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areas of natural Negro segregation. As those States-largely from the West Indies. Only areas to maintain men and culture of a fair those who are so uninformed as not to know level with the remainder of the nation, or will we have a tragically serious Negro problem in they be lowered so that a sort of cultural and America can, on any except selfish grounds, physical quarantine would need to be main- favor the admission of alien Negroes to Amertained? Will those areas spread their inferior- ica. Have we not wisdom and character ity out over their borders Haiti and Liberia enough to prevent the further aggravation of are contemporary examples of slackening the problem by the admission of some 6,000 Negro culture. We should study the tenden- more such aliens yearly? cies of this movement in America—this un- A third of these Negro movements is the sought for, uninvited, unintended environ- amalgamation of the Negro and the white, and mental segregation of the two peoples.

the consequent effacement of Negroes by their A second Negro movement is the present physical incorporation with the remainder of unprecedented acceleration of Negro migra- the nation's population. tion from south to north. Ever since the Civil The growth in the per cent. of mixed-bloods War the Negro has been a restless migrant, shows that an increasing per cent. of "Nebut during the past three years the migration groes possess mates with white ancestry. has turned particularly away from the south, Unless the tide turns the descendants of a and one million or more Negroes have come very large per cent. of our present Negroes in directly from their old southern homes into time will be incorporated in the then Ameriour northern cities.

can breed of men. The south and the Negro mutually under- The migration of the Negro to our northern stand each other. The white south will tell cities and the large per cent. of foreign-born you that it has no Negro problem,” because whites in these cities greatly complicates this there is a perfectly understood procedure in phase of the Negro question. The foreigner all interrelations between individuals, coming fresh to our shores almost entirely groups, of the two races. The north and the lacks the racial prejudice which is native to Negro are almost total strangers. If the America. I was told in Cleveland last summer Negroes become proportionately as numerous by a student of the problem there that in that in the north as they are in the south, will the city intermarriage between the Negroes and interrelations between the two peoples be simi- Italians is taking place at a rapid rate in the lar to those now in the south where the public two chief Italian centers of residence. opinion and the practise of the white south is, A most careful and conclusive study of our as expressed to me by men in several different people of Negro-white ancestry should be made southern areas, just this—“The white man that we may know how the wholesale absorpwill run the south. Whether just or not, it is tion of our Negroes by our whites will affect necessary." The recent northern race riots in the qualities of the nation as a whole. At no East St. Louis, Omaha, Chicago and Duluth given era in history has one nation probably are, in this connection, suggestive.

been inherently greatly superior or inferior to The most accurate data should be at hand another in the same general stage of culture, in regard to this northward migration, and yet some competing nations have gone down daily research should be carried on in its many

while others have advanced. Apparently very varying aspects. We need scientific facts to slight physical, intellectual or moral superiorunderstand the tendencies of so unprecedented ity is enough to give successful advantage, a movement.

and very slight inferiority enough to result in In one aspect of this northward migration disastrous disadvantage between two nations of Negroes decisive opinion should be uttered quite equally favored by environment. Hiswithout further research, and that is the tory has no truths to tell of the relative movement of alien Negroes into the United strength or weakness of a nation so largely

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Negro as ours seems at present destined to be- whites in America have become too dynamic If we are not to blunder on in the

for national disaster longer to be trusted to dark, it is well to learn what forecasts of the adjust their differences mainly on the basis future can be made by asking scientific ques- of race prejudice on the one hand, or untions of the present.

thoughtful sentimentality on the other. The fourth Negro movement I shall note is I have endeavored to show in this paper that that of growing political power due to develop- our nation should make large use of definite ing race consciousness and purposeful organic and specific anthropological knowledge to help zation for political action.

insure her national development. I am August 19, 1920, the newly elected president interested as any anthropologist in all reof the Universal Negro Improvement Associa- search into the development of man. I am intion is quoted in the press as saying, “The day

aying, “ The day terested in the development of culture. I prize is not far distant when the Negro will be a as one of my very richest experiences my inpower in politics." In the October, 1920, num- timate contacts with primitive peoples, but, as ber of The Journal of Negro History an article an American believing in America and her by Norman B. Andrews entitled “The Negro possibilities, I am to-day first of all anxious in Politics," closes with these words:

that anthropologists use their scientific knowlIn several of the cities of the North there is edge to assist America in the solution of her such a large Negro population and so much appre- momentous problems. ciation among the Negroes of their political power

ALBERT ERNEST JENKS that they are now launching a movement to nomi- UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA nate and elect members of their race to represent them in Congress. It is likely that this may soon be effected in Chicago, New York and Philadel. A BRIEF HISTORICAL CONSIDERATION phia.

