« iepriekšējāTurpināt »
France has no interest in the present dispute beyond that of her bondholders in the Panama Canal works. The Temps (Paris)
warns the Venezuelans and Colombians that they are “digging WILL THE UNITED STATES INTERVENE IN
the grave of their political independence." Their political vices THE VENEZUELAN-COLOMBIAN DISPUTE?
and many divisions, it says, have “reduced them to a state of UROPEAN journals see the beginnings of grave interna- feebleness which tional complications in the presence of an American man
puts them of-war at the scene of the troubles between Venezuela and Col
pletely at the ombia. The present "little squabble" will soon be forgotten, mercy of the great, but, says The Saturday Review (London), “it is to be hoped greedy republic of that Europe will not forget the end toward which American poli- the North, whose cy is steadily making.” The time will come, continues this Lon
world policy is now don journal, “when the outrageous principle by which South to claim the entire America on grounds of 'geographical gravitation' is claimed as South American exclusively American, will produce a deadlock between the Eu- continent as its ropean and American governments.” Germany “will not surren- own." Interven der her legitimate claims to expansion in South America, nor will tion by the United Spain nor France nor Britain." Under the heading “Sancte Mon- States, concludes rovi, ora pro nobis,” The St. James's Gazette (London) says: the Temps, is al
"The extension of the gospel according to St. Monroe involved ready a fact which in the action of the United States has, we are told, created un- only those who are usual stir in South American diplomatic quarters, and the de
politically blind velopment is ‘most grateful to South America.' These naughty
fail to see. Up to little boys must always be fighting among themselves, and are
the present time, rather pleased than otherwise at the arrival on the scene of the
observes the big prefect, who will secure them permanent peace with honor. But does the arrival of the Vineta upon the scene portend that Frankfurter ZeiYankee pretensions to the control of South America may be fol- tung, the rest of
Leader of the Colombian Revolutionists. lowed by a shaking of the mailed fist?”
the world could
Courtesy of the Economista Internacional, New York. look
with Most of the European comment is along the same lines. The merits of the dispute itself receive but little consideration. The amused unconcern while the South American republics had revo
lution after revolution and war after war. But hereafter Europe Journal des Débats' foreign reviewer, M. Alcide Ebray, predicts that it will be the beginning of the end for South Ameri- must watch the progress of events in South America with a can independence. He believes that the United States will ac- keen, jealous care, always keeping an eye open toward the tively intervene and make this intervention the entering wedge United States. The semi-official Fremdenblatt (Vienna) conof actual domination of the entire South American continent. siders it "inevitable that there should be a progressive absorp
tion of the inferior states by the great republic of the North."
The Neue Freie Presse, also of Vienna, insists that the United “Washington is plainly growing more and more disposed to intervene, and the activity at the American departments of war States will use the present Colombian Venezuelan difference as and marine indicates that the attitude, ostensibly assumed to a pretext to seize and hold the isthmus of Panama. The Pester smooth out the interruptions to the trans-Isthmian traffic, will Lloyd (Budapest) believes that the United States will intervene undoubtedly soon become a permanent phase of American policy.”
in the dispute and, as in the Spanish war, will resent any hint Robert de Caix, writing in the same journal, declares that of European participation in the decision. It warns Americans
to proceed slowly, however, and not to let the
imperialistic idea run away with them. CARIB B E A N SE A
The Epoca (Madrid) discounts much that has been reported in the European press about the violence of the state of affairs in the two
republics. The whole matter, says this Spanish ACA
journal, may be laid at the door of the jingoes Luennom
of New York and Washington. It continues : Bay of Santiago de Verlere
“Throughout the entire continent of South V E N EZ U E L
America, it is an accepted fact that both in
incited by hidden hands, the object being to
create a situation which would justify the employment of the American grasping hand. This hand aims at extending its grip to the
territory of Panama, under the cloak of proROTA
tecting the commerce and the railroad of that state (Panama). Fortunately, the policy of
Great Britain preserves Nicaragua from a like *Quito
fate; she will in no wise consent to the lapse
of the Clayton-Bulwer treaty, custodian, as E C ƯA D 0 \R
she is, of the neutrality of the canals, nor Gulf of Guaya
does she accede to the amendments which the American Senate has endeavored to insert in the treaty negotiated by the ministers Hay and Pauncefote. All that the whole world of America has seen in the perturbations in Co
Gulf of Maracáybo
relin Puerto Cabello
Port of Spain
Calabozo Sta. Maria
M B I
C. San Francisco
lombia and the actual alarm in Venezuela, as also in the precipitation with which a war-vessel has been despatched to the coasts of the isthmus, clearly show the intention of the jingoes of the North to acquire Central American teritorry. In spite of all, there will be no actual war between the republics of Colombia and Venezuela.”
