Lapas attēli


large steps; while these may occur, minute herit- lieve by De Vries, is “Natural selection acts able changes are more frequent. . . . Evolution

only as a sieve” determining which forms according to the typical Darwinian scheme, shall be retained and which shall be discarded. through the occurrence of many small variations

This also seems to me to fall short of a comand their guidance by natural selection, is per

plete statement of the truth. If the material fectly consistent with what experimental and

subjected to the sifting process be regarded paleontological studies show us; to me it appears more consistent with the data than does any other

as changing with each generation by the additheory.

tion of variations, or mutations if you prefer,

some of which are favorable to a nicer adjustMany believers in mutation have been need

ment of the species to its environment; the lessly befuddled by the diverse meanings of

figure would be more nearly correct. To make “ variations” as used by Darwin and De

it complete, however, the mesh of the sieve Vries. Darwin included in his “individual

must change from generation to generation so variations” both the “fluctuating varieties

that a quantitative variation which would be and the “mutations” of De Vries. Pheno

preserved in one generation would be distypically they can not even now be distin

carded in a later one. But in this case natguished. De Vries himself candidly admits

ural selection would do more than a sieve that this was Darwin's attitude, thus proving could do. It would combine a number of himself more clear-sighted than many of his favorable variations in the production of followers. All that Darwin needed for his

soinething new, a new species! purpose was proof of variations that are

In conclusion it seems to me that we are heritable, and these are found in mutations, justified in maintaining that Mendelism and be they large or small.

the mutation theory, while forming the basis Just as mendelism has to do with the

of the most brilliant and important advances mechanism and not the fact of heredity,

in biological knowledge of the last half centhe mutation theory deals with the nature and

tury, have neither weakened nor supplanted the not the fact of variations. Neither, in my Darwinian conception of the “Origin of opinion, has any implication that is antagon

species by means of Natural Selection." istic to the theory of natural selection.

O. O. NUTTING The statement has often been made that natural selection "originates nothing” be

SCIENTIFIC EVENTS cause it does not explain the origin of varia

PROFESSOR CALMETTE ON A VACCINE FOR tions. I must confess to scant patience with

TUBERCULOSIS this point of view. As well say that the

THE Paris correspondent of the London sculptor does not make the statue because he

Times reports that the Petit Journal publishes does not manufacture the marble or his

an interview with Professor Calmette, subchisel; or that the worker in mosaic originates

director of the Pasteur Institute, which indinothing because he does not make the bits of

cates that progress has been reached in the stone which he assembles in his design!

long struggle of the medical profession to find The material corresponding to the bits of

a cure for the ravages of tuberculosis. Pro stone in the mosaic is furnished by heredity

fessor Calmette was careful to tell his interand variation, and its quantity by geometrical

viewer not to proclaim too widely that a cure ratio of increase. Natural selection acts in has been found. “We are only at the dawn,' selecting and putting together this material

he said. “The possibilities are immense, I in the formation of new species. Thus, in a can assure you, but we have still much work true sense, it seems evident that something before us ... in following the pathway which new has appeared-something that is but was

open before us and which will lead us not.

perhaps to a splendid realization of our hopes. Another favorite figure, introduced I be- Hope is now permissible.”

now lies



Professor Calmette then gave an account of Mathematics.—Grand prize of the mathematical the results of his researches and those of Dr. sciences to Ernest Esclangon, for his memoir enGuérin, which proved that cattle and monkeys titled “New Researches on Quasi-periodic Funccould be given immunity. A vaccine has been

tions''; the Poncelet prize to Elie Cartan, for the found for cattle. Experiments lasting over

whole of his work; the Franceur prize to René

Baire, for his work on the general thoory of funcmany months have given results said to be of

tions. importance.

Mechanics.-A Montyon prize to Stéphane DrzeProfessor Calmette stated that in a cer

wiecki, for his book on the general theory of the tain stable they placed five known tuberculous helix, with reference to marine and aerial propeller

With them were housed ten heifers, blades; the de Parville prize to Jean Villey, for four of which had not been given an effective his work on internal-combustion motors. vaccine, and the other six had been vaccinated.

