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The year 1837 is memorable in the annals ical Journal and the American Journal of of American mineralogy on account of the Science. There was also published Cleave publication in that year of Dana's “ System land's Mineralogy. However, it yet remains of Mineralogy." While this work, consisting to call attention to the fact that in 1819 of 580 pages, was based to a considerable ex- there was organized at Yale College the tent on the writings of European mineralo- American Geological Society. Many of the gists, notably Haüy, Mohs, and Naumann, it members of this society can be characterized was not devoid of originality. This is espe- as mineralogists, and mention may be made cially true of the section on mathematical in this connection of Gibbs, Silliman, Cleavecrystallography and of the elaborate classifica- land and Godon. This organization contion of minerals based upon the systems in tinued until 1828, when it went out of existuse in botany and zoology. As it is well
During this period, however, it did known, this system of classification gave way much to stimulate American workers in geolin the fourth edition, in 1854, to a chemical ogy and mineralogy. classification which has continued in quite This organization was followed in 1840 by general use down to the present time. Dana's the Association of American Geologists, which “ System of Mineralogy was received with held its first meeting in Philadelphia on great favor, and the first edition was suc- April 2, 1840. Meetings were held annually ceeded by others as follows: second in 1844, and in 1843 the Transactions of the Associathird in 1850, fourth in 1854, and fifth in tion of American Geologists and Naturalists 1868. The last edition, which is the sixth appeared. However, in 1847 this organization by E. S. Dana in 1892, with its various ap- became the American Association for the Adpendixes, is the standard reference work the vancement of Science. It is thus seen that the world over on descriptive mineralogy.
American Association with which practically As already indicated, in 1810 Bruce founded all the important scientific societies are now The American Mineralogical Journal which affiliated, was according to Alexander Winwas discontinued after the publication of but chell“ in its incipiency a body of geologists, one volume. Although but short-lived, it had and its first constitution was prepared by demonstrated the great need of a strictly sci- geologists assembled in Boston, in 1847." entific journal. Consequently in 1817 Colonel In the development of American higher eduGeorge Gibbs, one of the most enthusiastic cation in the period prior to 1850, the fact devotees of mineralogy and the possessor of must not be overlooked that no college or uniperhaps the largest and most notable mineral versity considered itself adequately equipped collection in America at that time, which was unless it possessed a representative collection purchased by Yale University in 1825, sug- of minerals. Indeed in the case of some instigested to Professor Benjamin Silliman that tutions mineral collections, or cabinets as a general scientific journal be established. they were commonly called, were usually This led to the founding of the American among the first purchases authorized by the Journal of Science in 1818 under the editor- governing bodies of the institutions. Such ship of Silliman. While its scope was in- was, for example, the case at the University tended “ to embrace the circle of the physical of Michigan, which was founded on March sciences and their application to the arts, and 18, 1837, but was not formally opened for into every useful purpose," the American Jour- struction until 1841. In the meantime, hownal of Science has from the beginning pub- ever, the well-selected mineral collection of lished most of the important contributions on Baron L. Lederer, of New York City, conmineralogical subjects by American writers. sisting of 2,600 specimens, mostly from
The decade 1810 to 1820 is an extremely foreign localities, was purchased. This adimportant one to us, for during that period mirable collection was moreover quickly augthere were founded the American Mineralog- mented, so that when the university opened its doors to students a collection of approxi- and economic geology began to be recognized mately 5,000 entries was available.
as independent disciplines. It will also be recalled that in 1807 Yale Not only did the expansion of our surveys University acquired the Perkins collection, and the development of our vast mineral reand that in 1825 the Gibbs collection also sources, but also the fostering of graduate became the property of that institution. In work by our older and larger universities, dediscussing the growth of mineralogy in this mand adequately trained specialists. It will country from 1818 to 1918, Ford says,
be recalled that during the eighties and early
nineties comparatively large numbers of There is no doubt but that the presence at this
Americans went to Europe and especially to early date of this large and unusual mineral col
Germany, to acquire the latest methods in lection had a great influence upon the development of mineralogical science at Yale and in the
petrography and mineralogy. country at large.
