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unit of dry matter was slightly more than of taxonomic work if the ecological investigadouble that of corn. In other words, a sun- tions are to be correctly interpreted. The naflower plant will consume as much water as tional government in cooperation with various a hill of corn. Brenchly in a recent publica- states is spending large sums of money to tion states that weeds like mustards did better study soils. It is a good kind of investigawhen they were associated with other plants, tion. The soils are carefully mapped on a

than when they were subjected to competition scale as never before. The plant is an index · with their own species. Wheat is not so well of what the soil will produce and the aim of

able to overpower the Brassica and reduce its this work is to help the farmer. I am sure it growth as is the case with some other weeds. does; and why should the botanists not Mustard would then, according to Brenchly, cooperate with the geologist, and the soil exeven in moderate amounts do considerable pert make just as detailed a study of the damage.

plant life as the geologist does of the soil. Possibly in the majority of places, even in In no place in the world can this problem be the agricultural areas of the middle west, studied better than in the prairie states. there are times in which there is not enough There is scarcely anything left of the great water to supply the needs of the plant. Water prairie domain, except as we find it along the is used by a plant in large quantities and right-of-way of railroads. Should not a group practically all of it passes off in the trans- of botanists in these prairie states study the piration stream. Water being an important ecological and taxonomic phases of the richitem, its conservation is a question which we est, virgin, agricultural soil in the world, as must be concerned with. From the few cita- Shimek is now doing for the prairie plants tions given above we conclude that weeds do of Iowa. What we need is a crop ecologist, considerable damage to growing crops by con- who after a study of the problem, can tell the suming the moisture. Knowing that trans- farmer just what crops can be grown together piration or the giving off of water by the or what crops are best suited for his soil. Let aerial portions of a plant goes hand in hand us as botanists seek a closer cooperation with with the leaf area, a study in which the leaf the soil expert. area and transpiration are measured from I am reminded that Dr. Cowles in an adtime to time at specific intervals should give dress before this section called attention to us much information concerning the effect of the use of an ecologist to settle a legal quesweeds upon the crop in which they are asso- tion involving a large amount ofor


in ciated, both in the greenhouse and in the field. regard to a meandered lake in Arkansas where

Some preliminary work done in plant phys- a study of the problem by the ecologist disiological laboratory at Ames by Bakke shows closed the truth that the so-called lakes had that the matter of transpiration by weeds is been covered with trees much antedating the an important item in crop production. In survey made by the government. I am told these experiments wheat, oats and mustard that in some surveys along the Mississippi the were grown together and, with one exception, government instructions are to include all it was found that the total transpiration for land to the limit of apparent line of vegetathe mixed cultures is greater than for the tion. Who should determine the apparent pure wheat and oats cultures. The present line of vegetation; the surveyor, who generstudy shows that wheat transpires during the ally knows nothing about succession, or the growing season more than oats.

ecologist? It would seem to me, the ecologist.

ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS Another phase of economic botany has interested me very much, namely the relation of plants to soil. This requires the best kind

EROSION In a prairie state like Iowa every available area has been brought under cultivation, or the wooded areas have been turned into pastures. Millions of dollars worth of the

AQUATIC FARMING very best soil in this great agricultural region

I have been more or less interested in the are annually carried down the Mississippi, preservation of our lakes, not only because finally helping to increase the area of Louisi

the community and state will receive the ana, or to fill up the channel of the Mississippi

benefit of recreation, but our lakes and River. The government to prevent disastrous streams should furnish an important source floods builds levees. The water, under our of food, and also a source of income from present system of intensive agriculture, is

the fur-bearing animals. The botanist should rushed off as rapidly as possible, the little

make more study of the food for fish and lakes are filled up with silt from the neighbor- game. It is said that the little muskrat in ing drainage area or they are drained. Drain

Iowa has become so depleted that it will be age no doubt does help crop production but necessary to have a closed season. Much of the water table has dropped twelve feet, ac- this depletion is no doubt due to trapping, but cording to McGee, in fifty years in Iowa. may not the food supply have some bearing Now if the water table will show a further

on the problem? Take for instance the waterdrop it is a question of vital concern to the lily, which has become a somewhat rare plant agriculture of Iowa. Have we any plant in Iowa. How far does this plant and the physiological data to show how this has in

lotus minister to the food of this little rodent? fluenced crop production or the growth of

