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toric Studies, held at the Hotel Plaza, New York, on February 3, 1921, Professor George Grant MacCurdy was elected first director of the foundation. Dr. Charles Peabody is chairman of the board and for the present will also serve as treasurer of the foundation.

The year's work will open at La Quina (Charente) on July 1. After a stay of some three months at La Quina, there will be excursions in the Dordogne, the French Pyrénés and to the Grimaldi caves near Mentone. The winter term will be in Paris; and the work of the spring term will include excursions to the important Chellean and Acheulian stations of the Somme valley, to Neolithic sites of the Marne or other suitable locality, and to Brittany for a study of megalithic monuments.

Students may enroll for an entire year or for any part thereof. Those who contemplate entering for either the year or the first term, should communicate immediately with the director, at Yale University Museum, New Haven, Conn.; or with Dr. C. Peabody, Peabody Museum, Cambridge, Mass.

One foundation scholarship of the value of 2,000 francs is available for the first year. The special qualifications of the applicant, together with references, should accompany each application. The foundation is open to both men and women students. The address of the director after June 15 will be care of Guaranty Trust Company, Paris.

PROFESSOR HENRY FAIRFIELD OSBORN has been elected one of the vice-presidents of the Eugenics Education Society, of which Major Leonard Darwin is the president. The American committee of the Second International Eugenics Congress extended a special invitation to Major Darwin to attend the congress, but learned by his letter of December 1, 1920, that his health will not permit him to come. Invitations have been extended to several British, French and Scandinavian authors and writers in subjects of genetics and eugenics.

Dr. GRAHAM LUSK has been elected corresponding member of the Société de Biologie of Paris.

MME. MARIE CURIE has been invited to visit the United States and expects to come in May. Committees of reception have been appointed, including in their membership leading men of science. It is planned to present to Mme. Curie a gram of radium.

DR. HENRY Norris Russell, professor of astronomy and director of the observatory at Princeton University, has been appointed a research associate of the Mount Wilson Observatory of the Carnegie Institution of Washington for the current year. Dr. Russell has gone to England to receive the gold medal of the Royal Astronomical Society which was recently awarded him in recognition of his work on the evolutionary classification of stars. He expects to return in March to undertake his work at the Mount Wilson Observatory.

Harlow SHAPLEY, of the Mount Wilson Solar Observatory, has been appointed observer at the Harvard College Observatory. and will enter upon his new work in March or April

DR. HENRY H. Robinson, of New Haven, has been appointed superintendent of the Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey to succeed Professor H. E. Gregory. His address is Hopkins Hall, Yale University, New Haven, Conn.

The trustees of Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History at Honolulu, Hawaii, have appointed

SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS DR. FRANK BILLINGS, Chicago, has been elected president of the next congress of American Physicians and Surgeons, which meets in Washington, May 2–3, 1922.

At the recent meeting of the Mathematical Association of America the following officers were elected: President, Professor G. A. Miller; Vice-presidents, Professor R. C. Archibald and Professor R. D. Carmichael.

Dr. GEORGE ELLERY HALE, director of the Mount Wilson Solar Observatory, has been awarded the Actonian prize by the Royal Institution of Great Britain in recognition of his work on solar phenomena.

ruary 17.

as curator of collections Dr. Stanley C. Ball, can Association for the Advancement of Sciprofessor of biology in the International ence, delivered an address on "How the govY. M. C. A. College, Springfield, Mass. Leav- ernment is fighting insects," before the ing Springfield in March Dr. Ball will visit Washington Academy of Sciences on Febmuseums in Albany, New York City, Philadelphia, Washington, Chicago and San Fran

DR. A. N. RICHARDS, professor of pharmacisco, reaching Honolulu about May 1.

cology, University of Pensylvania, will deliver DR. RALPH O. RODGERS, previously in charge the seventh Harvey Society Lecture at the of the work in the physics of photography, New York Academy of Medicine on Saturday at Cornell University, has been appointed evening, February 26. His subject will be assistant secretary of the illuminating engi- “Kidney function." neering society.