OF THE METRIC SYSTEM1 The National Association for the Advance

THE World Metric Standardization Council ment of Colored People says that in 1913 it

wishes briefly to present to the Mathematical defeated bills in eleven states out of twelve Association of America the desirability of enwhich aimed to prevent Negro-white inter- rolling actively in support of the adoption of marriage.10 When an organization in the

the metric system in the United States. This interest of one race in America, a

organization is an advisory organization, uniwhich numbers one tenth of our total popu

fying the efforts of all who are urging the lation, can control legislation in eleven out adoption of the metric units of weights and of twelve states as far separated as New

measures throughout the United States, the York on the Atlantic and Washington on the

British commonwealths and the world. There Pacific, it is very evident that that race is

are no decimal dues, but contributions to the rapidly becoming an important political factor cause are welcome. in the life of our nation.

Whatever theoretical advantages a duodecA few years ago one of the foremost admin- imal or sixty system might have, the fact reistrators of research funds in the United

mains that man is ten-fingered and learns to States said the American Negroes could not

count and reckon with these mechanical aids be researched by his institution because they assisting in the process of computation, either were a political factor in America. Is this consciously or unconsciously. Among civilinot the all-sufficient reason why we should zations reaching any high degree of culture, have all possible scientific data and knowl- only two have carried to any extent any other edge concerning the Negro ? The Negroes and

than a decimal system The sixty system of the

Babylonians and the twenty system of the 10 Fourth Annual Report of the Board of Di. rectors of the National Negro Protective Associa- 1 Paper presented before the Mathematical Astion.

sociation of America, Chicago, Dec. 28, 1920.

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Mayas of Yucatan are exceptions. However, by this means will be gained precious time; ... if even in these systems, the ten (or five) forms a by this means labor, annoyance, error, damage and subsidiary system, apparently developed first. other accidents commonly joined with these comThe further important fact should be noted putations, be avoided, then I submit this plan volthat with the development of these numerical untarily to your judgment. systems, both these civilizations included their What can one add to these words of the first systems of weights and measures. We may writer on the subject, and an independent diseven say that it appears probable that the sys- coverer of decimal fractions ? All that Stevin tem of weights and measures was first brought says applies to-day, hardly with the change of to the sixty system among the Babylonians, a letter. The genius of Stevin is evident in and weights and measures to the twenty sys- the comprehensive grasp which he had of the tem among the Mayans, and from this carried universal application of decimal fractions to over to the number system. Note that this re- affairs. Much of the benefit of this invention duction took place in Babylon as much as is lost to us in America, because we persist in four thousand years ago. These ancient civ- using non-decimal weights and measures. ilizations found it necessary, then, to make

Louis O. KARPINSKI their number systems conform to their systems UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN of weights and measures, including time. The first systematic treatise on decimal frac

SCIENTIFIC EVENTS tions was printed in 1585, first in Flemish and

THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE BOARD OF then in French, by Simon Stevin, of Bruges. TRUSTEES OF THE AMERICAN MUSEUM This work is addressed to astronomers, survey

OF NATURAL HISTORY org, masters of money (of the mint), and to all A REPORT of the nature and scope of the past merchants. Stevin says, of this work, that it year's work of The American Museum of Nattreats of "something so simple, that it hardly ural History was made on the evening of merits the name of invention." He adds: February 7 by President Henry Fairfield OsWe will speak freely of the great utility of this

born, at the annual meeting of the board of invention; I say great, much greater than I judge

trustees, which was held at the home of Dr. any of you will suspect, and this without at all ex- Walter B. James. The president regards the alting my own opinion. . . . For the astronomer year 1920 as one of the greatest years in the knows, ... the difficult multiplications and divi- history of the museum, inasmuch as the insions which proceed from the progression with de- stitution's educational value has for the first grees, minutes, seconds and thirds ... the surveyor, time been fully recognized by the present city he will recognize the great benefit which the world administration, and gifts, collections and would receive from this science, to avoid . . . the