Sportsmen are agreed that wild rice and wild trees? The botanist can do a real service by celery are very important food plants for the making a study of the movement of water in wild duck. Schofield has given us practical the soil and its relation to plant growth. We method of germinating wild rice, yet we know know that the climatic and edaphic relations almost nothing about the maximum yield of of forests are important. Zon has given us a this plant and how it might be increased. comparative study of the problem in his paper There are millions of acres of land suitable on “ Forests and Water in the Light of Scien- for the growing of wild rice in the United tific Investigation.” Then we may also re- States, especially in the northern Mississippi call the work of Pearson on the "A Meteoro

valley. It should be used more extensively logical Study of Parks and Timbered Areas

for human food than it is to-day. We know in the Western Yellow Pine Forests of Ari

little about the uses of aquatic plants by zona and New Mexico." and the work of Hall

animals. May we not breed a variety of wild

rice which will cling somewhat more tenaciand Maxwell, Bray and Schwartz on forests

ously to the rachis! Some plant breeder and streams flow.

should undertake the selection of plants with In order to determine the problem of water

this in mind. conservation and forest conservation, I. T. Bode made an investigation in one of our

COOPERATIVE WORK park areas in Iowa. The results are interest

We have never in the history of the world ing, as showing the close relationship between

had as much productive research work as now, forest cover and soil moisture. The results

although there may be a slight curtailment show unmistakably, even in a small area, that

since the war. Our various journals, like the the forest cover keeps greater quantities of

Botanical Gazette, American Journal of water in the upper soil layers, that these

Botany, Bulletin Torrey Botanical Ciub, forest areas maintain a higher water level in

Journal of Agricultural Research and various the soil.

publications from experiment stations, naThe conclusion to be drawn from the work

tional government and academies of science and some done by others of the Forest Service

are publishing an enormous amount of good is that all hills subject to erosion should be material. All state, national and private covered with timber.

agencies are working to increase the amount

of research. Cooperation seems to be the slogan to-day and the National Research Council, created as a war measure, is functioning to stimulate research in all of these institutions of the country in a cooperative way. Botany certainly has not been neglected as evidenced by the fundamental physiological work on fertilizers and the growing of wheat, and the fundamental work in connection with the treatment of plant diseases which will be taken up by the Research Council through the Crop Protection Institute in a cooperative way. Cooperation in every line is desirable, but is it not a fact that all great discoveries are made by individuals? These individuals should have plenty of equipment and help, and each should have a free hand to work out his or her problem.

In conclusion the plea I desire to make is that the botanist should enter more vigorously into the exploitation of fields of agronomic work, ecology and taxonomic work, as it is related to horticulture and agriculture. We have allowed some splendid fields of work to slip away from us, largely because we were indifferent to the problems of agriculture. This is not true of plant pathology which has made itself felt along economic lines. It is true that some phases of plant breeding, physiology and soil relations of plants are masquerading under various forms of agriculture and horticulture. It is not my aim to belittle much that has been accomplished by horticulturists and agriculturists, but this work, when botanical, should finds its place under the head of botany. Let us look for a new era in botanical work. Then the various phases of the work will find their rightful place, not only in our teaching, but in our research as well.


less by that time it receives financial support.

The following announcement has been made by President Kenneth C. M. Sills by authority of the boards of trustees and overseers.

By action of the board of trustees and overseers the Bowdoin Medical School will be finally closed as a department of Bowdoin College at the end of the current year, June, 1921, unless by that time some way shall be found to meet the requirements necessary to keep the school in Class A of American medical colleges. It has been conservatively estimated that for this purpose there must be an addition to the resources of the school of $25,000 for immediate equipment of laboratories and of at least $50,000 yearly income for more teachers and for up-keep. Unfortunately at the present time the college sees no way of procuring such funds; the need of such an endowment has often been placed before the people of Maine, but the appeals have never received an adequate response.

