgery and Obstetrics are complotod.
The Fourth is olinical. Students spond tho ontiro fore-

Door throughout the year w clinical alorks
Yoar Course

in hospitals uador onreful supervision. The clinical alork takes the history, pake the physical examination and the laboratory Caminations, arrives at a diagnosis which bo must defond, outlines the treatment under bis instructor and obperros and records the result. In case of opention or of autopay ho follows the specimen and identific its pathological nature. Two gonoral bospitals, ono of which is owned and controlled by the University, one spoca! hospital and tho municipal hospitals and laboratories an open to our students. The afternoons aro sport in the College Disponsary sad in clinical work in modical and rurgioul specialtion and in oonforences.

For Information Address


Brummer School-a rummor course in pathology covering a seried of six weeks during Juno and July will bo diven in nano there a mufficient number of applicants.

Address the Secretary of the College, 307 Orange Street

Syracuse, N. Y.


the same ter will not be ther institutior third year

Johns Hopkins Univers

Medical School The Medical School is an Integral Part of the University and is in close Afiliation with the Jobns Hopkins Hospital

ADMISSION Candidates for admission must be graduates of approved colleges or scientific schools with at least two year's instruction, including laboratory work, in Chemistry, and one year each in

(Established in 1834) physics and biology, together with evidence of a reading knowledge of French and German.

ADMISSION: All students entering the Freshman Each class is limited to 90 students, men and women being Class will be required to present credits for two admitted on the same terms. Except in unusual circumstances,

years of college work, which must include applications for admission will not be considered after July 1st.

Chemistry (General and Organic), Physics and If vacancies occur, students from other institutions desiring advanced standing may be admitted to the second or third year Biology, with their laboratories, and at least provided they fulfill all of our requirements and present ex

one year in English and one year in a modern ooptional qualifications.

foreign language. INSTRUCTION

COMBINED COURSES: Premedical oourse of two The academic year begins the Tuesday nearest October 1 and closes the third Tuesday in June. The course of instructon,

years is offered in the College of Arts and oocu ples four years and especial emphasis is laid upon prac

Sciences, which provides for systematic work dical work in the laboratories, in the wards of the Hospital and leading to the B.S. degree at the end of the in the Dispensary. TUITION

second year in the medical course, The charge for tuition is $250 per annum, payable in three Instalments. Tbere are no extra fees except for rental of microscope, certain expensive supplies, and laboratory breakage.

School of Pharmacy, School of Dentistry and The annual announcement and application blanks may be Graduate School of Medicine also. obtained by addressing the Dern of the Johns Hopkins Medica School

Womon admitted to all Schools of the Washington and Monument Sts. BALTIMORE, M.D

College of Medicine

For bulletins and all other information, address Beginning Tuesday, June 6th, and ending Thursday, July 16th, a course in medical diagnosis, including laboratory exer Tulane College of Medicine cises in clinical pathology and demonstrations in pathological anatomy, will be offered. The course will be limited to twenty

P. O. Box 770 students, fee $100. Applications should be made to the Dean's

New Orleans, La, Office.


Northwestern University

Medical School

Yale University

Situated in Chicago in close proximity to important Hospitals with an abundance of clinical material. Admission Requirements—Two years of College credit

including a satisfactory course in Physics, Chemistry,

Biology or Zoology, and French or German. Course of Study-leading to the degree of Doctor of

Medicine Four years in the Medical School and a fifth year either as Interne in an approved hospital or devoted to research in some branch of Medical

Graduate Instruction

in courses leading to the degree of Master of Arts or Doctor of Philosophy. Research Foundation - The James A. Patten Endow

ment for Research affords unusual opportunities for advanced students of Medical Science to pursue

special investigations. Research Fellowships-Four fellowships of the value

of $500 each are awarded annually to promote

scholarly research. Tuition Fees—The tuition fee for undergraduate stu.

dents is $180.00 a year.