DR. GEORGE Thomas STEVENS, of New York The board of trustees of the American Med- City, author of contributions to opthalmology ical Association reelected the following mem- and neurology, died on January 30 at the age bers of the Council on Pharmacy and Chem- of eighty-eight years. istry: L. G. Rowntree, Rochester, Minn.;

DR. HENRY HARRINGTON JANEWAY, of New Torald Sollman, Cleveland, and Lafayette B.

York City, known for his work on cancer, Mendel, New Haven; and to fill a vacancy oc

attending surgeon to the Memorial Hospital, casioned by the resignation of Professor

died on February 1, at the age of forty-seven Henry Kraemer, Dr. Charles W. Edmunds,

years. professor of therapeutics and materia medica, University of Michigan.

PROFESSOR HENRY MATTHEW STEPHENS, PROFESSOR DEXTER S. KIMBALL, of Cornell

since 1899 professor of biology in Dickinson University, represented the American Society

College, died on February 5, aged fifty-four of Mechanical Engineers and the federated

years. American engineering societies at the annual DR. LEOPOLD LANDAU, professor of surgery convention of the Engineering Institute of at Berlin, died on December 28, 1920, at the Canada, at Toronto.

age of seventy-two years. At the next meeting of the Canadian Re- A REGULAR meeting of the American Physsearch Council, to be held in Ottawa, Feb- ical Society will be held in Fayerweather Hall, ruary 19, an interim appointment of chairman Columbia University, New York, on Saturwill be made to succeed Dr. A. B. Macallum, day, February 26, 1921. If the length of the who resigned to accept the chair of biochem- program requires it, there will also be sessions istry in McGill University, Montreal. The ap- on Friday, February 25. Other meetings for pointment of a permanent chairman will de- the current season are as follows: April 22–23, pend on the action of the federal government. 1921, Washington; August 4, 5, 1921, Pacific DR. LYNDS JONES, of the department of zool

Coast Section at Berkeley. ogy of Oberlin College, announces a special The Royal Agricultural College at Cirentrip under the auspices of the summer school, cester, the oldest place of agricultural inthrough the northwest, terminating in the

struction in the British Empire, is threatened town of Mora, Washington, on the Pacific with extinction at the end of the year unless coast. A special study of insect, bird, plant

a minimum capital sum of £25,000 can be and animal life will be made and attention

raised by private munificence to save it. The will be given to topographical geology. The college, which was founded seventy-five years trip will probably be made by automobile and

ago under the patronage of the Prince Conwill be in the field for eight weeks.

sort, has since 1915 been occupied by a girls' DR. L. 0. HOWARD, chief of the Bureau of school from the east coast, whose tenancy Entomology, retiring president of the Ameri- ends at Christmas. The Ministry of Agricul

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ture are asking the governors to reopen the Medicine; Dr. S. S. Sprigge, editor of the college for its originally intended purposes, Lancet; Professor James Walker, professor of and have promised, subject to certain condi- chemistry, University of Edinburgh; and Dr. tions a small, annual grant towards its main- Dawson Williams, editor of the British Medtenance. The governors are anxious to take ical Journal. C.M.G.: Mr. I. B. Pole Evans, this course, they have considered and approved chief of the division of botany and plant a curriculum of greater general utility and of pathology, Department of Agriculture, Union a more practical character than that formerly of South Africa. C.I.E.: Lieutenant-Colonel pursued at the college, and have conditionally W. F. Harvey, director of the Central Resecured the services of a principal of excep- search Institute, Kasauli, Punjab, and Dr. tional qualifications. In an appeal issued on E. J. Butler, formerly Imperial Mycologist, behalf of the governors, Lord Bledisloe (chair. Pusa. K.C.V.0.: Dr. F. S. Hewett. man) and Lord Bathurst (vice-chairman)

THE Journal of the American Medical Assourge that “never, in the best interests of

ciation states that its Paris exchanges for the British Agriculture, was there greater need

last week in December were crowded with acthan there is to-day for the practical training

counts of the elaborate festivities of the cenof our present and future landowners, estate

tenary of the Academy of Medicine. The enagents and larger farmers in improved meth

tire issue of the Presse médicale for December ods of agriculture, in the economic administration of rural estates, in practical forestry,

25 is devoted to an illustrated description, with

the addresses delivered by Laveran, the present or in local government."

president of the academy, and others. The We learn from the Journal of the American

official delegates from other countries included Medical Association that the Academia de

sixteen from England, five from the United Ciencias Médicas of Havana has announced

