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medical school in Shanghai was planned by fiscal year 1,420,208 acres in the White Mounthe foundation, the Harvard Medical School tains and the Southern Appalachians and of China was purchased by the Chinese Med- 12,094 acres in the Ozark Mountains of ical Board, and the Pennsylvania Medical Arkansas. The original program of acquisiSchool at Shanghai consented to step aside in tion contemplated the purchase of about favor of the larger institution. A few months 1,000,000 acres in the White Mountains and ago, however, after the foundation withdrew not less than 5,0000,000 acres in the Southern from the field, the Pennsylvania Medical Appalachians. Nearly one half the proposed School began pushing forward its plans to en- White Mountain area has been acquired, but large its plant. The erection of a science lab- slower progress has been made in the southern oratory building, to cost $100,000, was promptly begun. This will house departments of phys- Further appropriations to carry on the purics, chemistry and biology and, temporarily, chase work within the areas have been recomthe medical laboratories also, but the latter mended by the National Forest Reservation will be removed to other buildings which will Commission. To leave these Eastern forests be erected later. The institution will provide in their present half finished condition would a premedical course covering three years, and subject them to formidable fire hazards and a medical course of four years similar to those other difficulties of management." established by the Peking Union Medical Col- There is need also for some action to reduce lege.

the danger to the National Forests from the

24,267,723 acres of private lands that are THE FOREST SERVICE

intermingled with land belonging to the govACCORDING to the annual report of Chief ernment. Most of this land is forested and its Forester W. B. Greeley, the receipts of the misuse, mismanagement and neglect jeopardize National Forests have increased 93 per cent. the government's holdings. General legislafrom 1915 to 1920, while the total appropria- tion is urged to acquire the private land by tions for the Forest Service, exclusive of defi- purchase or exchange. ciency fire-fighting funds, has increased only The 1919 fire season was unus

usually severe 8 per cent. The receipts for 1920 were 10 per and long drawn out, the report states. It was cent. greater than for 1919, and an equal in- the third successive year of severe drought in crease for the current fiscal year may be ex- the northwest, and the worst of the three. pected, unless too much new business has to be Fires began to occur before much of the cusrejected on account of lack of funds and tomary work of preparation had been done, trained employees. The appropriations for the and this imposed a further handicap upon the current fiscal year were increased only 3 per forest force, which had been depleted by the cent.

loss of many experienced men. The total In addition to the actual revenue, accord- number of forest fires in the National Forests ing to the report, there is an enormous return was 6,800, or 1,227 greater than in the preto the public through the protection of the vious year. The area of National Forest 500,000,000,000-odd feet of timber for future lands burned over was 2,000,034 acres, the use, the protection of the headwaters of in

estimated damage was $4,919,769, and the total numerable feeders of navigation, irrigation cost of fire fighting was $3,039,615. and hydroelectric power and the recreational facilities made available to hundreds of thou

GYPSUM FELLOWSHIPS sands of people. “There will always be na- At the recent annual meeting of the Gyptional resources not measurable in dollars sum Industries Association, they provided for which in public benefit exceed the receipts six to eight fellowships, each bearing a stipend paid into the Treasury," the report says. of $1,000 to $1,500 a year, depending on the

The purchases aggregated at the close of the training and ability of the holder.

These fellowships are to be located at vari- Your early associations were with Baird, Gill, ous agricultural colleges in the eastern part

Brown, Goode and Tarleton Bean, and your name of the United States for the purpose of investi

will go down in the museum's history linked with

theirs. No wonder we have always regarded you gating the use of gypsum in crop production

as one of us, and we know that this sentiment is and for making a fundamental study of the

being reciprocated by you. relation of sulphur to crop nutrition and

As a slight token of my appreciation of your growth.

services to science and to the museum, may I not The revival of interest in gypsum and other

ask you to accept the designation as honorary sulphur fertilizers has largely grown out of the associate in zoology? remarkable results that agricultural scientists I trust that you may be spared for many more and farmers of Oregon and Washington are years to continue your work. obtaining from the use of sulphur sources on alfalfa and clover, and other legumes. In SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS many of the soils of these states a leguminous WILLIAM THOMPSON SEDGWICK, professor of crop can not be successfully grown without an

biology in the Massachusetts Institute of Techaddition of a sulphur source, and such addi- nology since 1883, died on January 25, aged tions give increases in yield ranging from 25 sixty-five years. to 500 per cent.

