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paleontology, which have been largely carried The title of the department of physiology on at the museum during the 22 years that has been changed to read department of comhe has been connected with it. Dr. Gregory parative physiology. will have associated with him in the new department Dr. J. Howard McGregor, who has

SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS been appointed associate in human anatomy.

At a meeting of the trustees of the ElizaThe staff in ornithology, under the leader

beth Thompson Science Fund, held on Febship of Dr. Frank M. Chapman, has been

ruary 26, the following grants were voted: Dr. strengthened by the appointment of Dr.

T. Brailsford Robertson, Adelaide, South AusRobert Cushman Murphy as associate curator

tralia, $250 for the purchase of a comptometer of marine birds. Dr. Murphy will devote

for use in a statistical study of growth. Dr. himself particularly to the studies on the

Donald Macomber, Boston, $300 for an inbirds of the Brewster-Stanford Collection and

vestigation of the effects of diet on fertility. to the collection which will be obtained by the

Dr. W. J. Fisher, Woods Hole, $75 for a study Whitney South Sea Expedition

of low sun phenomena (sunrise and sunset and The former department of invertebrate

horizon mirage). Dr. H. G. Barbour, New zoology has been reorganized as two depart- Haven, $300 for an investigation into the heat ments, namely, lower invertebrates and ento

regulatory mechanism of the body. mology. Dr. Henry E. Crampton has been appointed honorary curator of the new depart- logical chemistry, has been appointed Harvard

LAWRENCE J. HENDERSON, professor of bioment of lower invertebrates and will confine

exchange professor to France and will lecture his attention to his Polynesian researches.

at the Sorbonne during the second half of the Mr. Roy W. Miner is appointed associate

present academic year. curator in charge. Dr. Frank E. Lutz has been promoted to

PROFESSOR WILLIAM ALANSON BRYAN, formthe curatorship of the new department of

erly curator in the Bishop Museum and proentomology.

fessor of zoology and geology in the University Further staff changes or promotions are as

of Hawaii, has been appointed director of the follows:

Los Angeles Science Museum of History, and

Art, where he succeeds the late Frank Dagget. PROMOTIONS Lower Invertebrates: Willard G. Van Name, assist- Dr. F. C. HARRISON, principal of Macdonald ant to assistant curator.

College, was elected as president of the Society Ornithology: Ludlow Griscom, assistant to assist

of American Bacteriologists, at their annual ant curator.

meeting held at Chicago. Anthropology: N. C. Nelson, assistant curator to associate curator of North American archeol

At the annual meeting of the Royal Meteoroogy; H. J. Spinden, assistant curator to asso- logical Society the following were elected officiate curator of Mexican and Central Ameri. cers: President, R. H. Hooker. Vice-presican archeology.

dents, J. Baxendell, W. W. Bryant, Sir Napier Shaw and Dr. E. M. Wedderburn. Treasurer,

W. V. Graham. Secretaries, J. S. Dines, L. F. Comparative Anatomy: S. H. Chubb, assistant in Richardson and G. Thomson. osteology.

During the current year the University of Public Education: Grace E. Fisher, assistant.

Texas established two lectureships to be filled Ichthyology: E. W. Gudger, associate in ichthyol.

by distinguished scholars from other univerogy. Mammalogy: Carl E. Akeley, associate in mammal.

sities. Professor E. G. Conklin, of Princeton ogy.

University, was invited to Texas to fill the Entomology: Herbert F. Schwarz, research asso- first engagement. During the week beginning ciate, Hymenoptera.

February 28 Dr. Conklin gave a series of five


lectures, two to the general public and three

The next annual meeting of the American seminar lectures to advanced students in the Astronomical Society will be held at the Van biological departments. Professor Conklin Vleck Observatory, Wesleyan University, will also lecture at Houston, Galveston and Middletown, Connecticut, from August 30 to San Antonio.

September 2, 1921. On the evening of February 22, Professor The second annual meeting of the SouthF. R. Watson, of the University of Illinois, western Geological Society will be held on delivered an illustrated lecture on “ Acoustics March 18, at Tulsa, Oklahoma. The first of auditoriums" before the Illinois Society of bulletin of the society will be ready for disArchitects at the Chicago Art Museum. tribution about that time. The society has a FREDERICK G. CLAPP, of New York City, an

membership of one hundred and seventy-nine.