After the Association of American Geolo
gists and Naturalists in 1847 voted to resolve From the foregoing discussion it is quite that organization into the American Associaobvious that mineralogy played a very im- tion for the Advancement of Science, geology portant role in the development of higher edu- participated along with other sciences in the cation during the first half of the nineteenth activities of the association, and with geogcentury. It was one of the first sciences to
raphy formed what is known as Section find a place in the curricula of our colleges E. Although at first the American Assoand universities. Its devotees founded he ciation served the interests of the geologists first general scientific journals, one of which rather satisfactorily, nevertheless with the has continued uninterruptedly up to the rapid growth of the Association the opporpresent time and is held in high esteem the
tunities for meetings of a strictly scientific world over. Mineralogists were also among character became fewer and the need of a the first to recognize the need and value of
separate organization began to be felt. Acnational organizations, and were important cording to Alexander Winchell an independfactors in the founding of our most general
ent organization was first openly agitated by scientific society, the American Association
the geologists assembled at the meeting of the for the Advancement of Science.
American Association at Cincinnati in 1881.
Although a committee was appointed, which THE PERIOD OF EXPANSION, 1850–1900
canvassed the situation and reported favorably The second half of the nineteenth century upon the organization of a separate society was a period of rapid development in higher and the establishment of a geological magaeducation. Colleges and universities sprang zine, no definite action was taken at the next up all over the United States in quick suc- meeting. cession, especially in the mid and far west. However, this question continued to be conIt was also a period in which mineralogy and sidered quite regularly at successive annual geology were applied practically on a very meetings of the Association and the publication large scale by the federal and state surveys. of the American Geologist was begun in MinThe demand for competent geologists became neapolis in January, 1888. Again on August very great, so that more emphasis was now 14, 1888, in Cleveland, it was resolved that the placed upon geology than upon mineralogy formation of an American Geological Society by the institutions of higher learning. How- was desirable, and organization plans were ever, during the last two decades of the cen- made. The first meeting was held in Ithaca tury the need of specialization became im- on December 27, 1889, with a membership of perative and the number of scientifically 137. This organization, officially known as the trained mineralogists increased materially. It Geological Society of America, was from the was during this period also that petrography beginning independent and in no way subor
dinate to the American Association. It at these institutions were greatly extended. The once became a great stimulus to American older departments of instruction were mategeology and has exerted profound influence rially expanded by the giving of more adupon its development.
vanced and specialized courses, and many new ! During the last two decades of the nine- departments were added. Our graduate work teenth century the movement to band those in- developed rapidly. Even before the outbreak terested in minerals together in local organiza- of the World War, fewer and fewer students tions manifested itself in several of our large each year found it necessary to go to Europe, cities. Thus in 1886 the New York Mineralog- as had been the custom during the nineteenth ical Club was organized to “ develop and main- century, for they were now able to secure the tain an interest in mineralogy, especially in instruction desired in our universities. Inthe minerals and rocks of Manhattan Island, deed, this instruction could be obtained from New York City, through collecting and the equally competent men and in more modern study and comparison of existing collections." laboratories with superior facilities than were The club has been successful in stimulating to be found abroad. The many contributions interest in mineralogy in New York City and by the various governmental bureaus and the its environs. It has also acquired the Cham- establishment of the Geo-physical Laboratory berlain collection of minerals which is now de- in 1907 gave a great impetus to many branches posited in the American Museum of Natural pof science in America. Industrial corporaHistory. Reference must also be made of the tions also recognized the imperative need of fact that in 1892, what is known as the Phila- adequately equipped laboratories and comdelphia Mineralogical Society, was organized, petent investigators. its purpose being similar to that of the New During this period, the development of sciYork Club. From time to time similar or
ence was indeed marvelous. This statement ganizations had been founded in other locali
applies to no science more than it does to minties, all of which have done much to stimulate
eralogy, by which term we obviously include interest in minerals and especially of those of
what may be readily interpreted as the broader the region immediately surrounding the loca
field, namely crystallography. Moreover, it
was during the war that the preeminent position of the society.
