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Calvin Kendall, of Rochester, Minn., “For

“For through the non-arrival of his dogs. He is biochemical work of high order leading to also encountering difficulty in obtaining films the preparation of the compound 'thyroxin' owing to their unexpected cost. He proposes and the determination of its chemical struc- to give lectures at Montevideo and at Buenos ture and giving results which contribute to Aires, thus obtaining assistance from the the comfort and welfare of mankind.”

British communities. He will probably proPROFESSOR STEPHEN A. FORBES, of the Uni

ceed south early in December in the whaler versity of Illinois has been elected president of Solstreif, without waiting for the dogs, althe Ecological Society of America,

though their absence makes sledging more

difficult. At the recent Chicago meeting of the American Psychological Association, Professor PROFESSOR J. W. E. GLATTFELD, of the de Margaret Floy Washburn was elected to the partment of chemistry of the University of presidency.

Chicago, will spend his winter quarter vacaDR. WILLIAM BLUM, of the Bureau of

tion at the Desert Laboratory of the Carnegie Standards has been elected president of the

Institution at Tucson, Arizona. Washington Section of the American Chem- DR. JULIUS STIEGLITZ, of the University of ical Society.

Chicago, has delivered three lectures on the Dr. F. M. PERKIN has received the honor Mayo Foundation at Rochester, Minnesota. of the order of commander of the British Em

The first was on Chemistry and Medicine," pire. Dr. Perkin is one of the leading au

and the other two were on The Electrical thorities upon the scientific treatment and Theory of Oxidation.” utilization of coal and the production of oil

A LECTURE was delivered at the School of from it.

Hygiene and Public Health of Johns HopTHE Italian Society of Sciences has kins University, December 13, by Dr. Charles awarded its gold medal for 1920 to Professor Wardell Stiles, U. S. P. H. S., on

“ Some A. Signorini, of the University of Palermo, Practical Aspects of the Subject of Soil Polfor his papers published during the last year. lution."

Dr. C. O. JOHNS, chief of the color and pro- DR. ALFRED F. Hess, of the New York Unitein laboratories of the Bureau of Chemistryversity and Bellevue Hospital Medical Colof the Department of Agriculture, has re

lege, will deliver the fifth Harvey Society signed to accept the offer made him by the

Lecture at the New York Academy of MediStandard Oil Company of New Jersey, to be

cine on Saturday evening January 15. His director of the research laboratory of the com

subject will be “Newer Aspects of Some pany.

Nutritional Disorders." MR. H. D. FOSTER has been appointed re

DR. YVES DELAGE, professor of zoology in search associate at the Bureau of Standards by the Hollow Building Tile Association.

University of Paris, distinguished for his

work on protoplasm, heredity and general Assistant SURGEON-GENERAL J. H. WHITE biology, has died at the age of sixty-six years. U. S. P. H. S., after the close of the sixth Sanitary Conference of the American Repub

PROFESSOR G. M. DEBOVE died on November lics, to be held in Montevideo, Uruguay, will

19, at almost seventy years of age. He is proceed to Valparaiso, Chile, and other points known for his work on diseases of the stomach on the West Coast of South America, via

and for the past seven years has been permaPanama, for the purpose of investigating nent secretary of the Paris Academy of Medisanitary conditions at the various ports.

cine. COMMANDER COPE, leader of the British Ant- At the annual meeting of the Society of arctic Expedition, is detained in Montevideo American Foresters held in New York City on December 20, the following officers were proximately $7,000 per annum. There are elected for 1921:

now about fifty vacancies in the commissioned

grades which will be filled by promotion from President, R. C. Bryant, 360 Prospect St., New Haven, Conn.

the eligibles secured from the examinations Vice-president, Paul G. Redington, Ferry Bldg.,

to be held in February and April. Applicants San Francisco, Calif.

for this examination should communicate with Secretary, Paul D. Kelleter, Atlantic Bldg., the Civil Service Commission or with the Washington, D.O.

Director of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, Treasurer, E. H. Frothingham, Atlantic Bldg., Washington, D. C. A civil engineer degree Washington, D. C.

or B.$. in civil engineering is required of an At the recent meeting of the Indiana Acad- applicant before appointment, but the examiemy of Sciences the officers were elected for nation may be taken in February or April 1921 were as follows:

and the appointment made effective on graduPresident, Howard E. Enders, West Lafayette.

ation. Vice-president, Frank M. Andrews, Blooming. The Laws Observatory of the University of ton.