At a meeting of the Société belge de MédeTwo of these are to be used in continuing the fellowships that have already been in opera

cine of Brussels, Belgium, held on December tion for considerably more than a year at the

27, 1920, Dr. William H. Welch, director of the University of Chicago and at Iowa State

school of hygiene and public health of the Johns

Hopkins University, and Dr. Simon Flexner, College. The others will be strategically dis

the director of the Rockefeller Institute for tributed at state agricultural colleges and ex

Medical Research, were made honorary memperiment stations in central and eastern

bers of that organization. United States.

THE dinner and reception given by the medTHE NATIONAL MUSEUM AND DR. JORDAN

ical profession of Philadelphia to Dr. William On the occasion of the seventieth birthday W. Keen, at the Bellevue Stratford Hotel, on of David Starr Jordan, chancellor emeritus of

January 20, in honor of his eighty-fourth Stanford University, which occurred on Jan- birthday, was attended by 600 physicians and uary 19, the following letter was addressed to

friends. Dr. George de Schweinitz was the him by Dr. Charles D. Walcott, secretary of

toastmaster, and the speakers included Dr. the Smithsonian Institution:

William H. Welch, Baltimore; Dr. J. Chalmers On the occasion of your seventieth birthday, DaCosta, Philadelphia, and Mr. David Jayne permit me, on behalf of the Smithsonian Institu

Hill. Major-General Merritte W. Ireland, surtion and the National Museum, to offer my con

geon-general, U. S. Army, presented a specially gratulations as well as thanks for your faithful

bound volume containing addresses and letters cooperation during half a century. For fully fifty years you have labored for the

as a tribute to Dr. Keen, and Dr. William J. high ideals expressed by the founder of this in- Taylor, of the College of Physicians, presented stitution in the words “increase and diffusion of a life size bust of Dr. Keen in army uniform, knowledge among men,” and for nearly the same by Samuel Murray. Dr. Keen in responding period your work has been in close association

made an address that will be printed in with the institution and its staff.

SCIENCE. Your work has also been intimately connected with the National Museum since its organization

A PORTRAIT of Dr. Samuel W. Lambert, dean as such, and your scientific papers are among the

emeritus of the college of physicians and surmost valued contributions to the museum's publi- geons, Columbia University, was presented to cations from its very first volume to the latest. the college on January 28. The presentation

was made by Dr. George S. Huntington, professor of anatomy.

The John Fritz gold medal for notable scientific and industrial achievement has been awarded to Sir Robert Hadfield, inventor of manganese steel and leader of the British steel industry. The award of the medal has been authorized unanimously by the sixteen members of the committee representing the national organizations of civil, mechanical, mining, metallurgical and electrical engineers. The medal was established in 1902 in honor of John Fritz, iron-master of Bethlehem, Pa.

The Honor Society of Agriculture, Gamma Sigma Delta, with chapters in the University of Minnesota, University of Nebraska, University of Missouri, Iowa State College, Oregon Agricultural College, Kansas State College, State College of Utah and Alabama Polytechnic Institute conferred honorary membership for distinguished services to agriculture on Dr. Eugene Davenport, of the University of Illinois; Dr. T. B. Osborn, of Yale University; Dr. H. P. Parmsby, of State College, Pennsylvania, and Dr. L. H. Bailey, of Ithaca, N. Y. The medal was conferred upon Dr Davenport

THE twenty-fifth anniversary of the publication of the discovery of the roentgen ray by Professor Roentgen has been celebrated with tributes to Roentgen in Germany. He retired last spring from the chair of experimental physics at the University of Munich.

Dr. E. O. TEALE has been appointed government geologist of Tanganyika Colony, formerly German East Africa.

PROFESSOR E. B. MATHEWS, of the Johns Hopkins University, has been appointed chairman of the advisory council of the United States Board of Surveys and Maps.

THE $5,000 prize offered by Mr. Higgins through the Scientific American for the best popular essay on the Einstein theories was awarded to the essay submitted by Mr. L. Bolton, of London. It appears in the Scientific American for February 5, and will be followed in subsequent issues by a number of

the other essays, some in full and others in part.

