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was estimated in 1919 that there were 200 bing them of their native life which had deacres of date palms already established in the veloped their own peculiar strengths, and Coachella and Imperial Valleys of California. preventing them from building into the comConcerning this industry Dr. Fairchild says mon life of America, but condemning them to not only have our experts “ been instrumental sure deterioration. A scientific study of the in building up this industry, but their study American Indians as the men who had adof the methods of propagation, the diseases justed themselves to American environments and methods of their control, the insect pests for thousands of years would have been reaand the requirements of the date palm con- sonable. What elements of strength, resiststitute the largest collection of exact data now ance or immunization had those men develin existence in regard to this industry, and oped to have so long withstood the varied the Old World has had to come to America for harshness of our American environment? the latest information in regard to this in- Perhaps these qualities may be seen to be the dustry. Too great emphasis can not be placed prerequisites of permanent survival in Amerupon this accomplishment and the manner in
ica. The American plant breeder has long which he [Mr. Swingle) has brought it about. made use of hardy native plants to make his It represents in my mind one of the most re- more prolific hybrids more resistent to cold, markable pieces of agricultural work which drought, disease and insect pest. Had we has been done in recent times."
been as intelligent in the matter of the InAmong the recent most successful animals dians as we have been with plants and aniimported into the United States are the Aber- mals there is little question that conditions deen-Angus cattle, the Herefords, and the would have been better for the Indians, and Belgian draft horses. Among the Hereford they might have added desirable strength to cattle, solely since 1901, America has developed our nation. a polled or hornless variety which has added Again shift the picture. While we have another virtue—that of early maturity, thus imported so many plants and animals, and producing “baby beef.”5
with scientific knowledge and care have built Thus through national, state, county and them into our common life, there have been private expenditure of millions of dollars an. coming to our shores, of their own volition, nually, we now have as integral parts of our peoples from over the earth of many breeds economic life scores of plants and animals and many cultures who have distributed themwhich were alien importations only a few years selves here in many different environmental ago. Over extensive areas there is so much
In striking contrast with our state of of common knowledge about these plants and knowledge about imported plants and animals animals that as public opinion it dictates com- we possess almost no scientific knowledge mon policies and practises.
about these peoples such that it has become Shift the picture just a little. While we
public opinion even among educated personscarefully nurtured many of our native plants,
to say nothing about its dictating nation-wide the native Indians who were here so long that
policies and practises. they had become a distinct breed of mankind,
I wish to state again as I stated in 1914, but and who in thousands of years of adjustment
with added emphasis, the imperative need in to American conditions had fitted American
America of scientific research among modern environmental areas better than did their
peoples along the lines of ethnic heredity, en
vironmental influences, amalgamation and asplants, we either slew, or as remnants segre
similation, and the need of laboratories to gated as enforced dependents, not only rob
further this research and conserve its results. o Personal letter from George M. Rommel, chief,
That we to-day should have abundant laboraAnimal Husbandry Division, U. S. Department of tories for practically every science except Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
anthropology, and ignore the richness of the
materials in our midst for anthropological studies of practical value to our nation is a mistake whose consequences will be far-reaching in their disaster. “Legislation which ignores the facts of variation and heredity must ultimately lead to national deterioration,” said the British birth-rate commission in 1917.6 Every day henceforth in the life of the American nation anthropological data should be recorded just as our Treasury Department daily keeps its fingers on the financial pulse of the nation. In leaving this point I quote as a pertinent scientific fact of to-day a sentence from Pearson's recent address at Cardiff above referred to: The future lies with the nation that most truly plans for the future, that studies most accurately the factors which will improve the racial qualities of future generations either physically or mentally."'7
We come now to the first of the two problems vital to America which we wish especially to consider.
Mr. Frederick A. Wallis, Immigration Commissioner at the port of New York, recently said that the greatest problem before America to-day is the Immigration Problem. The whole nation is coming to a realization of the truth of this statement. The seriousness of the problem is equalled only by our lack of data, our lack of methods and technique, our general ignorance in dealing with it. Ferrero, the Italian historian, recently said:
My first surprise (on coming to the United States), and a very great one it was, arose from my examination at close quarters, of the policy pursued by the United States in dealing with the immense hordes of immigrants, who yearly pour into their harbors from all parts of the Old World.
This question was of especial interest, as he said, “to a historian of Rome, like myself, to whom history has taught the great internal difficulties which were caused in every ancient
8 Pages 139–140, Guglielmo Ferrero, “Ancient Rome and Modern America,” 1914.
6 Page 45, “The Declining Birth-rate by the National Birth-rate Commission,” London, 1917.
7 Page 376, “Institutes of Anthropology," by Professor Karl Pearson, SCIENCE, October 22, 1920.
state by the metoipoi or peregrini [i.e., aliens)." This great problem of the admission, the distribution, and the assimilation of the immigrant in America is at base anthropological
Ethnic groups differ one from another. It is commonly supposed to be true that their differences are only "skin deep,” but you and I know that ethnic groups differ beneath the skin. We know that the processes of pigment metabolism are so unerring and persistent that patches of skin taken from one person and grafted on another take on the proportion of pigmentation natural to the stock" seat on which the transplanted skin lives. We know also that ethnic differences are so much more than only “skin deep” that ovaries transplanted from one person to another person would reproduce children of their own kind without influence by the person who served as “stock or seat for the transplanted ovaries. There are no experiments of this sort known to me, but what has been proved true with other animals would without question be true of human animals. Thus there is scientific reason to speak of different “ breeds” of people whose differing physical characteristics are to-day due to the factors of heredity resident in the reproductive germ cells. Ethnic differences are not simply “skin deep.” They are germinal. They begin at the functional innermost center of the person, and they continue through to the outside. The man who
sees the outside differences between breeds of people. The anthropologist knows they begin inside in the seeds of the breeds.