Missouri, erected in 1853, has been torn down, Secretary, Walter N. Hess, Greencastle.

and a new building is being erected to replace Assistant Secretary, H. G. Dietz, Indianapolis.

it about half a mile south of the former site. Treasurer, Wm. M. Blanchard, Greencastle. Editor of Proceedings, F. J. Breeze, Muncie. INCLUDED among the bequests of the late Secretary, F. B. Wade, Indianapolis.

Dr. Lloyd Roberts of Manchester, England, THE American Pharmaceutical Association are the following gifts to medical organizahas elected the following officers :

tion: to the Royal Society of Medicine, President, Samuel L. Hilton, Washington, D. C. £5,000; to St. Mary's Hospital, Manchester,

First Vice-president, Charles E. Caspari, St. £5,000; to Manchester Royal Infirmary and Louis, Mo.

to the Royal College of Physicians, London, Second Vice-president, David F. Jones, Water

£3,000 each; and £2,000 to the Medical Society town, S. D.

of London.
Third Vice-president, Hugo H. Schaefer, New
Members of the Counoil, Henry M. Whelpley, St.

UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL Louis, Mo.; George M. Beringer, Camden, N. J.; ,

NEWS John G. Godding, Boston, Mass.

THE University of Montpellier, which was THE U. S. Civil Service Commission has founded in the thirteenth century, is preparannounced examinations for the positions of ing for the celebration of its approaching seven junior engineer and deck officer in the U. S. hundredth anniversary. Coast and Geodetic Survey to be held Feb

THROUGH the death of Mrs. Lucy H. Bowruary 9–10 and April 13–14, 1921. These

doin, of Salem, a bequest of $50,000 becomes positions are the entering ones in the field

available for Harvard Medical School, and force of the Coast and Geodetic Survey and

$5,000 each will be given to the Essex Instithe initial salary will be $2,000 per annum, tute and Peabody Academy of Salem. with a promise of increase to $2,400 after one

It is planned to establish a technical school month of satisfactory service. From these entering positions engineers will be promoted

at Oberlin College with accommodations for

about 700 students. after six months of satisfactory service to the commissioned grades of the Survey which FIRE, supposed to have originated from the have relative rank with the grades from en- furnace in a basement room, completely design to captain in the navy. The salaries of stroyed the office and private laboratory of Dr. the commissioned personnel, including com- Waddell, professor of pharmacology, and a pensation for quarters, etc., and longevity large amount of physiological apparatus in the pay, vary from a minimum of $2,500 to ap- physiological laboratory of the University of Virginia on the morning of December 24. The from French, German and Italian members, loss is largely, if not entirely, covered by in- included representatives of Great Britain, the surance and there will be little interruption to United States, Russia, and Switzerland, counthe regular laboratory work.

tries not included in the former report. The The inauguration of President Wallace D. official reporters of this prescription, which Atwood, of Clark College, will take place on included measurements of the living body, exFebruary 1. Presidents and representatives

clusive of those of the head and face, were from more than two hundred colleges have

Drs. Rivet, Schlaginhaufen and Duckworth, signified their intention of being present at the who published their reports in French, Gerexercises.

man and English, respectively. DR. HENRY RAND HATFIELD, professor of ac

Having these data in mind I was led to counting on the Flood Foundation in the Uni

state, in the preface to my recent “Manual of versity of California, has been appointed dean

Anthropometry," that the official reports of of the faculties of the State University of Cali

the prescription of 1912 were published only fornia to succeed Professor John C. Merriam,

on the other side of the Atlantic, and apwho resigned to accept the presidency of the

peared in an American journal for the first Carnegie Institution in Washington.

time in 1919, when Dr. Duckworth's official

report was reprinted by Dr. Hrdlička in his At the College of the City of New York,

new American Journal of Physical AnthroProfessor Herbert R. Moody has been ap

pology. pointed professor of chemical engineering

While this statement, concerning the three within the department of chemistry; Assistant

official reports only, is strictly true, I should Professor W. L. Prager has been promoted to

have mentioned that equally accurate and an associate professorship, and Mr. Joseph A.

trustworthy reports were published in other Babor has been promoted to an instructorship.

countries, and especially should I have cited DR. ARDREY W. Downs, formerly assistant

that of Dr. MacCurdy, also a member of professor of physiology at McGill University,

the committee. His report in full of the pre

the comm has been appointed to the chair of physiology scription of 1912 was translated at the time in the University of Alberta.

of the Congress for Dr. Rivệt's official copy,

and appeared, later in the same year, in DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE both SCIENCE and the American Anthropolo.

ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS gist. Had I noticed this earlier, I should DURING the sessions of two International certainly have brought it to the attention of Congresses of Anthropology, in 1906 at the readers of my book, and wish to take this Monaco, and in 1912 at Geneva, rules were opportunity to rectify my unintentional drawn up for the standardizing of the more neglect. usual anthropometric measurements. The The citations referred to are the following: work was undertaken in each case by a com- SCIENCE: N. S., Vol. 36, No. 931, Nov. 1, mittee, and the official reports were published 1912, pp. 603-608. by certain members to whom this duty was Amer. Anthropol., Vol. 14, No. 4, Oct.-Dec., assigned.

1912, pp. 621–631. The prescription of 1906 included measure

HARRIS HAWTHORNE WILDER ments of the skull and of the head and facial SMITH COLLEGE, features of the living. It was published in NORTHAMPTON, Mass., the French language by Dr. Papillault and December 17, 1920 appeared in the pages of L'Anthropologie (Vol. 17, 1906, pp. 559–572). The prescrip

A NEW DIKE NEAR ITHACA, N. Y. tion of 1912 was the work of a larger and CONSIDERABLE attention has been given by more representative committee, which aside geologists to the dikes of central New York.


Each newly discovered one is of interest and many specimens of both the raw material, the perhaps a note should be made of the occur- finished product and the laau kahioloná or rence of a rather large dike recently found. scraper which was sometimes a shell papaua It has been exposed at the eastern side of the (Meleagrina margaritifera) but more Portland cement quarry east of Shurger Point, monly a sharpened bone from the back of the six miles north of Ithaca. It is the first of the honu, a sea turtle not a (fish, as Dr. Russel Ithaca region dikes found in limestone and is has it). The boards were made of any hard exposed for the height of the Tully limestone wood; the naou of Dr. Russel was perhaps the at the north and south walls of the quarry and naio, or bastard sandalwood. in the shales along the quarry bed.

As a specimen of the remarkable durability No contact action was noticed. In places of the fiber, there is in the Bishop Museum a there is a thin calcite streak at the side of the ball of fish-line used by the Kamehamehas for dike, in others there is a tight contact between a hundred years and it is still in perfect condike and wall rock. Striæ on the calcite gave

dition. evidence of horizontal movement. The dike

WILLIAM T. BRIGHAM varies in width from 11" to 18" and is decidedly green, due to the serpentine in it. It

QUOTATIONS strikes about N 3° E., parallel to the dip PROFESSOR MICHELSON ON THE APPLICATION joints, like all the dikes near Ithaca. There OF INTERFERENCE METHODS TO ASTROmay be some connection between this dike

NOMICAL MEASUREMENTS and a group of smaller dikes east of Ludlow

THE first information Professor A. S. Edville, two miles to the north.

dington, Plumian professor of astronomy at

Cambridge University, received that his theo


retical deductions concerning the angular

diameters of certain stars and of the BetelTHE HAWAIIAN OLONA

geuse, in particular, had been confirmed by

Professor Michelson (in his paper at the ChiTO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: In SCIENCEfor

cago meeting] was from a cable message from September 10, 1920, p. 240, Mr. Vaughan Mac

the New York Times. He was extremely inCaughey again calls attention to the remark

terested and delighted at the results obtained ably durable fiber of the Hawaiian Oloná, and

and is anxiously awaiting full details. quotes Dr. N. Russel's rather inaccurate ac

Talking to the New York Times correspondcount of the people making the fiber and its

ent he pointed out that many years ago Proproducts, fish nets and cords, some used especially for fish-lines. In view of the possible ing, at any rate to a much greater degree of

fessor Michelson suggested a plan for measurimportance of this product, it seems worth

accuracy than before, diameters of stars by the while to correct certain statements. The name

wave theory of light. of the bird caught for its yellow feathers was

“For some time now,” he said, “they have 0-0 not 0-u. As late as 1864, when the pres

been carrying on these experiments at Mount ent writer first visited the Hawaiian Islands,