Astronomy.—The Lalande prize to Léopold The trial lasted for thirty-four months, some

Schulhof, for his revision of the catalogue of the

proper motions of 2,641 stars; the Valz prize to of the cattle being revaccinated each year. At

Ernest Maubant, for his work on the calculation the end of the time, when the beasts were

of the perturbations of comets; the Janssen medal slaughtered, it was found that of the four un

to William W. Coblentz, for his work on the infravaccinated heifers three showed advanced red radiation of terrestrial sources and of stars; tuberculosis. Of the six vaccinated beasts the the Pierre Guzman prize between François Gontwo which had only once been vaccinated

nessiat (5,000 francs), for his work on the photogshowed distinct signs of the disease, but the

raphy of the minor planets; René Jarry-Desloges

(5,000 francs), for his physical observations on the four animals which had been vaccinated three

planets, especially Mars, and Joanny-Ph. Lagtula times, although they had been in constant

(4,000 francs), for his work on the rapid identificompany with the tuberculous companions for cation of the minor planets. thirty-four months, showed no trace of the Geography.The Delalande-Guérineau prize to disease. Further experiments on a large scale Georges Bruel, for his explorations and publicaare now going on.

tions relating to French Equatorial Africa; the To find out whether this vaccine is capable

Tchihatchef prize to Auguste Chevalier, for his

explorations in Africa and Indo-China; the Binoux of being applied to man experiments will be

prize to Marcel Augiéras, for his work in the westnecessary on chimpanzees and anthropoid apes.

ern Sahara. These animals do not take kindly to temperate

Navigation.—The prize of 6,000 francs between climates, and Professor Calmette and his col- Fernand Gossot (4,000 francs), for his treatise on laborators have therefore decided to build an the effects of explosives, Pierre de Vanssay de experimental laboratory in French Guinea. Blavous (1,500 francs), for the whole of his work, The Pasteur Institute has obtained the con- and René Risser (500 francs), for his work on cession of Rooma Island, four miles from

ballistics. Konakry, for their researches, and the gov

Physics.—The L. La Caze prize to Georges Sag. ernor of Western Africa has put at the in

nac, for the whole of his work in physics; the

Hébert prize to Léon Bouthillon, for his work on stitute's disposal from the 1921 budget the

wireless telegraphy; the Hughes prize to Frédéric sum of about £6,000, with which the labora

Laporte, for his work on electrical standards and tories will be constructed. The researches of

the photometry of electric lamps; the Clément the scientific missions will take some years, Felix foundation to Amédée Guillet, for his reand the estimated expenditure is £5,000 a year. searches on chronometry.

Chemistry.—The Montyon prize (unhealthy AWARDS OF THE PARIS ACADEMY OF trades) to Léonce Barthe, for his work on the hySCIENCES

giene of workshops; the Jecker prize (5,000 According to the report in Nature the prizes francs) between Henri Gault, for his work in orawarded by the Paris Academy include the fol- ganic chemistry, and Henri Hérissey, for his relowing:

searches on the glucosides of plants; the L. La

Caze prize to Robert de Forcrand, for his work in inorganic chemistry.

Mineralogy and Geology.The Fontannes prize to Olivier Couffon, for his work entitled “Le Callovien du Chalet (Commune de Montreuil-Bellay)); the Joseph Labbé prize to Albert Bordeaux, for his applications of geology to the solution of mining problems. The Victor Raulin prize is postponed until 1921.

Botany.—The Desmazieres prize to André Maublanc, for his work in mycology and plant diseases; honorable mention to Pierre Sée, for his book on the diseases of paper; the De Coincy ze to Lucien Hauman-Merck, for the whole of his botanical work. The Montagne prize is not awarded.

Anatomy and Zoology.The Cuvier prize to Alphonse Malaquin, for the whole of his work in zoology; the Savigny prize to F. Le Cerf, for his “Revision des Ægeriidés algériens”; the Jean Thore prize to A. Cros, for his biological studies of the Coleoptera of northern Africa.

agree with Sir E. Sharpey Schafer that the closure of the laboratory would be a serious misfortune. It is,” he says, in a letter to the Times, "unique from the fact that, being unattached to any particular medical school or college, it has been untrammelled by the necessity of providing elementary teaching in physiology, and has been able to devote all its energies to research. The success it has obtained in this under the able guidance of the director, Professor A. D. Waller, is universally acknowledged. The originality of Professor Waller's methods and the brilliant results which have been obtained from their application-especially in the difficult subject of electrophysiology-are well known. It would be a real calamity if a sudden stop were put to these activities." It is suggested that the reason why the London County Council has withdrawn its contribution at this time is the expectation that it will shortly have to contribute a large sum toward the cost of building new university headquarters. “It would seem," Sir E. Sharpey Schafer concludes, “a pity to allow an active laboratory to be abolished in order to save £500 a year towards the cost of problematical buildings." Problematical,” perhaps, is not quite the right word, because, we presume, something will have to be done for the university, but no building can be undertaken for some considerable time to come. We can only express the hope that, should the London County Council remain obdurate, public-spirited benefactors, recognizing the importance of the university having at least one research laboratory, will come to the rescue. We may, at any rate, express the expectation that means will be found to carry on the laboratory until the question of the new site for the university is settled.