SCHOOL OF MEDICINE Affiliated with the New Haven Hospital and New Haven Dispensary

109th Session

Reorganized on a full-time basis Entrance Requirements : A minimum

of two years (or its equivalent) of college including general biology, physics, general and organic chemistry, physical chemistry or laboratory physics, and either French or German. ALL OF THE GENERAL FACILITIES OF THE UNIVERSITY ARE AVAIL

ABLE TO MEDICAL STUDENTS As the number admitted to each class is limited, applications must be made before June 15. Dean, Yale University School

of Medicine NEW HAVEN, CONN.

For information address

C. W. PATTERSON, Registrar 2431 South Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois

Marine Biological Laboratory

Woods Hole, Mass.

Stanford University

Medical School

INVESTIGATION Facilities for research in Zoology,

Embryology, Physiology, and Boto
Entire Year

any. Eighty-four private labora-
tories, $100 each for pot over three
months. Thirty tables are avail.
able for beginners in research who
desire to work under the direction
of members of the staff. The fee

for such a table is $50.00. INSTRUCTION

Courses of laboratory, instruction

with lectures are offered in Invert eJune 29 to August 9

brate Zoology, Protozoology, Em

bryology, Physiology and Morph.

ology and Taxonomy of the Algae,
Each course requires the full time
of the student. Fee, $75. A lecture
course on the Philosophical Aspects
of Biology and Allied Sciences is

also offered.
SUPPLY Animals and plants, preserved, liv-

ing, and in embryonic stages. PreDEPARTMENT served material of all types of

animals and of Algae, Fungi, LiverOpen tho Entire Year

worts and Mosses furnished for
classwork, or for the museum. Liv.
ing material furnished in season as
ordered. Microscopic slides in
Zoology, Botany, Histology, Bao-
teriology. Price lists of Zoological
and Botanical material and Micro-
scopic Slides sent on application.
State which is desired. For price
lists and all information regarding

material, address
GEO. M. GRAY, Curator, Woods Hole, Mass.
The annual announcement will be sent on application to The
Director, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Mass.

The Medical School of Leland Stanford Jr. University is an
integral part of the University, and its Faculty controls the
Lane and the Stanford University Hospitals, which together
with the Lane Medical Library, are administered by the
Trustees of the University.
Admission Three years of University instruction, in-

cluding English and Physics, Chemistry,
and Biology with laboratory work in each,
also a satisfactory reading knowledge of
French or German, are required for_ad-
mission to candidacy for the degree of Doc-
tor of Medicine. For these special require
ments see the Medical School Announce-
ment which may be obtained on applica-

tion to the Dean of the Medical School. Instruction The work in Medicine begins the first of

October each year and closes about the middle of June. The first five quarters of the four years Medical instruction are given in the laboratories of the University at Palo Alto, California, the last seven quarters and the required interne year, in the buildings of the Medical School in San Francisco. The degree of A.B. is granted upon completion of the first three quarters of the Medical curriculum; the degree of M.D. upon completion of the interne year. Students wishing to transfer from other institutions are advised to enter in the summer quarter, beginning the middle of June,

in order to make up deficiencies. Tuition The tuition fee is $50 per quarter for twelve

quarters, payable at she beginning of each

quarter. For information address THE DEAN of the Stanford University Medical School, 2398 Sacramento Street, San Francisco, California.

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Do not fail to write for our descriptive circular of models. Special Offer General Biological Supply House 1177 East 55th Street




Price, Ten Dollars, Net, Postage Paid
The work should be in the hands of all those who are directly or

indirectly interested in scientific work. (1) Men of Science will find it indispensable. It gives not only the names, addresses, scientific records and the like of their fellow workers, but also an invaluable summary of the research work of the country, completed and in progress.

(2) Those interested in science, even though they may not be professionally engaged in research work, will find much of interest and value to them in the book.

(3) Executives in institutions of learning and others brought into relations with scientific men will use the book constantly.

(4) Editors of Newspapers and periodicals will find it to be one of the works of reference that they will need most frequently.

(5) Libraries will find the book to be a necessary addition to their reference shelves.

The third edition of the Directory will contain nearly 10,000 sketches as compared with 4,000 in the first edition and 5,500 in the second edition.



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Beakers, Flasks, Tubes, Dessicators and other ap-
paratus in Pyrex in small quantities or in case lots
at a discount of 10%. Or, if any particular piece
is desired we will blow it for


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