The college will not apply for state aid for the school. But if the citizens of Maine and the friends of medical education who believe that the maintenance of a medical school is properly a state function, desire to have the medical school reestablished as a state institution under state control and adequately supported by the state, Bowdoin College will be glad to give all assistance possible to that end, and would doubtless offer for such a purpose for temporary use, if desired, such part of the buildings and apparatus of the college as might be available.

The trustees and overseers of the college believe that there is a place for a medical school in Maine and are hopeful that the people of the state, despite the great demands on the incoming legislature, will establish such a school as a state institution, around which all the medical and public health work of the state would be centered.

SCIENTIFIC EVENTS THE BOWDOIN MEDICAL SCHOOL THE Bowdoin Medical School, established a century ago by Maine's first legislature, will be closed as a department of Bowdoin College at the end of the current year next June, un


MINES Dr. F. G. COTTRELL, director of the United States Bureau of Mines, on December 31, handed his resignation to the President, through Secretary of the Interior Payne. He leaves the bureau to take up his duties as chairman of the Division of Chemistry and Chemical Technology of the National Research Council. Cottrell recommends as his successor H. Foster Bain, of California, whose

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name was formally presented to the President. England. He made some important mining In his letter of resignation, Dr. Cottrell said: investigations in south and central Africa and

later undertook similar investigations in I hereby tender you my resignation as director

China. At one time he was a mine operator of the Bureau of Mines, to take effect January 1, 1921.

in Colorado and once was connected with the In so doing, may I recall to your mind that, in

United States Geological Survey. Subse accepting this position upon the resignation of quently, he was the first director of the GeoDirector Manning last June, I explained to the logical Survey of Illinois. For a time during secretary of the interior that I had previously made the war Mr. Bain was assistant director of all my plans to resign from the position I then the United States Bureau of Mines, following occupied as assistant director and to give my un

up production and manufacture of metal divided attention to the position of chairman of

products, explosives, and other chemical subthe Division of Chemistry and Chemical Technol

stances for war purposes. At the close of the ogy of the National Research Council, which I had

war Mr. Bain returned to private life. Mr. accepted as successor to Professor W. D. Bancroft, who was retiring July first.

Bain was born at Seymour, Indiana. GraduI accepted appointment as director of the Bureau ating from Moore's Hill College, Indiana, in of Mines on the understanding with Secretary 1890, he spent two years at Johns Hopkins Payne that I would continue therein until an avail- University and later received his doctor's deable successor should be found who was thoroughly gree from the University of Chicago. acceptable to him and to the mining industry.

The time having now arrived when Secretary INTERNATIONAL EUGENICS CONGRESS Payne is ready to recommend a successor, I am

IN 1912 there was held in London, under placing my resignation in his hands for transmittal

the auspices of the Eugenics Education SoIt is with the pleasantest recollections that I

ciety, an International Eugenics Congress. look back over my decade of service in various

A second congress was planned to be held in capacities within the bureau, and as the greater

New York City in 1915 but, on account of part of this time has fallen within your own ad

the war, plans for the congress were abanministration, it gives me particular pleasure to tell

doned. In the autumn of 1919, at a meetyou of the uniform courtesy and high standard of ing of the International Committee of Eupublic service which I have always encountered in genics held in London, it was agreed to hold my contact with both associates and superiors the second International Congress in New throughout the whole department.

York City in 1921. A general committee to It would be with very deep feelings of personal

arrange for this congress was selected by the regret that I should take the present step were it

National Research Council in the spring of not that the position in the Research Council will

1920, and it is now announced that the prestill permit me to cooperate very closely with those

liminary announcement of the Second Interparticular aspects of the bureau's work for which

national Congress of Eugenics will be held in I feel myself best fitted.

