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paleontology, which have been largely carried The title of the department of physiology on at the museum during the 22 years that has been changed to read department of comhe has been connected with it. Dr. Gregory parative physiology. will have associated with him in the new department Dr. J. Howard McGregor, who has

SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS been appointed associate in human anatomy.

Ar a meeting of the trustees of the ElizaThe staff in ornithology, under the leader

beth Thompson Science Fund, held on Febship of Dr. Frank M. Chapman, has been

ruary 26, the following grants were voted: Dr. strengthened by the appointment of Dr.

T. Brailsford Robertson, Adelaide, South AusRobert Cushman Murphy as associate curator

tralia, $250 for the purchase of a comptometer of marine birds. Dr. Murphy will devote

for use in a statistical study of growth. Dr. himself particularly to the studies on the

Donald Macomber, Boston, $300 for an inbirds of the Brewster-Stanford Collection and

vestigation of the effects of diet on fertility. to the collection which will be obtained by the

Dr. W. J. Fisher, Woods Hole, $75 for a study Whitney South Sea Expedition

of low sun phenomena (sunrise and sunset and The former department of invertebrate

horizon mirage). Dr. H. G. Barbour, New zoology has been reorganized as two depart

Haven, $300 for an investigation into the heat ments, namely, lower invertebrates and ento

regulatory mechanism of the body. mology. Dr. Henry E. Crampton has been

LAWRENCE J. HENDERSON, professor of bioappointed honorary curator of the new depart

logical chemistry, has been appointed Harvard ment of lower invertebrates and will confine

exchange professor to France and will lecture his attention to his Polynesian researches.

at the Sorbonne during the second half of the Mr. Roy W. Miner is appointed associate

present academic year. curator in charge. Dr. Frank E. Lutz has been promoted to

PROFESSOR WILLIAM ALANSON BRYAN, formthe curatorship of the new department of erly curator in the Bishop Museum and proentomology.

fessor of zoology and geology in the University Further staff changes or promotions are as

of Hawaii, has been appointed director of the follows:

Los Angeles Science Museum of History, and

Art, where he succeeds the late Frank Dagget. Lower Invertebrates: Willard G. Van Name, assist- DR. F. C. HARRISON, principal of Macdonald ant to assistant curator.

College, was elected as president of the Society Ornithology: Ludlow Griscom, assistant to assist

of American Bacteriologists, at their annual ant curator.

meeting held at Chicago. Anthropology: N. C. Nelson, assistant curator to associate curator of North American archeol

At the annual meeting of the Royal Meteoroogy; H. J. Spinden, assistant curator to asso- logical Society the following were elected officiate curator of Mexican and Central Ameri. cers: President, R. H. Hooker. Vice-presican archeology.

dents, J. Baxendell, W. W. Bryant, Sir Napier

Shaw and Dr. E. M. Wedderburn. Treasurer, NEW APPOINTMENTS

W. V. Graham. Secretaries, J. S. Dines, L. F. Comparative Anatomy: S. H. Chubb, assistant in Richardson and G. Thomson. osteology.

DURING the current year the University of Public Education: Grace E. Fisher, assistant.

Texas established two lectureships to be filled Ichthyology: E. W. Gudger, associate in ichthyol

by distinguished scholars from other univerogy. Mammalogy: Carl E. Akeley, associate in mammal.

sities. Professor E. G. Conklin, of Princeton ogy.

University, was invited to Texas to fill the Entomology: Herbert F. Schwarz, research asso- engagement. During the week beginning ciate, Hymenoptera.

February 28 Dr. Conklin gave a series of five

PROMOTIONS

lectures, two to the general public and three

The next annual meeting of the American seminar lectures to advanced students in the Astronomical Society will be held at the Van biological departments. Professor Conklin Vleck Observatory, Wesleyan University, will also lecture at Houston, Galveston and Middletown, Connecticut, from August 30 to San Antonio.

September 2, 1921. On the evening of February 22, Professor THE second annual meeting of the SouthF. R. Watson, of the University of Illinois, western Geological Society will be held on delivered an illustrated lecture on Acoustics March 18, at Tulsa, Oklahoma. The first of auditoriums” before the Illinois Society of bulletin of the society will be ready for disArchitects at the Chicago Art Museum. tribution about that time. The society has a FREDERICK G. CLAPP, of New York City, an

membership of one hundred and seventy-nine.