The South American Journal (London), organ of British vested interests in the Southern continent, declares that no one can object to a “moral oversight" exercised by the United States. Further, it says:
“It might be a good thing if the Americans were to go a little further and use their influence to bring about a more settled state of affairs. As to their taking possession of any portion of the territory by force, that is quite out of the question. The United States has a hard enough task already in the Philippines, the area and population of which are insignificant compared with either Colombia or Venezuela, and this should serve it as an object-lesson as to the dangers of trying to conquer such countries." – Translations made for THE LITERARY DIGEST.
THE FRANCO-TURKISH DIFFICULTY. THE HE trouble between France and Turkey arising out of the
refusal of the Sultan to purchase the property of the French quay company has been raised to the standard of a continenal European question by Abdul Hamid's appeal to Germany for intervention and the openly expressed interest of Russia in France's behalf. The French ambassador having left Constantinople and the Turkish ambassador having been requested to leave Paris, the dispute took on serious dimensions, when the Sultan backed down. The whole matter is due to the Sultan's recent"rever
sion to reactionary tactics," declares the Temps (Paris), in an editorial presumably inspired by the Foreign Office, and a virtual repetition of an interview ascribed to M. Delcassé, Foreign Minister, recently published in the llatin. Says the Temps further:
The Figaro (Paris) further elaborates the views of the French Government. It says in part:
“France can not rest quietly under such treatment from the Porte. Our Government supports its ambassador and we French people support the Government. It would not be worth while having one of the most powerful armies in the world and a navy which fears no comparison, it would not be worth while being bound in close alliance to the largest empire in the world, if we were to allow an affront such as is laid upon our ambassador to go unrebuked. We will exact full reparation, and no Power shall stand between us and the Sultan."
An anonymous writer in The St. James's Gazette (London) declares that the Turk as a race is decadent almost to the point of dissolution, and that the difficulty with France marks the beginning of the end for the Mussulmans. The Turkish question, says this writer, is at bottom a woman question:
“The Sultan is what his women have made him, and so will his successor be. The mother of Abdul Hamid was a beautiful renegade Armenian, the relentless foe of her own race. It is not possible for the motherhood of a nation to be degraded as is that of Turkey, and for the manhood of the race to be at the same time progressive or enlightened. Turkey has no female dignity corresponding with a queen or an empress. The harem is but a collection of wives and concubines in which the child of some unknown slave may rise to power. There is no aristocracy to check the Sultan. Great families can not exist. Why is official corruption in Turkey more official and more corrupt than in any other land on earth? Polygamy and the insatiable greed of Turkish wives are responsible for it all. The enslavement of woman brings terrible retribution. The ladies run their husbands into debt, and the men have to look sharply after bribes in order to meet their deficits. Matrimonial morals are curiously ordered. In the silk factories of Brusa a young girl will come in the morning to ask for an hour's leave to get divorced, as she and her husband are tired of each other. Later in the day she requests another hour's leave, this time to get married again. A girl under twenty may have assumed and repudiated the connubial bonds at least a dozen times. Amongst the agricultural classes throughout Turkey the women are miserably degraded, especially in Asia Minor. The village women are poor, stunted, and downtrodden. In thousands of cases they become, when no longer young, mere beasts of burden. These are the tillers of the soil. This, more than any other reason, accounts for the degeneration of the Turk."
Altho the German press denies that the Sultan has asked for German intervention, it is generally believed on the Continent that Turkey did actually apply to Kaiser Wilhelm and was told to settle her own troubles. The Vational Zeitung (Berlin) declares that Germany does not intend even to mediate and has no interest in staying the judgment of France. The Neue Freie Presse (Vienna) believes that France's power and prestige in the Levant will be greatly enhanced by the outcome, for, it says,
no Power will lift a finger to stop her in whatever punishment she may mete out to the sick man of Constantinople.”