ICAL LABORATORY At its meeting in December the senate of the University of London decided that the physiological laboratory must be closed at the end of July next unless assurance of adequate support is received from the London County Council or other sources. The British Medical Journal writes:

The laboratory was established under the direction of Professor A. D. Waller, F.R.S., in 1902, at the headquarters of the university in the Imperial Institute, South Kensington, the equipment being provided out of a fund of £4,000 provided from private sources. It has since been maintained partly out of university funds and partly by private assistance, with the help, during the last nine years, of an annual grant of £500 from the London County Council. This grant is now to be withdrawn, and the university has no funds out of which to make up the deficit. In deciding to close the laboratory, the senate appears to be influenced also by the need of finding additional room in its present quarters for general university purposes; this is indicated by a further resolution stating "that should adequate support for the transference and maintenance of the physiological laboratory be forthcoming, the laboratory be continued during the pleasure of the senate elsewhere than in its present quarters, which shall be vacated not later than the end of July, 1921.” Physiologists will


SCIENCES With the opening to the public of the new Museum of the California Academy of Sciences in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, in 1916, one of the activities of the educational policy put into effect by Dr. Barton Warren Evermann, the director of the museum, was courses of popular lectures on scientific subjects of general interest. These courses began in the fall of 1916 and have been continued each year since, without interruption except during the summer months. The lectures are given at three o'clock each

Sunday afternoon in the museum auditorium. of Agriculture, subject: “Insect quarantine work
Among the lecturers have been many of the of the State Department of Agriculture.
most distinguished men of science on the April 3. Dr. R. S. Holway, associate professor
Pacific coast and a number from the east.

of physical geography, University of California, The courses for the present year are proving

subject: “The evolution of California scenery.

Illustrated. of unusual interest. Those given in the first

April 10. Dr. B. L. Clark, assistant professor of part of the year have already been mentioned

paleontology, University of California, subject: in SCIENCE. Those for the first months of

“Ancient seas and their faunas.' Illustrated. 1921 have been announced by Director Ever

April 17. Dr. G. D. Louderback, professor of mann as follows:

geology, University of California, subject: “Chief Three lectures by Professor Lewis, of the Uni.

events of earth history in the California region.” versity of California, as follows:

Illustrated. January 2. “Atoms and ions. Illustrated.

April 24. Dr. Chester Stock, research assistant, January 9. "Electrons and positive rays."

department of paleontology, University of CaliIllustrated.

fornia, subject: “The former mammalian life of January 16. "Radioactive transformations."

California." Illustrated. Illustrated.

Upon the completion of the above there will Three by Professor D. L. Webster, of Stanford

be five lectures in May on the general subUniversity, will be as follows:

ject of meteorology. This course is being January 23. “General properties of X. and

arranged by Mr. E. A. Beals in charge of the Gamma-Rays." Illustrated. February 6. "X-Ray spectra." Illustrated.

United States Weather Bureau Office, San February 13. “The structure of atoms.” Il

Francisco. The subjects and speakers will be lustrated.

announced later. On January 30 Dr. E. C. Slipher, Lowell Observ. atory, Flagstaff, Arizona, lectured


SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS tography of the planets, with special reference to

DR. THEODORE LYMAN, professor of physics Mars." Illustrated.

and director of the Jefferson Physical LaboraUpon the completion of this course on

tory, Harvard University, has been elected physical subjects other lectures will be given president of the American Physical Society. as follows:

The Edison medal, awarded annually for February 20. Mr. Edward Berwick, Pacific work in electrical engineering by the AmeriGrove, Calif., subject: “How Uncle Sam's money

can Institute of Electrical Engineers, will be is wasted.'

presented this year to Dr. M. I. Pupin, proFebruary 27. Dr. Harlow Shapley, Mount Wil.

fessor of electromechanics at Columbia Unison Solar Observatory, Pasadena, subject: “The

versity. dimensions of the stellar universe." Illustrated. March 6. Major W. B. Herms, associate pro

DR. IRA REMSEN, president emeritus of the fessor of parasitology, University of California,

Johns Hopkins University, professor of chemsubject: “Eighteen thousand miles in search of

istry emeritus at the institution, has accepted mosquitoes in California-how and why?" Illus. an offer from the Standard Oil Company to trated.

act as consulting chemist for the corporation. March 13. Mr. Harry S. Smith, entomologist, DR. PEARCE Bailey has been awarded a disState Department of Agriculture, Sacramento, sub

tinguished service medal in recognition of his ject: Parasitism among insects."

services as chief of the division of neuro-psy-. March 20. Dr. E. C. Van Dyke, assistant professor of entomology, University of California, chiatry of the Surgeon-General's Office.