New York City, September 22–28, 1921. At the same time Secretary Payne handed Of this Congress Dr. Alexander Graham to the President the appointment of H. Foster Bell is honorary president; Dr. Henry FairBain, of California, as successor to Dr. Cot- field Osborn, president; Mr. Madison Grant, trell.

treasurer; Mrs. C. Neville Rolfe (Mrs. Sybil Mr. Bain was educated and trained as a geol- Gotto) honorary secretary; and Dr. C. O. ogist and mining engineer. He was one of Little, secretary-general. The vice-presidents Herbert Hoover's assistants in London on the include Dr. Cesare Arton, Cagliari Italy; Dr. Belgian relief work during the war. Before Kristine Bonnevie, Institute for Heredity Inthat he was editor of the Mining and Scientific vestigation, University of Christiania, NorPress of San Francisco, Calif., and later the way; Major Leonard Darwin, London; Dr. editor of the Mining Magazine of London, V. Delfino Buenos Aires; Dr. E. M. East,


Harvard University; M. Gamio, Director will immediately enter upon a campaign of Archeology and Anthropology, Mexico; Sir public service, involving cooperation with Auckland Campbell Geddes, British Ambassa- chambers of commerce, labor organizations dor to the United States; Dr. Corado Gini, and other bodies in an effort to solve pressing Rome; Hon. Mr. Justice Frank E. Hodgins, social, industrial and political problems. Supreme Court of Ontario; Dr. Frédéric The appointment of several committees to Houssay, Paris; Dr. H. S. Jennings, Johns handle national problems is announced. One Hopkins University; G. H. Knibbs, Mel- on military affairs is headed by Colonel Wilbourne; Dr. Herman Lundborg, Upsala; Dr. liam Barclay Parsons, chairman of the trustees L. Manouvrier, Paris; M. L. March, Paris; of Columbia University. D. L. Hough, of Dr. Jon Alfred Möjen, Christiana; Dr. T. H. New York City, has been named to head a Morgan, Columbia University; Dr. R. Pearl, Russian-American committee, which, it was Johns Hopkins University; Dr. Edmond Per- explained, is in no sense political, but will rier, Paris; Dr. Ernesto Pestalozza. Rome; aim to bring the engineers of the United Dr. V. Guiffrida-Ruggieri, Italy; Professor States and Russia closer together. A patents R. Vogt, University of Copenhagen; and Pro- committee, which will work for an increase fessor Wille, University of Christiania. in both the pay and personnel of the United

The Finance Committee has been selected States Patent Office, has been appointed, with consisting of Messrs. Madison Grant, John T. E. J. Prindle, of New York as chairman. Pratt, Austin B. Fletcher, and Dr. John H. Other committees chosen thus far are: OlassiKellogg. Of the Exhibits Committee Dr. fication and Compensation of Engineers, H. H. Laughlin is chairman; of the Publicity Arthur S. Tuttle, of New York, chairman; Committee, Dr. Lothrop Stoddard; and of National Board of Jurisdictional Awards in the Executive Committee, Dr. C. C. Little. the Building Industry, Rudolph P. Miller, of A general committee of ninety-five members New York, chairman; Cooperation with has been appointed. There are to be two American Institute of Architects, S. H. classes of members, sustaining members pay- Senehon, of Minneapolis, chairman; Payment ing one hundred dollars and active members for Estimating, Ralph Modjeska, of Chicago, paying five dollars. Further information and chairman; Types of Government Contract, a copy of the preliminary announcement can Arthur P. Davis, of New York, chairman. be obtained from Dr. C. C. Little, Secretary

These committees, with others to be appointed, General, American Museum of Natural His- will start at once to carry out a constructive tory, New York City.

program of national progress.


SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS THE Engineering Council, formed in 1917 IN 1816, John Scott, a chemist of Edinas an emergency body to place at the disposal burgh, bequeathed the sum of $4,000 to the of the government in war the organized engi- City of Philadelphia, the interest upon which neering talent of the nation, has been form- was to “ be laid out in premiums to be disally merged into the American Engineering tributed among ingenious men and women Council of the Federated American Engineer- who make useful inventions." The Board of ing Societies.

Directors of City Trusts of Philadelphia, has Mr. Herbert Hoover, who becomes president awarded $800 together with a bronze medal of the amalgamated organizations, and the to Dr. Hideyo Noguchi, of the Rockefeller four vice-presidents, Calvert Townley, of New Institute, for Medical Research in New York, York; William E. Rolfe, of St. Louis, Dean

“in recognition of his eminent work in the Dexter S. Kimball, of Cornell, and J. Parke discovery of disease-producing organisms and Channing, of New York, have issued a state

the means of combating their action.” A ment in which it is said that the new council similar award has been made to Dr. Edward

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