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Do You Know That Fish Will Search for a Certain H-Ion

Concentration in Water before being

Satisfied to make their home in it?
This fact was reported in one of the Fourteen Papers read

at the Seventy-third Meeting of
The American Association for the Advancement of Science

on the subject of

Hydrogen-Ion Concentration

and Its Relation to Living Matter The number of papers on this subject may be taken as a measure of the increasing importance which the Determination of Hydrogen-Ion Concentration is assuming in the minds of men in all branches of science. Of the Fourteen Papers referred to, one was in the field of Zoology, seven in Botany and six in Bacteriology.

In practically all of these papers, Ph values re-
ported to the first decimal place were found to be en-
tirely adequate to permit correct conclusions to be
Wendt's Electro-Titration Apparatus

The Cooledge Comparator

IL provide the two meth

ods by which H-Ion
Determinations for pur-
poses such as these may

Cooledge Comparator
be made and, in fact,

Electro-Titration Apparatus for all purposes except research investigations demanding high precision of measurement made with all external conditions, such as temperature and pressure, carefully controlled.


Bulletins 86S and 90s describing these two devices in detail

may be had on request


460 East Ohio Street


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Copy of Supplement No. 54, Microscopes, Microtomes, Photo-Micrographic

Apparatus and Accessories, sent upon request

Price subject to change without notice.





FRIDAY, MARCH 11, 1921





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This meeting is the culmination of repeated efforts extending over a period of more than one hundred years to band the mineralogists of America together and to maintain journal devoted primarily to mineralogy and cognate sciences. Although our colleagues in England and France organized over forty years ago, in 1876 and 1878, respectively, we were unable to do so until a year ago. The past year has been primarily one of adjustment and development and of bringing the need of such an organization more strongly to the attention of those interested. It has also been a period during which our ideas of what the society should be have become somewhat clarified. The progress made has been most gratifying. We are now a going concern with some very tangible assets, and there are already strong assurances of a most influential future. As retiring president, I desire to discuss briefly some of the important phases in the development of mineralogy in America, and the various efforts made to organize a national society, and to found a journal; also to interpret, if possible, the function of mineralogy in our present-day educational and scientific programs and to indicate some probable lines of future development.

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The earliest published papers dealing with the mineralogy of America were apparently those which appeared in the Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, in 1785. These were followed two years later by

1 Address of the retiring president of the Mineralogical Society of America, Chicago, December 29, 1920.


MSS. intended for publication and books, etc., intended for review should be sent to The Editor of Science, Garrison-onHudson, N. Y.

what Merrill characterizes as the first work natural science and especially of mineralogy. on American geology although its title was Toward the study of this science, he produced in distinctly mineralogical. I refer to Schoepf's his own country a strong impulse, and he gave it Beitraege zur Mineralogischen Kenntniss von

no small degree of eclat. His cabinet, composed

of very select and well characterized specimens; des Oestlichen Theils von Nord Amerika und

purchased by himself, or collected in his own peseine Gebirge, which was published in Ger

destrian or other tours in Europe, or, in many many.

instances, presented to him by distinguished minAn event of far-reaching importance upon

eralogists abroad; and both in its extent, and in the development of our science was the ap- relation to the then state of this country, very pointment in 1802 of Benjamin Silliman as

valuable, soon became an object of much attenprofessor of chemistry, mineralogy, and so tion, That of the late B. B. Perkins, which, at forth in Yale University. This appears to about the same time had been formed by Mr. have been the first college appointment for Perkins in Europe, and imported by him into this mineralogy in America. Silliman began his country, was also placed in New York and both lectures at Yale in the fall of 1804, and two

cabinets contributed more than any causes had years later wrote a sketch of the Mineral

ever done before to excite in the public mind an

active interest in the science of mineralogy. ogy of New Haven," which was published in 1810 in the Transactions of the Connecticut And further, Academy of Sciences. In those days mineral

Dr. Bruce manifested a strong desire to aid in ogy and geology had not been sharply differ

bringing to light the neglected mineral treasures entiated, and mineralogy was commonly used

of the United States. He soon became a focus of as the more comprehensive term. Accord- information on these subjects. Specimens were ingly, this contribution by Silliman is com- sent to him from many and distant parts of the monly recognized as the first attempt at a country, both as donations and for his opinion regeological description of a region. Mention specting their nature. In relation to mineralogy must also be made here of the “ Mineralogical

he conversed, he corresponded extensively, both Observations made in the Environs of Boston with Europe and America; he performed mineral

ogical tours; he sought out and encouraged the in 1807 and 1808,” by S. Godon, and which were published in the Memoirs of the Amer

young mineralogists of his own country, and often

expressed a wish to see a journal of American ican Academy of Arts and Sciences. Interest in the subject was increasing

mineralogy upon the plan of that of the School of

Mines at Paris. This object, as is well known, he rapidly so that in January, 1810, Dr. Archi

accomplished, and in 1810, published the first bald Bruce established the American Min- number of this work. Owing to extraneous causes, eralogical Journal, the first American publi- it was never carried beyond one volume; but it cation designed primarily for mineralogists demonstrated the possibility of sustaining such and geologists. He was a native of New York a work in the United States, and will always be City, having been born there in February, mentioned in the history of American science, as 1777. Although a physician by profession, Dr.