. subject: “Some injurious forest insects of Cali- KING GEORGE has signified his intention of fornia."

conferring the honor of knighthood on Dr. March 27. Mr. Frederick Maskew, formerly

Maurice Craig, consulting neurologist to the chief deputy quarantine officer, State Department Ministry of Pensions, and Dr. P. Horton

on :

Smith Hartley, senior physician at the Hos- DR. L. A. MIKESKA has accepted a position pital for Consumption and Diseases of the on the staff of the Rockefeller Institute, New Chest, Brompton.

York City, having left the Color Laboratory The pupils and friends of Professor E. ,of the Bureau of Chemistry in Washington, Morselli recently celebrated the fortieth anni- D. C., where he was working on photosensiversary of his incumbency of the chair of tizing dyes. psychiatry at the University of Genoa. The DEAN A. Pack, Ph.D. (Chicago), has been celebration occurred during the Italian Con- appointed plant breeder in the Office of Sugargress of Neurologists and Alienists, held at Plant Investigations, Bureau of Plant InGenoa in his honor. A copy of Raphael's dustry, U. S. Department of Agriculture. Dr. Madonna of the Candelabra, in a sixteenth Pack has charge of the sugar beet seed breedcentury frame, was presented to him by public ing work for the department in the Intersubscription.

mountain States, with headquarters at Salt The Geological Society, London, has made Lake City, Utah. the following awards: Wollaston medal, Dr. DR. J. C. Witt, assistant professor of John Horne and Dr. B. N. Peach; Murch- analytical chemistry in the University of ison medal, Mr. E. S. Cobbold; Lyell medal, Pittsburgh, has resigned to become chief reDr. E. de Margerie, director of the Geological search chemist for the Portland Cement AssoSurvey of Alsace-Lorraine; Bigsby medal, Dr. ciation with headquarters in Chicago. Dr. L. L. Fermor, Geological Survey of India; Witt has been succeeded in his former posiWollaston fund, Dr. T. O. Bosworth; Murch- tion by Dr. C. J. Engelder, of Horneli, N. Y. ison fund, Dr. Albert Gilligan; and Lyell

Mr. Thomas M. Rector, formerly in charge fund, Professor H. L. Hawkins, Reading Uni

of the division of food technology of the Inversity College, and Mr. C. E. N. Bromehead,

stitute of Industrial Research, Washington, H.M. Geological Survey.

D. C., has been appointed director of the deThe Paris Academy of Medicine has elected partment of industrial chemistry of the Pease the following officers for the year 1921: Presi- Laboratories, Inc., New York City. dent, Dr. Richelot; Vice-president (president

DR. EDGAR FAHS SMITH, formerly provost of for 1922), Professor Bourquelot, and Annual

the University of Pennsylvania, made an adSecretary, Professor Achard.

dress on February 11, on “Research,” before HERBERT E. GREGORY, professor of geology the New York Section of the American Elecat Yale University and director of the Bishop trochemical Society in joint session with the Museum in Honolulu, has returned to the American Chemical Society, the American Hawaiian Islands.

Section Society of Chemical Industry and the DR. Oskar Klotz, professor of pathology American Section of Société de Chime Indusand bacteriology at the University of Pitts- trielle. burgh, will sail on February 9 for São Paulo, Dr. J. S. PLASKEET, director of the DominBrazil, to assume for a two-year period the ion Astrophysical Observatory, Victoria, B. C., directorship of the pathological laboratories at

delivered two addresses at the University of the University of São Paulo, under the

Washington on January 19 and 20, the one on auspices of the Rockefeller Foundation.

“Modern ideas of the universe," and the other PROFESSOR CHARLES J. TILDEN has been on “ The chemistry of the stars.” These lecgranted a leave of absence from Yale Univer- tures were held under the auspices of the Unisity, where he was called to reorganize the versity of Washington Chapter of Sigma Xi, engineering courses a year ago, to become di- the Puget Sound Section of the American rector of the Highway Education Committee Chemical Society and the Puget Sound Secappointed by the federal commissioner of edu- tion of the American Institute of Electrical cation.


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