Sections have been organized at Austin, authority on petroleum geology, is giving a

Texas; Houston, Texas; Ardmore, Oklahoma; series of twelve lectures on that subject at Harvard University, beginning on Tuesday, Okmulgee, Oklahoma; Duncan, Oklahoma ;

Dallas, Texas, and Shreveport, Louisiana. March 8.

•Visiting geologists in any of these localities Dr. Harlow SHAPLEY, of the Mount Wilson

are invited to attend the section meetings. Observatory, gave a series of illustrated lec

The Indian Botanical Society has recently tures in San Francisco and Berkeley, Feb

been organized with a charter membership of ruary 25 and 27, on the following subjects; eighty-five. The officers, who serve until the “ New stars and variable stars,” Astronomical

meeting of January, 1922, are as follows: Society of the Pacific, Native Sons' Hall, San

President, Winfield Dudgeon; Vice-president, Francisco; “ On the structure of the galactic W. Burns; Secretary-treasurer, Shiv Ram system,” astronomical department of the Uni

Kashyap; Councilors, Birbal Sahni and Rai versity of California ; " The dimensions of the

Bahadur K. Rangachari. The society had its sidereal universe," California Academy of

inception in a resolution passed by the BotanSciences, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco.

ical Section of the Indian Science Congress The joint spring meeting of the Association

at the Nagpur meeting in January, 1920. of American Geographers and the American

THE Eye-Sight Conservation Council of Geographical Society will be held in New

America with headquarters in New York City, York City on April 22 and 23. The complete

was recently organized, and Mr. L. W. Walprogram for the meeting will be published in lace, New York, was elected president, and Dr. the near future.

Cassius D. Wescott, Chicago, vice-president. THE third annual meeting of the American Drs. Frederick R. Green, Chicago; W. S. Society of Mammalogists will be held in Rankin, Raleigh, N. C.; Arthur L. Day, WashWashington, D. C., from May 2 to 4. Sessions ington, D. C., and Allan J. McLaughlin, U. S. devoted to the reading of papers, discussion P. H. S., Washington, D. C., are members of and business, will be held from 10 A.m. to 4.30 the board of councilors. The council has for P.M., each day, in the New National Museum. its object the conservation and improvement A session may also be arranged for the even- of vision by arousing public interest in eye ing of May 2. Opportunities will be offered hygiene, especially as it pertains to defective to visit various places of zoological interest in vision and the protection of the eyes in hazarthe city, and the usual social functions will dous occupations. be arranged.

The trustees of the American Medical AsThe annual meeting of the American Asso- sociation have made an appropriation to furciation of Pathologists and Bacteriologists will ther meritorious research in subjects relating be held at Cleveland, Ohio, on March 25 and to scientific medicine and of practical interest 26. Dr. Howard T. Karsner is the president. to the medical profession, which might not be

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carried out for lack of funds at hand. Appli- DR. F. J. V. SKIFF, director of the Field cations for grants should be sent to the Com- Museum, Chicago, died on February 24 at the mittee on Scientific Research, American Med- age of sixty-nine years. ical Association, 535 North Dearborn Street,

THE North Carolina Department of AgriChicago, before April 1, 1921, when action will

culture announces the death of Dr. James be taken on the applications at hand.

Marion Pickel, for many years past the feed Dr. J. Paul GOODE (Minnesota, '89), of the chemist of the department. department of geography of the University of

DR. J. C. Cain, editor of the publications of Chicago, gave an address on Coal and civili.

the London Chemical Society and author of zation” at the annual banquet of the General

works on synthetic dyestuffs, died on January Alumni Association at the University of Min

31 at the age of fifty years. nestota, on February 18. The occasion was the fifty-third anniversary of the founding of ALFRED GABRIEL NATHORST, the eminent the University of Minnesota.