tion of the United States in the production of It was also during this period that a jour
minerals and mineral products, and the vastnal devoted to the interests of the lover of
ness of our mineral resources were brought minerals was founded in 1885 by Mr. Arthur
most forcibly to the attention of the general Chamberlain. It was first called the Ex
public. Mineralogical methods had to be rechangers' Monthly but was subsequently
sorted to in the solving of many special probchanged to the Mineralogists' Monthly. In
lems imposed by the war, when it became nec1892 Goldthwaite's Minerals was published.
to establish scientific For two years both of these publications ap
independence. Hence, at present the value of peared but in 1894 they were merged into the Mineral Collector, which continued to appear
mineralogy is appreciated as never before.
On account of its basic value in the training of regularly until March 1909 when it was dis
the geologist, chemist, pharmacist, forester, continued
mining engineer, ceramist, and many other
i specialized engineers and technologists, minerTHE MODERN PERIOD, 1900–1920
alogy has become in some of our larger and !
The first two decades of the twentieth cen- more progressive institutions what may be tury have been a period of enormous develop- designated as a “service" science. Furtherment in higher education. Attendance upon more, it is no longer merely a descriptive sciour colleges and universities has increased by ence but by virtue of the development of many leaps and bounds. The physical plants of quantitative methods and especially as the re
sult of the epoch-making discoveries in the on December 30, 1919, a group of 28 mineralofield of crystal structure it is now an exact gists met in the Mineralogical Museum of science of fundamental importance.
Harvard University and organized the society !
under whose auspices we are meeting to-day, THE MINERALOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA and adopted a provisional constitution. During the first fifteen years of the exist
At this meeting arrangements were made ence of the Geological Society of America, whereby the lists of charter fellows and mem
bers would remain open for one year. The comparatively few of its members were primarily interested in mineralogy. However,
question of affiliation with the Geological Sobeginning with the latter half of the first
ciety of America was discussed and it is indecade of the twentieth century the number of
deed gratifying to know that during the year
this has been accomplished. On December 20, professional mineralogists who became members of the society increased rapidly. This
the Mineralogical Society had 55 fellows and
126 members. There were in addition 139 subgroup, however, soon felt that aside from the
scribers to the American Mineralogist. The social aspect of the meetings, the society offered them but little in their own field. Accordingly
most enthusiastic advocates of an independent in January, 1913, Professor Alexander N. mineralogical society never expected that such Winchell, of the University of Wisconsin, in
widespread interest could be stimulated dura letter addressed to those especially interested
ing the organization year. in mineralogy and petrography, raised the
! question as to the advisability of organizing a
AMERICAN MINERALOGIST National Association of Mineralogists and As already indicated the American MineralPetrographers. The responses were, however, ogist, which was founded in 1916, became the of such a character that a postponement of a
Journal of the Mineralogical Society under separate organization was decided upon. This
the editorship of one of the founders, Dr. E. T. question, however, would not be downed and Wherry. A board of associate editors was apit came up annually at the meetings of the
pointed by the council to assist Dr. Wherry. Geological Society of America, so that finally
During the past year the Journal has appeared at the Albany meeting, December, 1916, a small
regularly, the earlier numbers being considergroup consisting of Phillips, Van Horn,
ably larger in size than had previously been Walker, Wherry, Whitlock, and the speaker,
However, on account of increased decided to launch an active campaign looking
cost of paper and printing it was necessary to toward the formation of the Mineralogical So
reduce the size of the later numbers. It is ciety of America. A circular letter, signed by the above-named committee, was sent out to
hoped that as a result of the general readjust
ment of prices the issuing of monthly numbers those most vitally interested and the replies received clearly indicated the great desirabil
of from 24 to 32 pages each may soon become ity of such an organization. However, the
possible. The exact character of the Journal United States entered the World War in the
needs to receive the serious consideration of following April, and consequently plans for the council, inasmuch as it must serve the organization were held in abeyance. But in
widely divergent interests of several groups of the meantime, there had been much corre- the society. We owe much to the energy, skill spondence among those taking a lively interest and unselfish devotion of our editor, who is in the organization, and in the fall of 1919 the constantly striving to make the Journal one new society was again actively agitated. A
of which American mineralogists may be call was issued for an organization meeting justly proud. This, however, will require some to be held at the time of the meeting of the little time and I trust that we may all be someGeological Society of America in Boston, and what patient in this matter.