Out of the physical man grows the psychic man. As out of these different physical characteristics of the different breeds of people come the psychic characteristics of those breeds of people, it should be expected that the reactions of the different breeds of people would exhibit differences. The practical handler of peoples knows such is the case whether he is an administrator of colonies, a policeman in any large cosmopolitan city, or boss of a gang of mixed “ foreigners
on any American railway job. At the present moment
it can not be said that these differing reactions of the different breeds of men are due to physical differences or to psychic differences or to social and cultural differences, or to something yet unnamed. All that is known is that different breeds of people commonly possess distinguishing reactions in many of the affairs of life.
The American immigration problem is centered in the various breeds of people who are clamoring to come to our shores or who are already in o midst. What facts and tendencies of strength and weakness for the future of the American nation are in those various ethnic groups ? On the answer to this question hinges the whole immigration problem. It is a question for the most careful study, the accumulation of accurate data, and for effort at scientific conclusions on the part of anthropologists in order that an intelligent public opinion based on known facts, instead of sentiment or prejudice or commercial profits for the few, may dictate our policies and practise in regard to the peoples coming to us or already here. Some peoples can, do, and will continue to build into the American plan of development. Others do not, and should not be expected so to develop without due education and often tedious application. Others probably never would. We must have a public opinion on this question based on scientific facts as to the relative assimilability of the various peoples already here, and also on the actual attitude of the leaders of the several groups toward the necessary American goal of rapid and complete assimilation. If further immigration is to be allowed or encouraged, the national policy should welcome those groups most favorable to assimilation, and should restrict those unfavorable to assimilation.
So also in the problem of the distribution of immigrants in America wise use should be made of anthropological data. Practically each one of the peoples coming to us from Europe has lived for many generations in one type of environment, in many cases has pursued one kind of employment, so it has developed rather fixed reactions which have
saved it. The anthropologist should be able to put at the service of the nation such knowledge of European environments and peoples and of American environmental areas that the different immigrant peoples could be sent to, or educationally advised to go to, those areas and employments most likely to prove helpful rather than injurious to the immigrating generation.
Let me cite a few illustrations of immigrant distribution personally known to me. A group of well-to-do Holland-Dutch farmers brought as entire families with some thousands of dollars each from the wet alluvial lands of Holland, and planted in the sand of a northern Minnesota county on farms previously selected for the colony. Those families did not know how to farm on land which leaches dry in a few hours after a light rain, and which in the hot growing period of July and August could profit by heavy rains every other day. In ten years' time the members of that colony of industrious and hopeful immigrants who came to us prosperous farmers are scattered, their accumulations wasted, and, disillusioned, they work for a wage where they can.
Between 1850 and 1860 a small group of Finns came from the copper mines of Sweden to northern Michigan to work in the Calumet and Hecla mines. Since that time, particularly since 1900, northern Michigan and especially northern Minnesota have attracted many Finns from Finland. I know well their homes in Minnesota. There they find as nearly as well may be an environment identical with that of Finland. It is a heavily glaciated area with ridges of drift strewn with immense bowlders. Glacial lakes, marshes and small streams are everywhere. The forest is “ Canadian” and identical with that of Finland. Other peoples, even the Scandinavians, have passed by those rough lands with their ridges and marshes, which the Finns actually seek out. There they continue to settle, clear the forests and make small farms. They are productive immigrants, happy and successful in their own sort of familiar climate, forests, soil and country life. I know some of them who
are joyous on those farms after having lived canization problem about which the whole nasome years in the hustle of our Twin Cities. tion was so much concerned and yet at the The Finns found their own environment by same time about which it was so much beaccident."
wildered as to practical methods of approach. The German-Russians also by accident went The Americanization Training Course has to the open plains of the Dakotas, and there now been established at the University of in areas so like their Russian farms they have Minnesota for more than two years. Its obbecome contented and many are wealthy farm- ject is the training of Americanization leaders. The chief adjustment they had to make ers to hasten the assimilation of the various was to larger farms, and American citizenship peoples in America toward the highest comand language. While around many of the ex- mon standards and ideals of America practictensive mines and plants of our fundamental able for that generation. The course is industries the Slavic-Russians are struggling founded on our anthropology courses which to adjust themselves from the open-air life of have been developing in our university for Russian farms to the intense breathless life of
fourteen years. Those courses consisted not the industrial gang. Many of those Slavs have
only of the usual foundation courses on the been as misplaced as were the Holland-Dutch.