Swedish geologist and paleobotanist, died at DR. S. B. WOLBACH, associate professor of

Stockholm on January 20, in his seventy-first pathology and bacteriology, Harvard Univer- year. sity, will deliver the eighth Harvey Society PROFESSOR T. MIYAKE, of the department of lecture at the New York Academy of Medi- zoology of the Agricultural College of the cine on Saturday evening, March 12. His Imperial University of Tokyo, died on Febsubject will be “ Typhus fever and rickettsia."

ruary 2 of typhoid fever which at that time SURGEON-GENERAL IRELAND has completed was prevalent in Tokyo. Professor Miyake plans to have prominent physicians of the will be remembered as the author of a large country deliver addresses before the General two-volume work on the entomology of Japan, Staff College at Washington. Dr. Joel E. a review of which was published in SCIENCE Goldthwait, Boston, and Dr. Thomas W. Sal- some months ago. mon, New York, recently went to Washing

The request is made to botanists to supply ton to speak at the college.

the department of botany of the Alabama The Washington Section of the American

Polytechnic Institute with separates and other Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engi

publications to help restore the library which neers held a supper and meeting at the In

was lost in the fire which destroyed the agriterior Department on January 14. Dr. H.

cultural building. Foster Bain, the newly appointed director of the Bureau of Mines, lectured on Mines and The sum of $500,000 has been given by Dr. mining in the far east."

Frank Schamberg, Dr. John A. Kolmer and On behalf of the subscribers to the Poynting

Professor George M. Raiziss to the dermatoMemorial Fund, the portrait of the late Pro

logical research laboratories of the University fessor J. H. Poynting by Mr. Bernard Munns of Pennsylvania for the support of medical rehas been presented to the University of Bir- search. The sum represents the profits received mingham, and Mr. W. Waters Butler has pre- by the laboratories during the war from the sented the portrait of the late Professor sale of the drug arsphenamine, a solution for Adrian Brown by the same artist.

German salvarsan. Its manufacture was the DR. WILLIAM MILLER WELCH, an authority result of experiments conducted in the dermaon contagious diseases, and for more than fifty tological research laboratories by Dr. Schamyears connected with the Philadelphia Bureau berg and his two assistants, Dr. Kolmer, proof Health, and professor in the graduate fessor of pathology and bacteriology of the school of medicine of the University of Penn- graduate school of medicine of the University sylvania, has died at the age of eighty-three of Pennsylvania, and George M. Raiziss, proyears.

fessor of chemotherapy at the same school of

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the university. Dr. Schamberg was director of UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL the Research Institute.

NEWS The magnetic-survey yacht Carnegie, under By the will of Miss Helen F. Massey a the command of J. P. Ault, arrived at San legacy of $500,000 has been left to the Uni. Francisco on February 19. After re-outfitting versity of Pennsylvania. It is reported that there, she will continue her present circum- one of the conditions of the bequest is that navigation cruise, which was begun at Wash- the income shall be used for increasing the ington in October, 1919, and has an aggregate salaries of members of the college faculty. length of about 62,000 nautical miles. She will HAROLD HIBBERT, Ph.D., Sc.D., assistant cruise in the Pacific Ocean until about Sep- professor in Yale University, has been protember and thence return via the Panama

moted to an associate professorship of applied Canal to Washington in October.

chemistry, and assigned to the graduate Public lectures under the auspices of the school and the Sheffield Scientific School. New York City College Chemical Society, in Dr. Hugh C. MULDOON, professor of chemthe Doremus Lecture Theatre at four-thirty istry at the Albany College of Pharmacy, has P.M. are announced as follows:

become dean and professor of chemistry in March 7. "Beyond the laboratory," Ellwood the School of Pharmacy, Valparaiso UniverHendrick.

sity. March 15. "The service of the synthetic dye industry to the state,” Marston Taylor Bogert,

The biology department, Macdonald Colprofessor of chemistry at Columbia University.

lege, has been divided into two departments, March 23. «The trail of the chemist in the the department of entomology and zoology, packing industry,” Charles H. MacDowell, presi- under Professor William Lochhead, and the dent, Armour Chemical Company.

department of botany, under Professor B. T. April 8. “Explosives in war and peace,” Er

Dickson. Dr. G. P. McRostie, Ph.D. (Cornest M. Symmes, Hercules Powder Co.

nell, '17), has been appointed assistant proApril 14. Chemical evolution,” Daniel D. Jackson, professor of chemical engineering at Co

fessor in the cereal husbandry department in lumbia University.