OFFICERS of the American Anthropological Associatior. have been elected as follows: W. C. Farabee, of the University of Pennsytvania, president; A. V. Kidder, of Phillips Andover Academy, secretary; J. R. Swanton, of the Bureau of Ethnology, treasurer and editor.

THE Missouri Society for Mental Hygiene was organized in St. Louis on January 13, with the following officers: Dr. M. A. Bliss, president; Dr. J. F. McFadden, secretary; Dr. J. E. W. Wallin, treasurer.

The American Journal of Psychology, established by Dr. G. Stanley Hall in 1887, and since edited by him, has been acquired by members of the department of psychology of Cornell University, and will hereafter be edited by Professor E. B. Titchener.

The Rockefeller Foundation announces the election of Miss Norma Foster Stoughton, to become assistant secretary of the Rockefeller Foundation, and Miss Margery K. Eggleston, to become assistant secretary of the China Medical Board, a department of the foundation. Miss Stoughton entered the staff of the Rockefeller Foundation in 1916 and has made a special study of hospital administration and service. Miss Eggleston has been since 1914 with the General Education Board, the China Medical Board and the Rockefeller Foundation. In addition to her position with the China Medical Board she has just been appointed assistant secretary of the trustees of the Peking Union Medical College, an institution erected and maintained in Peking by funds of the Rockefeller Foundation.

DR. WILLIAM W. Cort, associate professor of helminthology in the school of hygiene and public health of Johns Hopkins University, has been appointed director of the expedition recently formed by the International Health Board of the Rockefeller Foundation, New York, to study the hookworm larvæ in Trinidad, West Indies. The expedition will leave for Trinidad about May 1 and will be gone four months. Dr. Cort will be assisted by Dr.

J. E. Ackert, professor of parasitology of the M. PAINLEVÉ, professor of mathematics at Kansas State Agricultural College, and by Dr. Paris and former prime minister has returned D. L. Augustine, assistant in medical zoology from China to which he had been 'sent on a at the Johns Hopkins University.

mission concerning Chinese universities and DR. LUDWIG SILBERSTEIN, of the research railways. He has obtained from the Chinese laboratory of the Eastman Kodak Company, government the promise of an annual subdelivered a series of fifteen lectures before the vention of 100,000f. for an institute of faculty and students of the University of Chinese higher studies in Paris. The Chinese Toronto on January 10–22. The first six government has also agreed to the creation, in lectures were devoted to explaining the gen- one of the Chinese universities, of an affiliated eral procedure of fixing events in space and branch of the University of Paris, and it will time, and to developing the presence of special devote to this purpose the sum of 500,000f. relativity with their consequences and applica- annually, on condition that the French govtions to optics and to dynamics of a particle. ernment gives the same amount. The Chinese The next six lectures were devoted to the con

president has further promised to have reproceptual as well as the mathematical aspects duced the collection of four great classics of general relativity and gravitation theory. which contain the essence of Chinese civilizaThe last three lectures were concerning the tion, and to present three copies to France. quantum theory of spectra.

These volumes run to not less than 5,000,000 At the meeting of the American Philo- pages. sophical Society on Friday evening, February The British Medical Journal states that the 4, Dr. John C. Merriam, president of the Car- late Dr. A. J. Chalmers, the authority on tropnegie Institution of Washington, read a paper ical diseases, who died on his way home on entitled “Researches on the antiquity of man leave in April last, left a valuable collection in California.”

of medical books mainly on tropical diseases, THE Aldred lecture was delivered at the and including some almost priceless incunabRoyal Society of Arts on January 12, by Dr.

ula. The whole of these, with the exception C. S. Myers, director of the psychological lab

of about sixty volumes, presented to the Royal oratory, and lecturer in experimental psychol- College of Physicians of London, have been ogy, University of Cambridge. The subject given by Mrs. Chalmers to the Royal Society was “Industrial Fatigue.”

of Medicine, which has decided that the colThe American Roentgen Ray Society will lection shall be kept together and be known as award $1,000 to the American author of the the “Chalmers Collection.” Mrs. Chlamers best original research in the field of the has presented the society with the sum of £500 roentgen ray, radium or radio-activity. for the shelving and furnishing of a room in Mary Watson WHITNEY, professor of as

which the books will be kept as a memorial of tronomy emeritus and from 1889 to 1910 her husband. It is hoped that the collection director of the observatory of Vassar College, of books on tropical medicine will be added to died on January 20 aged seventy-three years. from time to time, and the room chosen for DR. LINCOLN WARE RIDDLE, assistant pro

the Chalmers Library is well adapted for the fessor of cryptogamic botany and associate purpose. This coincides with the reconstruccurator of the Farlow Herbarium of Crypto- tion of the new Section of Tropical Medicine gamic botany, died at his home in Cambridge and Parasitology. The section was formed in on January 16 in the forty-first year of his 1912, but was suspended during the war, and age.