funds for expeditions presented to the museum tiresome multiplications in Verges, feet and often

represent a total of $500,000. inches, which are notably awkward, and often the

Commenting on the financial condition of cause of error. The same of the masters of the mint, merchants, and others. ... But the more that

the museum, it was announced that the year's

work had been concluded without the necesthese things mentioned are worth while, and the ways to achieve them more laborious, the greater

sity of requesting the trustees to make their still is this discovery disme, which removes all these

usual personal contributions to supplement difficulties. But how? It teaches (to tell much in

the budget. This was due to the enforcement one word) to compute easily, without fractions, all

of the most rigid economy and to the fact computations which are encountered in the affairs

that the city authorities, after a searching inof human beings, in such a way that the four prin

vestigation of its affairs, recognizing the imciples of arithmetic which are called addition, sub

portance of the institution as a vital and ever traction, multiplication and division, are able to

developing adjunct to the city's educational achieve this end, causing also similar facility to system, had increased the annual maintenance those who use the casting-board (jetons). Now if allowance by $150,000 over the appropriation

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for 1919. Appreciation was also expressed for collected birds in southern Ecuador, and Mr. the generous response to requests for mem- Harry Watkins worked in Peru. Mr. H. E. bership and for support of exploration work. Anthony collected mammals and vertebrate

The popularity of the museum as an educa- fossils in Jamaica and southern Ecuador. Mr. tional center was evidenced by the visits of J. C. Bell obtained specimens and casts of 1,040,000 persons during the year.

sharks and rays at Cape Lookout, North Regarding the museum's work of coopera- Carolina. The department of anthropology tion with the public schools, it was reported continued excavations at the Aztec, New that 1,180,000 students had made use of the Mexico, ruin (which work was provided for nature study collections which are loaned, by the Archer M. Huntington Fund), sent a without cost, to the schools; that 88,000 pupils party into the Grand Gulch region of Utah had attended the lectures in the museum pro- to explore cliff-dwellings, and began with the vided so that they might visualize the sub- Bishop Museum of Honolulu a joint investijects treated in their studies; that 1,650 blind gation of racial problems in Hawaii. Memchildren had seen” the material selected for bers of this department also represented the their use and attended special lectures; that Museum in Honolulu at the First Pan-Pacific 136,500 people had made use of the collections Scientific Congress, at which plans were made loaned to the public libraries; and that 116,500 for future Polynesian exploration and investislides had been distributed to public school gation, in which the American Museum will teachers to enable them to give illustrated participate. The department of geology made talks on travel and natural history subjects investigations in New York and Pennsylto their pupils. A new line of contact with vania, Tennessee and Kentucky, Arizona, the schools has been developed through a California and Hawaii, collecting in these series of background lectures, given by the regions being done by Curator E. 0. Hovey, museum staff to the city's teachers in training, Associate Curator Chester A. Reeds, and Mr. designed to give the student teachers a greater E. J. Foyles. Messrs. Albert Thomson and fund of information and breadth of vision George Olsen excavated large fossil verteand to familiarize them with the museum ma

brates in Nebraska, for the department of terial and the ways in which it can be used to

vertebrate paleontology. Dr. Henry E. Crampsupplement class-room work. As a further ton, curator of the department of invertebrate development of this cooperative work with the

zoology, began an extended trip through the public-school system, the museum's depart- South Seas and the Far East. Dr. F. E. ment of health, at the request of the Board of Lutz, associate curator of the same depart

ment, explored in Wyoming, Colorado, Idaho, Education, has prepared a set of twenty ex

Utah and Indiana, and Mr. F. E. Watson did hibits, each set including food models, com

field work in Jamaica. Mr. Paul Ruthling position blocks and charts, and constituting

collected in Mexico and Mr. Elwood Johnson an aid to the instruction of school children in

obtained specimens in Colombia for the dedietary hygiene.

partment of herpetology. Through cooperaEXPEDITIONS AND ACQUISITIONS OF THE

tion with the New York Zoological Society, AMERICAN MUSEUM

under the supervision of Mr. C. William The field work of the year included several