Sections have been organized at Austin, authority on petroleum geology, is giving a

Texas; Houston, Texas; Ardmore, Oklahoma; series of twelve lectures on that subject at Harvard University, beginning on Tuesday, Okmulgee, Oklahoma; Duncan, Oklahoma;

Dallas, Texas, and Shreveport, Louisiana. March 8.

Visiting geologists in any of these localities DR. HARLOW SHAPLEY, of the Mount Wilson

are invited to attend the section meetings. Observatory, gave a series of illustrated lec

THE Indian Botanical Society has recently tures in San Francisco and Berkeley, Feb

been organized with a charter membership of ruary 25 and 27, on the following subjects: eighty-five. The officers, who serve until the “New stars and variable stars," Astronomical

meeting of January, 1922, are as follows: Society of the Pacific, Native Sons Hall, San

President, Winfield Dudgeon; Vice-president, Francisco; “On the structure of the galactic W. Burns; Secretary-treasurer, Shiv Ram system,” astronomical department of the Uni- Kashyap; Councilors, Birbal Sahni and Rai versity of California ; " The dimensions of the

Bahadur K. Rangachari. The society had its sidereal universe," California Academy of

inception in a resolution passed by the BotanSciences, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco.

ical Section of the Indian Science Congress The joint spring meeting of the Association

at the Nagpur meeting in January, 1920. of American Geographers and the American

THE Eye-Sight Conservation Council of Geographical Society will be held in N

America with headquarters in New York City, York City on April 22 and 23. The complete

was recently organized, and Mr. L. W. Walprogram for the meeting will be published in

lace, New York, was elected president, and Dr. the near future.

Cassius D. Wescott, Chicago, vice-president. The third annual meeting of the American Drs. Frederick R. Green, Chicago; W. S. Society of Mammalogists will be held in Rankin, Raleigh, N. C.; Arthur L. Day, WashWashington, D. C., from May 2 to 4. Sessions ington, D. C., and Allan J. McLaughlin, U. S. devoted to the reading of papers, discussion P. H. S., Washington, D. C., are members of and business, will be held from 10 A.m. to 4.30 the board of councilors. The council has for P.M., each day, in the New National Museum. its object the conservation and improvement A session may also be arranged for the even- of vision by arousing public interest in eye ing of May 2. Opportunities will be offered hygiene, especially as it pertains to defective to visit various places of zoological interest in vision and the protection of the eyes in hazarthe city, and the usual social functions will dous occupations. be arranged.

The trustees of the American Medical AsThe annual meeting of the American Asso- sociation have made an appropriation to furciation of Pathologists and Bacteriologists will ther meritorious research in subjects relating be held at Cleveland, Ohio, on March 25 and to scientific medicine and of practical interest 26. Dr. Howard T. Karsner is the president. to the medical profession, which might not be

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carried out for lack of funds at hand. Appli- DR. F. J. V. SKIFF, director of the Field cations for grants should be sent to the Com- Museum, Chicago, died on February 24 at the mittee on Scientific Research, American Med- age of sixty-nine years. ical Association, 535 North Dearborn Street,

The North Carolina Department of AgriChicago, before April 1, 1921, when action will

culture announces the death of Dr. James be taken on the applications at hand.

Marion Pickel, for many years past the feed Dr. J. Paul GOODE (Minnesota, '89), of the chemist of the department. department of geography of the University of

DR. J. C. Cain, editor of the publications of Chicago, gave an address Coal and civili

the London Chemical Society and author of zation” at the annual banquet of the General

works on synthetic dyestuffs, died on January Alumni Association at the University of Min

31 at the age of fifty years. nestota, on February 18. The occasion was the fifty-third anniversary of the founding of ALFRED GABRIEL NATHORST, the eminent the University of Minnesota.