States; eleven from Belgium, including Borthe following prizes for the year 1921: Presi

det, Brachet and Willems; Arteaga, from Bodent Gutiérrez' prize, 400 pesos, for the best

livia; O. de Oliveira, from Brazil; Córdova, work on the necessity of a National Formu

Donoso, Orego and Sierra, from Chile; Eslary; Gañongo prize, 200 pesos for the best

guerra and Machado from Colombia; Cueva work on any medical subject; Gordon prize

and Villamar, from Ecuador; Nourgo and (physiology), a gold medal, for the best work

Nobles from Guatemala; Arce and Chutro, on correlation of the endocrine glands. The

from Argentina; two delegates also from Peru; papers must be sent to the secretary of the

Silva, from Salvador; Carlos, Fonseca, Tijera, academy (calle de Cuba, número 84-A) before

Rincones, Rísquez and Velásquez, from VeneMarch 31, 1921. They must be original, must

zuela; Ito and Tsuchiga from Japan; 0. Peinot have been published before, and may be Huan, from China; Robert from Siam, and in Spanish, English or French.

Cassens from Haiti. Twenty-nine countries New YEAR honors conferred in Great were represented in all. A medal to commemoBritain on scientific men are recorded in rate the occasion was struck. The president of Nature as follows: Privy Councillor: The Rev. the republic of France was present with two of Dr. Thomas Hamilton, for service to the

his ministers and all the préfets of the départecause of education in Ireland, first as Presi- ment. The celebration concluded with a bandent of Queen's College, Belfast, and after- quet and a reception at the Palais d'Orsay. wards as President and Vice Chancellor of the Toasts were offered at the banquet by Cassens, Queen's University of Belfast. Knights: Pro- for Haiti; Recasens, for Spain; van der Berg, P. R. Scott Lang, for more than forty years for Holland; Cueva, for Ecuador; Kalliontzis, Regius professor of mathematics in the Uni- for Greece, and Lucatello, for Italy. Wright, versity of St. Andrews; Mr. P. J. Michelli, of England, was seated at the right hand of secretary to the London School of Tropical the president of the academy.

We learn from Nature that the British Air DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE Ministry announces that the cabinet has ap- ON THE OCCURRENCE OF AËDES SOLLICITANS proved, subject to parliamentary sanction, the IN FRESH WATER POLLUTED BY ACID

WASTE grant of a sum for the direct assistance of civil

It is believed to be of interest to students aviation. During the financial year 1921–22 payments under this grant will be limited to a

of mosquitoes to report the occurrence of maximum sum of £60,000, and will be made

Aēdes sollicitans, a salt marsh mosquito, in to British companies operating on approved

fresh water polluted by acid waste from a aerial routes. The routes at present approved

guano factory.” During October, 1920, while are London to Paris, London to Brussels, and making investigations concerning fishes in London to Amsterdam. Extensions to these

relation to mosquito control at Savannah, routes and additional routes, such as England- Health Service and the city of Savannah, the

Georgia, in cooperation with the U. S. Public Scandinavia, on which the possibilities of a service employing flying boats or amphibian

writer found mosquito larvæ in ditches which

were so strongly polluted that all other animal machines or a mixed service of sea and land

life appeared to be extinct. The larvæ were aircraft can be demonstrated, may be approved.

collected from time to time and reared to

the adult stage. Dr. Bassett, bacteriologist UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL for the city of Savannah, identified the species NEWS

as Aëdes sollicitans and this determination ANNOUNCEMENT has been made at Brown

later was verified by Dr. Dyar, of the U. S.