perhaps be made clear by a brief outline of As the result of a more general recognition
the life cycle of one of the human species of of the basic importance of mineralogy in pure
this family, Schistosoma japonicum. The and applied science and in various branches of
adult of this species lives in the bloodvessels
of the liver and mesenteries of man and other industry, and with a national society boasting of a membership including the progressive in
mammals in the far East. The adults are vestigators and devotees of the subject, and
almost always found in copulation in the with a well established and widely recognized
vessels of the hepatic portal system. The official monthly publication, the future of
fertilized ovum develops into the miracidium
within the egg shell before the egg escapes mineralogy in America is assured. The problems of really fundamental significance re
from the host. The miracidium hatches
almost immediately when the egg is voided quiring a comprehensive knowledge of crystallography and mineralogy are indeed many.
into the water and dies within a short time
unless it comes in contact with a small The applications of the methods and truths of our science are constantly increasing and if species of snail, Blanfordia nosophora (RobAmerica is to assume leadership in this great
son). It penetrates vigorously into this snail field it can be most speedily and advantage
and metamorphoses into a sac-like structure
known as the mother sporocyst. The germ ously accomplished through the friendly co
cells of the miracidium are carried over operation of the members of an organization
directly into the mother sporocyst and develop such as this.
EDWARD H. KRAUS
by parthenogenesis into daughter sporocysts.
A single mother sporocyst may live for a conMINERALOGICAL LABORATORY,
siderable period of time and produce several UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
hundred daughter sporocysts. These daughter
sporocysts also carry germ cells and produce SEX IN THE TREMATODE FAMILY
by parthenogenesis cercariæ which are the SCHISTOSOMIDÆ1
larvæ of the direcious vertebrate-dwelling The trematode family Schistosomidæ in ad- adults. These cercariæ escape into the water dition to containing three species which pro- and will penetrate directly through the skin duce important human diseases, viz., Schisto
of any suitable host with which they come soma hæmatobium, S. mansoni, and S. japon
in contact. From the skin they make their icum, is interesting because it is the only
way to the blood vessels of the liver, where group of the trematodes in which the sexes they develop to sexual maturity in about three are separate in the adult stage, which lives to four weeks. In fact I have seen copulation in the vertebrate. In this stage there is an in an experimentally infested mouse nineteen extreme sexual dimorphism, the structure of days after exposure to these cercariæ. the male being adapted for grasping the The first question which naturally arises in female in the gynæcophoric canal during connection with the sex phenomena in this copulation and the female having a very long life cycle is how far back can the sexual slender body. The complete life cycles of the dimorphism be traced in the development of three human species of this family have been the adult from the cercaria in the final host. worked out in the last seven years, making it In a recent series of studies on the developnow possible to attack the problems related to ment of Schistosoma japonicum in experithe determination of sex and the development mentally infested mice I have been able to of sexual dimorphism.
distinguish males from females in specimens Just what is involved in these problems can about 0.3 mm. in length. Since the body of 1 From the department of medical zoology of the
the cercaria of this species is about 0.15 mm. school of hygiene and public health of the Johns to 0.20 mm. in length and the smallest Hopkins University.
sexually mature forms have a length of about