the earliest original purely scientific journal in

America. Bruce was vitally interested in mineralogy. After completing his medical studies at the It is to be sincerely regretted that the fail. University of Edinburgh in 1800, he spent ing health and early death of Bruce caused two years visiting important mineral locali

this journal to be so short-lived. Its conties and collections in England, France, tinuation would have permitted the mineraloSwitzerland and Italy, so that when he re

gists of this country to have looked with turned to New York in the fall of 1803 to

pride upon the achievements of our early take up the practise of medicine he brought workers in this direction, for in Europe much with him a mineral collection of great value.

progress in the founding of mineralogical Dr. Bruce's biographer tells us that

journals had already been made. In France the ruling passion in Dr. Bruce's mind was love of there was the Journal des Mines, founded in

1795 and which became the Annales des Mines Also, in 1816. In Germany the Taschenbuch fuer

But whatever progress may hitherto have been die gesammte Mineralogie mit Hinsicht auf

made in mineralogical pursuits, every new advance die neuesten Endeckungen was established in has opened a wider and more interesting prospect. 1806, which subsequently was superseded by The science is still in its infancy, and in many of the Zeitschrift fuer Mineralogie. This jour- its paths can only proceed with a faltering and nal in turn gave way to the Jahrbuch fuer

uncertain step. Mineralogie, Geognosie, Geologie, und Petre

In reviewing this pioneer text, Professor faktenkunde in 1830, which with but slight

Silliman in 1818 said: modifications in the title has continued down to the present day and is recognized as a

In our opinion, this work does honor to our

country and will greatly promote the knowledge of most powerful influence in the development

mineralogy and geology, besides aiding in the great of the early sciences, especially in Europe.

work of disseminating a taste for science generThe first comprehensive work on mineralogy

ally. ... The method of execution is masterly. in America was Parker Cleaveland's “Ele

Discrimination, perspicuity, judicious selection of mentary Treatise on Mineralogy and Geol

characters and facts, a style chaste, manly, and ogy," a volume of 668 pages with numerous comprehensive, are among the attributes of Procrystal drawings and a colored geological map fessor Cleaveland's performance. ... In our of the eastern portion of the United States, opinion, Professor Cleaveland's work ought to be which appeared in 1816. In writing this text introduced in all our schools of mineralogy and it obviously was necessary for Cleaveland, who ought to be the travelling companion of every was professor of mathematics and natural

American mineralogist. philosophy, and lecturer on chemistry and

The text was received with great favor, a mineralogy in Bowdoin College, to which

second edition in two volumes being issued in position he had been appointed in 1805, to

1822. Although later a third edition became draw freely upon European writers, especially

necessary, it was never prepared on account English, French and German. The incorpor

of the failing health of the author. ation of American localities was an arduous

In 1825 Samuel Robinson published an task, for Cleaveland indicates that Bruce's elaborate list of American mineral localities, Mineralogical Journal, a paper by S. Godon

entitled “A catalogue of American minerals in the Memoirs of the American Academy,

with their localities.” The following year and another by Dr. Adam Seybert, of Phila

Emmon’s “Manual of Mineralogy and Geoldelphia, in the Medical Museum were almost

ogy was issued. This was a text of 230 the only printed authorities which he em

pages. The part dealing with mineralogy was ployed.

the second general treatise on mineralogy In his introduction, Cleaveland stresses the

published in America. Little attention was importance of mineralogy in the following given to crystallography. Descriptive min

eralogy was emphasized and 297 minerals It may also be remarked that several arts and

were described. manufactures depend upon mineralogy for their

The next work on mineralogy by an Amerexistence; and that improvements and discoveries

ican was the first part of the “ Treatise on in the latter can not fail of extending their bene

Mineralogy," published in 1832, by Professor ficial efforts to the aforementioned employments. In fine the study of mineralogy, whether it be

C. U. Shepard, who at that time was an asviewed as tending to increase individual wealth, to

sistant to Professor Silliman at Yale Uniimprove and multiply arts and manufactures and

versity. It was based on the work of Mohs thus promote the public good; or as affording a

and was a small volume of 256 pages. This pleasant subject for scientific research, recom- was followed in 1835 by Part Two consisting mends itself to the attention of the citizen and of two volumes of 630 pages. A second scholar.

edition was published in 1844.


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