Bureau of Entomology.
University of the completion of the Nathaniel
French Davis Fund in honor of Professor

The acid content of the water in the ditches Davis, now emeritus, who was for forty-one

where the pollution was greatest was not years a teacher of mathematics in the univer

determined but a water sample taken downsity. The fund amounts to ten thousand dol

stream where the pollution had become greatly lars and the income is to supplement the reg

diluted and where Aëdes sollicitans was reular library appropriations in purchasing placed by Anopheles crucians and Culex sp. mathematical books and periodicals for the

was titrated by Dr. Bassett and found to conmathematical seminary.

tain 2.08 per cent. of free acid and a large

amount of iron. It is quite probable that the DR. VICTOR C. VAUGHAN, for thirty years

water in portions of the ditches in which the dean of the University of Michigan Medical

larvæ of Aëdes sollicitans were common had School, has resigned. Dr. Vaughan has been

an acid content of fully 3 per cent. professor of hygiene and physiological chem

The larvæ occurred most frequently along istry since 1884.

the edges of the ditches among decaying vegeAr Colgate University, Associate Professor tation and they displayed a stronger resistance A. W. Smith has been made full professor and to the toxicity of oil than Culex and Anopheles head of the department of mathematics as larvæ occurring in the more weakly polluted successor to Professor J. M. Taylor. Pro- portions of the same ditches. fessor T. R. Aude, of the Carnegie Institute

SAMUEL F. HILDEBRAND of Technology, has been appointed associate U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES, professor of mathematics.

WASHINGTON, D. C. Dr. SOLON MARX WHITE, Minneapolis, pro

THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE AND THE AMERI

CAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEfessor of medicine at the University of Min

MENT OF SCIENCE nesota, has been appointed chief of the de- THE application made to the council of the partment of medicine to succeed Dr. Leonard American Association for the Advancement of G. Rowntree, now associated with the Mayo Science for the organization of a new Section Clinic.

to be devoted to the History of Science was de

nied by the council (October 17, 1920), but permission was granted for those interested in the History of Science to enter Section L on “Historical and Philological Sciences," a Section which had never been organized and existed only in name.

The special committee appointed by the president of the association for the organization of a History of Science Section, recommended, on December 16, 1920, that the words

and philological” be dropped. This recommendation was likewise rejected by the council. It is clear, therefore, (1) that the council does not deem it wise to admit a separate section on the History of Science and (2) that the organization effected in Chicago on December 29, 1920, will not meet the needs of the increasing number of men interested in the History of Science, since, at any time, those representing “Philological Sciences ” and the “Historical Sciences (whatever that term may mean), may step in and give rise to a heterogeneous, incoherent group of workers, having no interests in common. If representatives of the “Philological Sciences” and “Historical Sciences” do not appear, then Section L constitutes in reality the very kind of organization which the council decreed should not be admitted as a Section.

In the judgment of the present writer, the dignified and logical procedure for those interested in the History of Science is, therefore, to withdraw altogether from organized historical work in connection with the American Association for the Advancement of Science until such time when the council and general session will be ready to welcome them into the association as a separate Section.

FLORIAN CAJORI UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

These experiments proved very conclusively that photographs from the air, using present-day equipment, are of little practical value to the hydrographer (p. 575).

Those interested in the study of underwater features may be interested in the opposite view published in Comptes Rendus. Objects in French water were photographed to a maximum depth of 17 m. and several points of rock were revealed by the photographs which had escaped detection by other methods. ("Plusieurs têtes de roche qui avaient échappé aux levés détaillés et trés exacts de ces parages ont été ainsi révélées par la photographie.”) Specific instances are given where points of rock dangerous to shipping, not indicated on the hydrographic charts, were discovered by means of the photographs.

Perhaps the statement that photographs taken from the air are of little practical value is more conclusive than was intended.

Willis T. LEE U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

SOIL COLOR STANDARDS

In order that there may be uniformity in the designation of the color of soils it is proposed that a set of color standards be prepared in which those colors which occur in soils and subsoils may be represented. Such a set of standard colors would be of great value to soil survey workers and would certainly lead to a better understanding of the descriptions of soils from the various regions of the United States and of the earth as a whole.

In order that such a set of color standards might be published representative soils from all parts of the United States would need to be examined. No doubt the Bureau of Soils of the United States Department of Agriculture could lead in the work and by consultation with various State Soil Surveys and with the Soil Surveys of other nations standardize the colors and publish reproductions of them as Robert Ridgway did in his “ Color Standard and Color Nomenclature” (published by

2 Tome 169, 27 October, 1919.

CONCERNING “AERIAL PHOTO

HYDROGRAPHY" In an article describing attempts to photograph “the small coral heads and pinnacle rocks” off the coast of Florida, E. Lester Jones of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey concludes that:

1 SCIENCE, December 17, 1920.

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