Wilson, and I presume that it is there that there were some natives at Olaa still beating

these most interesting results have been obthe mamake kapa and twisting the oloná fiber

tained. The great difficulty that they have had on their thighs. On the island of Molokai, as

to contend with has, of course, been what is late as 1889 a photograph was taken of a na

known as atmospheric tremor. They have been tive scraping the fiber. Surely Mr. Mac

trying Michelson's methods and previously had Caughey must be aware that in the Bishop Museum in Honolulu, is a fine cast from life of these were only with regard to very close double

obtained some very interesting results, but a native preparing this fine fiber, and there are

stars. By this means they got some very suc1 N. S., Vol. LII., No. 1341.

cessful results with double stars, but when they

came to try to determine the angular diameter ingly large in the astronomical world.-Cableof stars they were up against a very much gram to the New York Times. more difficult problem. I knew that they were working on these lines, but this is the first CAUSES OF CLIMATIC OSCILLATIONS word I have heard of the results.

IN PREHISTORIC TIME, PARTICU“At a meeting of the British Association I

LARLY IN THE ICE AGE1 delivered a presidential address to the mathe- In 1918 Professor Arldt, of Radeberg, matical and physical sections, and made refer- grouped the theories and weighed the evience to the fact that this experiment which was dence which had been proposed by 117 scienbeing carried out would be of the very greatest tists in the past sixty years on the causes importance. We have of course had theories,

of the glacial and interglacial epochs. As and, working on those theories, I gave a table

none of these hypotheses are in all respects of what I thought would be the angular diam

satisfactory, in his opinion, or can claim to eter of certain stars, and I am delighted to find

explain thoroughly all paleo-climatic phethat the figures so nearly correspond. This

nomena, he does not recognize any one theory would seem to show the theories have been on

or group of them. This is not surprising the right side.

since the fundamental conclusions underlying “In particular, I noticed that Betelguese's

these hypothesis have not been reached. diameter is 260,000,000 miles, which is enor

In this paper of twenty-seven pages, Arldt mously larger than the sun. That is a very in

does not give an exhaustive explanation of the teresting confirmation of the theory of Russell

numerous hypotheses which have been proand Hertzsprung of giant and dwarf stars, giv

posed but a brief statement concerning the ing direct evidence that Betelguese is one of

most important groups among them. He disthe inflated stars and very different from the

tinguishes two classes, Cosmic and Telluric, sun."

with three subdivisions for the first: UniverDr. A. C. Crommelin, chief of staff of the

sal, Solar and Telluro-Cosmic; and five for Greenwich Observatory, was interviewed to

the second: Dislocation of the Poles, Atmosday on Professor Michelson's discovery by The

pheric, Intra-Telluric, Actologic and OroEvening Standard and expressed the interest

graphic. Although discussions and opinions the experts in England's principal observatory are to be found under each of these headings, took in it.

his main contribution appears in crystallized “Star diameters have been calculated

but abbreviated form in his conclusion, thus : hitherto,” he said, “but have never before been Among numerous theories explaining the actually measured. Michelson's announcement changes in climate of the earth, those should be that he has measured Alpha Orionis and found given preference which are based upon the hyit to have a diameter of 260,000,000 miles, 300 pothesis that the factors which are of importance times bigger than the sun, is hopeful.

to-day in determining climate have always been (That the distance from the earth of such a effective. ... Most importance is attached to star as Alpha Orionis, which is 900,000,000,

Ramsay's theory which emphasizes most strongly 000,000 miles away, should have been measured

the direct and indirect action of the mountains.

Besides these orogenetic forces other elements, as so long ago and the size of the star should re

enumerated below, probably aided in the generamain unmeasured seems strange, but it was

tion of the ice ages. explained at the offices of the Royal Astronom

1. The rise of extensive mountains (Ramsay). ical Society that the two measurements have 2. The formation of ocean basins (Arldt). to proceed on entirely different lines.

3. The sinking of the entire ocean floor and the “The Astronomical Society confirms Dr. 1 Theodore Arldt, “Die Ursachen der KlimaschCrommelin in the expectation of good results wankungen der Vorzeit, besonders der Eiszeiten," from Professor Michelson's work. For some Zeitschrift für Gletscherkunde, Band XI., s. 1-27, time past he and his work have loomed increas- 1918.

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