Swedish geologist and paleobotanist, died at DR. S. B. WOLBACH, associate professor of

Stockholm on January 20, in his seventy-first pathology and bacteriology, Harvard Univer- year. sity, will deliver the eighth Harvey Society PROFESSOR T. MIYAKE, of the department of lecture at the New York Academy of Medi- zoology of the Agricultural College of the cine on Saturday evening, March 12. His Imperial University of Tokyo, died on Febsubject will be “ Typhus fever and rickettsia." ruary 2 of typhoid fever which at that time

SURGEON-GENERAL IRELAND has completed was prevalent in Tokyo. Professor Miyake plans to have prominent physicians of the will be remembered as the author of a large country deliver addresses before the General two-volume work on the entomology of Japan, Staff College at Washington. Dr. Joel E. a review of which was published in SCIENCE Goldthwait, Boston, and Dr. Thomas W. Sal- some months ago. mon, New York, recently went to Washing

The request is made to botanists to supply ton to speak at the college.

the department of botany of the Alabama The Washington Section of the American

Polytechnic Institute with separates and other Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engi

publications to help restore the library which neers held a supper and meeting at the In

was lost in the fire which destroyed the agriterior Department on January 14. Dr. H.

cultural building. Foster Bain, the newly appointed director of the Bureau of Mines, lectured on“ Mines and The sum of $500,000 has been given by Dr. mining in the far east."

Frank Schamberg, Dr. John A. Kolmer and On behalf of the subscribers to the Poynting Professor George M. Raiziss to the dermatoMemorial Fund, the portrait of the late Pro- logical research laboratories of the University fessor J. H. Poynting by Mr. Bernard Munns of Pennsylvania for the support of medical rehas been presented to the University of Bir- search. The sum represents the profits received mingham, and Mr. W. Waters Butler has pre- by the laboratories during the war from the sented the portrait of the late Professor sale of the drug arsphenamine, a solution for Adrian Brown by the same artist.

German salvarsan. Its manufacture was the DR. WILLIAM MILLER WELCH, an authority result of experiments conducted in the dermaon contagious diseases, and for more than fifty tological research laboratories by Dr. Schamyears connected with the Philadelphia Bureau berg and his two assistants, Dr. Kolmer, proof Health, and professor in the graduate fessor of pathology and bacteriology of the school of medicine of the University of Penn- graduate school of medicine of the University sylvania, has died at the age of eighty-three of Pennsylvania, and George M. Raiziss, proyears.

fessor of chemotherapy at the same school of the university. Dr. Schamberg was director of UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL the Research Institute.

NEWS The magnetic-survey yacht Carnegie, under By the will of Miss Helen F. Massey a the command of J. P. Ault, arrived at San legacy of $500,000 has been left to the UniFrancisco on February 19. After re-outfitting versity of Pennsylvania. It is reported that there, she will continue her present circum- one of the conditions of the bequest is that navigation cruise, which was begun at Wash- the income shall be used for increasing the ington in October, 1919, and has an aggregate salaries of members of the college faculty. length of about 62,000 nautical miles. She will HAROLD HIBBERT, Ph.D., Sc.D., assistant cruise in the Pacific Ocean until about Sep- professor in Yale University, has been protember and thence return via the Panama

moted to an associate professorship of applied Canal to Washington in October.

chemistry, and assigned to the graduate PUBLIC lectures under the auspices of the school and the Sheffield Scientific School. New York City College Chemical Society, in DR. HUGH C. MULDOON, professor of chemthe Doremus Lecture Theatre at four-thirty istry at the Albany College of Pharmacy, has P.M. are announced as follows:

become dean and professor of chemistry in March 7. Beyond the laboratory,” Ellwood the School of Pharmacy, Valparaiso UniverHendrick

sity. March 15. "The service of the synthetic dye industry to the state,” Marston Taylor Bogert,

The biology department, Macdonald Colprofessor of chemistry at Columbia University.

lege, has been divided into two departments, March 23. "The trail of the chemist in the the department of entomology and zoology, packing industry," Charles H. MacDowell, presi- under Professor William Lochhead, and the dent, Armour Chemical Company.

department of botany, under Professor B. T. April 8. Explosives in war and peace,

Dickson. Dr. G. P. McRostie, Ph.D. (Cornest M. Symmes, Hercules Powder Co.

nell, '17), has been appointed assistant proApril 14. "Chemical evolution,” Daniel D.

fessor in the cereal husbandry department in Jackson, professor of chemical engineering at Columbia University.

charge of grass and clover investigations, and

Walter Biffen, B.Sc. (Wales '06), has been THE Southwestern Division of the American

appointed lecturer in the department of Association for the Advancement of Science

botany. announces the following lectures at El Paso:

February 15. "How to live,” Dr. Jenness.
March 1. "Alien insect enemies," Benjamin

DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE Druckermaur.