charge of grass and clover investigations, and

Walter Biffen, B.Sc. (Wales '06), has been The Southwestern Division of the American Association for the Advancement of Science

appointed lecturer in the department of

botany. announces the following lectures at El Paso: February 15. “How to live,” Dr. Jenness. March 1. "Alien insect enemies," Benjamin


MUSICAL NOTATION March 14. “The mechanism of heredity, de

TO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: While musical velopment and evolution,” Edwin Grant Conklin,

notation is not a matter of great scientific of Princeton University. March 15. “Historical progress in chemical

interest, reform presumably is. theory," "F. H. Seamon,

The desirability of the changes advocated April 5. “Reclamation work,” L. M. Lawson. by Professors Huntington and Hall may be

April 19. Great American scientists: Major admitted. This leaves the space available for J. W. Powell and Professor Langley,” E. C. Pren- briefly discussing the cost. tiss.

The reform of printing implies (1) reprintMay 3. “Southwestern agricultural problems,'

ing all existing music, and (2) scrapping Robert S. Trumbull, May Archæology,Edgar L. Hewett, of

some machinery, type, etc. the School of American Research, Santa Fe, N. M.

There is also an ideal cost. Whatever the May 17. “Crystallography," James C. Cri. exact methods of physical science may ultichett.

mately reveal as to the pitch in orchestral

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tion as to whether he published further on this subject.



playing, there is no question for instance that a succession of notes, G, G sharp, A and a succession G, A flat, A, are musically distinct, and that each actual sound on the piano is a symbol used to stand in turn for many musical entities. The reformed method would destroy the signs of some of these distinctions and reduce playing at sight to striking a succession of notes with little chance of prevision of the musical meaning.

As to the reformed keyboard there is again an obvious material if no clear ideal loss. However the judgment that the simplification

“physiological reflex” is of much value might be demurred to. One can conceive a psychologist taking the stand that a reflex is a reflex, and a musician saying that he had established the reflexes and forgotten the process. Finally we might have a violinist objecting to the pianist borrowing his G clef and returning it in a damaged condition, for advantages on the keyboard would be disadvantages on the fingerboard where the hand covers an octave diatonically and the accidentals are made by a special finger movement.

If musicians should bring forward these matters it must not be inferred that they are opposed to reform. On the contrary most of them desire it but can not meet the bill. The piano is no worse off than other instruments, probably better. A tenor trombone player in the ordinary week's work may have to read from music written in six or seven different systems, but the world rarely hears his complaints.


THE SIDEWALK MIRAGE TO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: My first experience with the sidewalk mirage described by Professor McNair in your issue of August 27, was on a smoothly paved straight-away be tween Canton and Alliance, Ohio. The time was three o'clock P.M. of a very hot day in August, 1918, the temperature being just about 100°. We were headed east on a level stretch, while about a mile ahead of us on a slightly higher level was a car apparently submerged in water to a depth of about two feet. A woman crossing the roadway was “in” up over her knees. As none of our party had ever seen such a reflection we got out of the car lest it might be caused by the windshield. At first the vision was lost until we discovered that the angle of vision was so small that we had to hunt for it, when it remained clear and distinct as long as we had the time to watch it.

Since that time I have seen a number of similar refiections, some in warm weather and others in cold; which leads me to conclude that heat is not necessary to produce them. The distance appears to govern the height from the ground as I have seen one within a distance of a square and it was within two or three inches of the surface. The surface reflection mentioned by Mr. Platt in your issue of September 27 is not uncommon, but could never be mistaken for the mirror-like surface of the mirage after you have seen a real one.

Such explanations as I worked out in 1918 were upset the following winter and I shall watch with interest for further information that may be offered.



TO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: In the Sections reports of the meeting of the B. A. A. S., Bristol, 1875, p. 26, M. J. Janssen gave a brief summary of his observations and conclusions with regard to mirage at sea. As this happens to connect with a phase of low sun phenomena in which I am interested, and as I find no trace of any further publication by him, I would be glad to receive informa

A RAINBOW AT NIGHT TO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: About 11 P.M. on Thursday, November 18, while waiting for a street car, I saw a clearly defined rainbow-a phenomenon which is possibly of sufficiently rare occurrence at night to be of interest to some of your readers.

A drizzling rain was falling overhead, but

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