Beebe, collecting has been carried on for the important expeditions. In September, an ex

museum in British Guiana at the Zoological pedition financed by Mr. Harry Payne Whit

Society's Tropical Research Station there. ney and headed by Mr. Rollo H. Beck, started Important new acquisitions made during on a five-years' investigation of the birds of

the year, other than material secured by the Polynesia. This is the most important expe- expeditions just mentioned, included a large dition ever sent into the field by the depart collection of paleolithic stone implements ment of ornithology. Mr. George K. Chorrie from Egypt, presented by August Heckscher; a rich and varied collection of ethnological States to become a national monument and to material secured by the Rev. H. B. Marx and be administered as a national park. presented by Mr. J. P. Morgan; a large

THE BIOLOGICAL FIELD STATION OF CORarcheological collection from Iroquois sites in

NELL UNIVERSITY New York state, received through bequest of

PARTLY by purchase and partly through the Herbert M. Lloyd; a suite of 68 mineral

generosity of Mrs. Herman Bergholtz, Cornell specimens from France, presented by Pro

University has acquired land for what Professor Lacroix of Paris; minerals from Chili

fessor Needham characterizes as “ the best presented by Mr. H. F. Guggenheim, and from

biological field station in this country, if not Bolivia, presented by Mr. H. o. Bellinger; a in the world." The acquisition comprises ball, 10 centimeters in diameter, carved from

nineteen and a half acres of land at the north a flawless rock crystal and mounted on a bronze

end of the Bergholtz tract, north of Percy elephant of Hindu workmanship, presented by

Field. It is bounded on the east by the Lake Messrs. Sidney and Victor Bevin; a Japanese Road and on the west by Cayuga Street. In topaz, cut egg-shape and covered with facets, accordance with the specification of Mrs. weighing 1,463 carate, donated by Mr. M. L. Bergholtz that the money which her gift repMorgenthau; a collection of pearls and pearl- resents be used either for the endowment fund aceous growths presented by Mr. George W. or that the land be developed and improved as Korper; a collection of marine fishes from the trustees should decide, it has been turned Peru; a number of Honolulu fishes; a collec- over to the College of Agriculture to be detion of fresh water fishes from China; a series veloped as an aquatic park and field station. of paleolithic implements from North Africa, Money for its development is already available selected by the French archeologist, M. Henri from that appropriated by the legislature for Breuil, and purchased through the Morris K.

the college building and improvement proJesup Fund; 1,200 mammals from North gram. The gift will also be included in the China and Mongolia—the largest and most

endowment fund. valuable collection the museum has ever re

The waters of Indian Spring, which is inceived from Asia-secured by the Second

cluded in the tract, will be used for trout Asiatic Expedition; and 3,378 specimens (the ponds, and those of the lake will be used in greater part of which represent species new to

other ponds and marshes where plants and

animals may be studied in their native enthe museum's collections) collected by Rollo H. Beck in South America and the West

vironment. An apiary and field station laboraIndies, and presented by Mr. Frederick F.

tory are planned, the latter to cost about $15,

000. Because the area includes swamp, runBrewster. This last mentioned item is the

ning water and high land, it is considered to most valuable gift the Department of Or

be almost ideal for the purpose for which it nithology has ever received. The Hall of

will be used. Unlike the fresh water field staGeology has been reopened to the public, after

tions along the Great Lakes, the weather conextensive re-arrangement and improvement,

ditions permit experimenters to work most of which is not yet completed. The re-installa- the year instead of only about six months. tion of the North Pacific Indian Hall was re- Mayor Edwin C. Stewart, of Ithaca, has exported to be almost finished. Early in 1920, pressed the hope that the city may develop the American Museum purchased, through the other land in the vicinity so that all of what Archer I. Huntington Fund, the pueblo ruin is now waste land at the end of the lake may at Aztec, New Mexico, which it has been eventually be a park for public use. investigating for the last five years. It was

AMERICAN FOUNDATION IN FRANCE FOR PREannounced last night that in due time this

HISTORIC STUDIES property as uncovered and partially restored At a meeting of the governing board of the by the museum will be presented to the United American Foundation in France for Prehis

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