MUSICAL NOTATION March 14. The mechanism of heredity, de

TO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: While musical velopment and evolution,” Edwin Grant Conklin, of Princeton University.

notation is not a matter of great scientific March 15. "Historical progress in chemical

interest, reform presumably is. theory,” F. H. Seamon,

The desirability of the changes advocated April 5. “Reclamation work,” L. M. Lawson. by Professors Huntington and Hall may be

April 19. “Great American scientists: Major admitted. This leaves the space available for J. W. Powell and Professor Langley,” E. C. Pren- briefly discussing the cost. tiss.

The reform of printing implies (1) reprintMay 3. "Southwestern agricultural problems,'

ing all existing music, and (2) scrapping Robert S. Trumbull. May Archæology,” Edgar L. Hewett, of

some machinery, type, etc. the School American Research, Santa Fe, N. M.

There is also an ideal cost. Whatever the May 17. Crystallography," James C. Cri. exact methods of physical science may ultichett.

mately reveal as to the pitch in orchestral

11 Er

playing, there is no question for instance that tion as to whether he published further on a succession of notes, G, G sharp, A and a this subject.

WILLARD J. FISHER succession G, A flat, A, are musically distinct, WOODS HOLE, Mass. and that each actual sound on the piano is a

THE SIDEWALK MIRAGE symbol used to stand in turn for many musical entities. The reformed method would

TO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: My first experi

ence with the sidewalk mirage described by destroy the signs of some of these distinctions

Professor McNair in your issue of August 27, and reduce playing at sight to striking a succession of notes with little chance of pre

was on a smoothly paved straight-away be vision of the musical meaning.

tween Canton and Alliance, Ohio. The time As to the reformed keyboard there is again

was three o'clock P.M. of a very hot day in an obvious material if no clear ideal loss. August, 1918, the temperature being just

about 100°. We were headed east on a level However the judgment that the simplification of “physiological reflex” is of much value

stretch, while about a mile ahead of us on a might be demurred to. One can conceive a

slightly higher level was a car apparently subpsychologist taking the stand that a reflex is

merged in water to a depth of about two feet. a reflex, and a musician saying that he had

A woman crossing the roadway was "in" established the reflexes and forgotten the

up over her knees. As none of our party had process. Finally we might have a violinist

ever seen such a reflection we got out of the objecting to the pianist borrowing his G clef

car lest it might be caused by the windshield.

At first the vision was lost until we discovered and returning it in a damaged condition, for

that the angle of vision was so small that we advantages on the keyboard would be disad

had to hunt for it, when it remained clear and vantages on the fingerboard where the hand

distinct as long as we had the time to watch it. covers an octave diatonically and the acci

Since that time I have seen a number of dentals are made by a special finger move

similar reflections, some in warm weather and ment.

others in cold; which leads me to conclude If musicians should bring forward these matters it must not be inferred that they are

that heat is not necessary to produce them.

The distance appears to govern the height opposed to reform. On the contrary most of them desire it but can not meet the bill. The

from the ground as I have seen one within a

distance of a square and it was within two piano is no worse off than other instruments,

or three inches of the surface. The surface probably better. A tenor trombone player in the ordinary week's work may have to read

reflection mentioned by Mr. Platt in your from music written in six or seven different

issue of September 27 is not uncommon, but

could never be mistaken for the mirror-like systems, but the world rarely hears his complaints.

surface of the mirage after you have seen a

real one. R. P. BAKER

Such explanations as I worked out IOWA CITY, IOWA

in 1918 were upset the following winter and

I shall watch with interest for further inMIRAGE AT SEA

formation that may be offered.

C. P. DU SHANE TO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: In the Sections reports of the meeting of the B. A. A. S.,

A RAINBOW AT NIGHT Bristol, 1875, p. 26, M. J. Janssen gave a TO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: About 11 P.M. brief summary of his observations and con- on Thursday, November 18, while waiting clusions with regard to mirage at sea. As for a street car, I saw a clearly defined rainthis happens to connect with a phase of low bow-a phenomenon which is possibly of sun phenomena in which I am interested, and sufficiently rare occurrence at night to be of as I find no trace of any further publication interest to some of your readers. by him, I would be glad to receive informa- A drizzling rain was falling overhead, but

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