has only this session been formerly constiPRINCE PETER ALEXEJEVITCH KRAPOTKIN, dis- tuted. The new section will start with a litinguished as a geographer and for his books brary of its own-perhaps the finest collection on science and natural history, has died at of books on tropical medicine to be found Moscow at the age of seventy-eight years. anywhere.

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The third half-yearly report on the progress been suggested to Harvard University, by of civil aviation in England has been issued as leading men in the fishing industry at Boston. a White Paper. According to the abstract in

HERETOFORE Brazil has had no regularly Nature it is pointed out that regular air serv

coordinated university though she has had inices have now been established from London

dividual faculties vested with the power to to Paris, Brussels and Amsterdam, and that confer degrees. T'he faculties of law and passenger, mail and goods traffic is increasing.

medicine and the polytechnic institute of Rio The total number of aeroplane miles flown in

de Janeiro have now been combined and will the half-year ending September 30, 1920, is

be known henceforth as the University of Rio nearly 700,000, whilst the aggregate since May, de Janeiro. 1919, exceeds 1,000,000. The number of pas

Dr. John M. THOMAS, since 1908 president sengers by air exceeds 30,000, whilst the goods carried weigh little less than 90 tons. In value

of Middlebury College, has accepted the presithe imported goods exceed £500,000, whilst the

dency of the Pennsylvania State College. exports and re-exports are about half that Dr. E. K. MARSHALL, professor of pharmaamount. As part of the mail services, about cology in Washington University, has been 50,000 letters have passed each way between elected professor of physiology in the Johns London-Paris, Brussels and Amsterdam with Hopkins Medical School, beginning in July. a regularity which is notable. Of the three Dr. Marshall received his bachelor's degree routes the best shows 94 per cent. of deliveries from Charleston College, 1908, and the docwithin three hours of schedule time, and the torate in philosophy and medicine from the worst 76 per cent. As part of the organization Johns Hopkins University. for further improving these records, it is

At Yale University the following lecturers stated that the wireless direction-finding appa

in special applications of organic chemistry in ratus installed at Croydon has proved its value,

the industries have been appointed: Dr. Ralph enabling aircraft to correct their course in

H. McKee, professor of chemical engineering, thick weather. The equipment of aircraft with

Columbia University; Dr. Moses L. Crossley, apparatus for wireless telephony is extending,

research chemist, Calco Chemical Co.; Dr. as it is found to be of considerable assistance

P. A. Levene, biochemist, Rockefeller Institute to navigation. The fatal accidents are given

for Medical Res h; Dr. David Wesson,. as in the ratio of 1 per 50,000 miles flown or

technical manager, The Southern Cotton Oil per 5,000 passengers carried. The interna

Co.; Dr. Harry N. Holmes, professor of chemtional character of flying is brought out in a

istry, Oberlin College, and Dr. Elmer V. Mcstatement of activities in other countries.

Collum, professor of chemistry, School of Hy

giene, Johns Hopkins University. UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL

NEWS
FOLLOWING the investigations made by Pro-

DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE fessor S. C. Prescott, instructor in industrial ASTRONOMICAL RESEARCH IN THE SOUTHbiology of the department of biology and

EASTERN STATES public health of the Institute of Technology, TO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: In SCIENCE, who has just returned from Seattle, where he December 10, 1920, page 545, I commented studied the work of the College of Fisheries of upon the interesting fact that the observatory · the University of Washington, it has been an- of the University of Virginia, named after the nounced that the administrative committee donor, Mr. McCormick of Chicago, is the only of the institute is considering the inclusion active observatory in our southeastern states. of a course in the scientific problems of fish My further comment that Barnard and other culture and problems of the fisheries. Estab- astronomical enthusiasts, born and grown to lishment of a college of fisheries similar to manhood in the former slave-holding states, that of the University of Washington has also had found their opportunities in the great

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