development of man, races and culture, but of With expert care and study we put our im- courses dealing with modern anthropological ported plants and animals in the areas to
problems especially those of vital importance which they are best adapted, but we allow the
to our immigrant nation. They have dealt peoples coming to us to go where chance or
with the peoples who have come and who are material profit for the moment leads them.
coming to America as immigrants, and with The results of anthropological and environ- the negroes who came as slaves. They also mental researches in Europe and America dealt with the resulting peoples in America could be so popularized as to become impor
due to amalgamation and adjustment, and tant factors in the matter of immigrant dis
those psychic results so essentially American tribution, and so assist in checking the grow- that we called them “ Americanisms.” On the ing and fatal disease of urbanization in Amer
establishment of the training course these ica.
courses were emphasized and developed, and The problem of the assimilation of our im
on top of them we developed professional migrant peoples has become of such impor
courses on the technique, the method, and the tance in the last few years that it has at
organization of Americanization work, also tracted nation-wide attention and started a
technical courses on the principles of adult nation-wide movement known as Americaniza
elementary education, the adult elementary tion. It is in this field of national endeavor that anthropology has an opportunity for
learning process, and the adult elementary paramount service to our nation. I wish in
teaching process, and also such practical field
courses as supervised work with foreign peodiscussing this point to bring to you not simply a theory of what might be done but to
ples in homes, residence communities, industell you what actually has been done along this trial plants, public schools, etc. There have line in the University of Minnesota. Two
been difficulties, since we were so largely in an years ago I presented a paper before this sec
untried field. Some of the courses of necestion in Baltimore on the plan then recently sity were at first only experimental. Instructpassed at the University of Minnesota to at- ors had not always all the training we might tempt to make a practical application of the
have wished. But the contact with workers science of anthropology to the great Ameri- in the same field, especially as we have been g“The Finn in America," by Eugene Van
able to bring them in during our summer sesCleef. Reproduced from Bulletin of The Ameri- sions, when they have come as instructors and can Geographical Society, 1918.
students from New York, California, and centers in our middle states, has given a splendid icanization work, but it will come to be recogimpetus to the development of the work to-day. nized more and more that with America's vast
The practical value of modern anthropolog- heterogeneous population her public school ical knowledge can no longer be questioned by educators, her social workers, her police and one who knows the practical work done by correction agencies will have to make practical those who have gone out from the training use of anthropological knowledge of the varicourse. We have sent our trained Americani- ous peoples with whom they deal. zation leaders into several different states and To sum up—the immigration problem which into many different positions, such as those of is of such dominant importance to-day is in all state directors, city directors, school directors, of its phases anthropological at base, and if we directors with Y. M. and Y. W. C. A., are to arrive at any correct solution of the churches, women's clubs, and as teachers in questions of restriction, distribution and agschools, homes, communities and industries. similation of the immigrant in America, use The continuous demand for these trained lead- must be made of anthropological knowledge ers is greater than our supply, and a gratify- and data and research. ing aspect of this demand is that it so often The second problem before our nation tocomes from centers where already some of our day which is at base anthropological which I trained workers are.
Our trained leaders are wish to consider is the Negro problem. One making good in this practical effort to hasten person in ten in our nation is Negro. We assimilation in America, not only because they know practically nothing of scientific anthroare trained in the professional, technical and pological value about the American Negro. practical courses, but, more especially, because Toward him there is more fierce race prejudice through their anthropological courses they are than toward any other people, yet probably no equipped to know the different necessary ap- stronger ties of personal friendship exist beproaches to, and reaction of, the different tween members of different races than exist breeds of peoples among whom they work. between individual southern whites and southTheir work is among peoples. They have been ern Negroes. As to the relative intellectual trained to know peoples. This training course capacity of the American Negro probably is not yet fully manned or as complete as is greater disagreement of opinion exists between desired due to the almost universal shortage of white persons who think they know than about funds in higher education. We need espe- any other people. There is imperative need cially research men in physical anthropology, of scientific research and the accumulation of amalgamation, and environmental influence, scientific data to help our nation in the soluas well as experts in certain practical fields. tion of the Negro problem. In fact, there should develop a genuine labora- The careful student of our national affairs tory of research and of practical application sees four great Negro movements setting in in of anthropological knowledge. The time is America like deep-swelling tides. coming quickly when this will be developed The first is that of Negro segregation. A somewhere.
great natural segregation movement is taking · Not only is this work being done in the place in at least three extensive areas in three University of Minnesota but under the impetus southern states. Negroes flourish better than of the Americanization movement many col- white people in those areas.
The whites are leges and universities which before had no decreasing and the Negroes increasing until anthropology courses of any nature have re- they not only outnumber the whites, but outcently been putting in courses on modern
number them increasingly year by year. A peoples, especially our immigrant peoples, and similar natural segregation is taking place also some have added various professional courses in many of our large cities. on technique and method. Not only are these The national problem for us is what type of anthropology courses of value in purely Amer- Negro and culture is being produced in the