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(j) A materials balance is the difference between material introduced into a unit process and the material removed from the process. Results of material balancing for the sintering/reduction furnace in the Advanced Fuels process is shown on an MIP (material-in-process) chart. Small amounts of plutonium accumulate on the boats that transport the pellets into the furnace. The chart indicates the amount of plutonium that each batch contributes to the MIP buildup on the boats. When the MIP grew to about 80 g, the supervisor conducted a cleanout to recover as much plutonium as was practical. The plutonium recovered from the boats was measured with the thermal neutron coincidence counter and sent to scrap recovery.

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tability and control systems, many quite similar to DYMAC, are being tested and evaluated at a number of nuclear facilities in the US and abroad. As these in-plant test and evaluation programs are completed, the resulting technology and operational experience will be available for introduction into various types of domestic and international fuelcycle facilities.

Emergency Response and Recovery

response capability is the NEST-Nuclear Emergency Search Team-activity. This program provides emergency response to incidents of nuclear extortion, nuclear weapon accidents, lost or stolen nuclear materials, and terrorist threats. Portable and mobile nuclear detection systems having high sensitivity and real-time data. processing and analysis capability have been developed and deployed for field test, evaluation, and operational use. A related effort involves the development and field testing of instrumentation and procedures for detection, diagnosis, and disabling of improvised or otherwise unknown nuclear devices. Suffice it to say, these efforts require extensive coordination with other DOE laboratories and federal agencies, primarily the FBI and the Department of Defense, all of whom share with LASL major responsibilities in the nation's emergency response system.

Its excellent record notwithstanding, if a safeguards system should fail and nuclear materials are missing from a facility, there must clearly be a demonstrated response capability to recover materials rapidly, and to apprehend the offender. Likewise, an emergency response plan and demonstrated field-operational capability is essential in responding to nuclear emergencies, accidents, acts of terrorism, blackmail, and sabotage. LASL's special qualifications and experience in both national defense programs and safeguards technology provide a unique capability for innovative design and development of instrumentation for surveillance and search-and-recovery applications. This capability includes the design of handheld monitors for searching personnel and vehicles at facility-access areas and the development, testing, and evaluation of SNM portal monitors, vault monitoring systems, and enclosure detector arrays. It also includes passive and active NDA techniques for SNM identification and verification as applied, for example, to a variety of thorny problems that arise in safeguarding SNM movements into and out of a rigidly proscribed "perimeter" around sensitive technology areas in domestic or international fuel-cycle facilities, or in safeguarding defense-related activities and facilities.

A major component of emergency

The 1980s as the Decade of Technology Transfer

If the 1970s can be regarded as the decade of modern safeguards technology development, the 1980s must be the decade of the transfer of this technology to nuclear facilities-both existing and new. As indicated in Table III, interactions between the LASL program and nuclear facilities of all types, in both the government and private industry sectors, involve the gamut of safeguards R&D activities from instrument development, calibration, test, and in-plant evaluation to the design, optimization, and performance analysis of overall facility safeguards systems. On the international level, there is growing interest, particularly among other industrialized nations, in the design, optimization, and practical in-plant implementation of integrated safeguards systems incorporating state-of-the-art materials

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