The Sultan's greatest fear in the whole matter, the news despatches say, is that the incident may encourage the so-called Young Turkish Party, which aims at political and economic reform in the empire, and of which he stands in mortal dread. Assassination is what he fears at the hands of some member of this party. In an irade issued a week or so ago he forbade the use of the term “Young Turk." The irade is as follows:
“Certain persons, evilly disposed toward the Government and country, call themselves • Young Turks' in order to sow disunion and strife, and assert that they form a faction or party. By imperial irade, it has been forbidden to all officials and other subjects of the empire to utter or to spread abroad the expression Young Turk.
The Echo de Paris declares that it has well-authenticated information that, if the Sultan does not accord France satisfaction within a certain time (not specified), the surveillance of the members of the Young Turkish party in France (Paris being
attitude adopted by THE TURK: “Bismillah! How can I hold them all up?
England, and France during the postal question was not enough to open the eyes of the anti-foreign advisers of the Sultan, who have no sort of notion of political meteorology, and have not perceived that a period of high pressure has succeeded one of depression. The wind may have been blowing in the quarter of concessions and feeble currents for a long time, but this is the case no longer. And when once the European chancelleries are aware that the only object of France at Constantinople is to defend rights which have been as violently trodden under-foot as will be those with which they themselves will sooner or later have to deal, they will not be disposed to give the Sublime Porte anything but judicious advice. The attitude of the European press is a manifest proof of this and the fact need cause no surprise. The danger which European peace would run if the present tendencies of the fanatics of the Yildiz Kiosk were encouraged, is now perfectly well understood everywhere. . . . Turkey has much more need of France than France has of Turkey. And if the recall of M. Constans, the first of the measures intended by M. Delcassé to mark the purpose of the French Government, is not sufficiently understood at Constantinople, it will not be difficult to give a clearer indication."
the center of their operations) will no longer be enforced, and land “should desire a French victory at Constantinople." It that any Turkish agitator will be permitted to carry on his work says: unhindered. The Constantinople correspondent of the London
“Practically whatever prestige is lost by France at ConstantiStandard declares that there is really no such thing as a Young nople will be gained by Germany. But do we want to see GerTurk Party. He quotes a "prominent Turkish writer, whose
many made even more powerful at Constantinople? We would name is withheld for reasons of his personal safety," as saying : uot, of course, attempt to oppose Germany in Constantinople, “There are a great number of educated Turks who deeply feel
but there is no reason why we should smoothe her path for her,
and gain the enmity of France in doing so." the present condition of their country, and a few, of the younger ones especially, have sacrificed a good deal in their efforts to The Speaker and The Morning Leader (London) believe that rouse the Sultan and the nation to a sense of the danger of a
Russia is behind the whole matter and that France is simply continuance on present lines. . .
trying to mask new Muscovite schemes in the Balkans. “Any proposal to give greater liberty or larger rights to the masses is viewed at once as an attack on imperial prerogative,
From the beginning of the difficulty the Russian press has and this mistrust of this dislike to the improvement in
ridiculed the idea that France would resort to war to enforce her great things, has been nursed and developed into a fixed resolve claims. The republic, the journals of the Russian empire deto keep Turkey back even in small ones. This is apparent in the clared, would take no decisive step toward reopening the danveto on the introduction of books, electrical machinery, printing
gerous question of the Near East without obtaining the full conpresses, scientific instruments, and many other articles which
sent of her ally, and all the Russian papers declare that their are the common, if not necessary, adjuncts of civilized life elsewhere. . . . None of us are encouraged to buy, build, or improve
Government is bent on preserving the peace of Europe. Yet it property, as it is sure to be seized sooner or later, and we have
is recognized that the situation and recent developments in Turno embassy to which to appeal for protection against the illegali- key are distinctly unfavorable to Russian interests and ultimate ties of which we are the daily victims. Our tribunals are corrupt designs. In a significant series of editorials the St. Petersburg beyond belief, and whereas formerly judges had to be approached Novoye Vremya (rendered careful by its recent suspension for a through third parties, it is now the judge himself who comes to
week) has been directing attention to the “conquest of Turkey ask the litigant to outbid his adversary. “Under these circumstances nobody need be surprised if there
by Germany.” German capitalists have secured important railis an almost universal feeling of discontent, and a wish to im
way and banking concessions from the Porte, and the latest of prove the condition of the people and of the country by the in
these is characterized as having "a world-significance." It reptroduction of radical changes. We should welcome the help of resents the cession, for a free port, of a harbor on the Scutarian the Powers toward this end, that is, the end of placing the whole shore of the Bosporus-the terminus of a network of Anatolian administration on a new and more liberal basis, not of trying to
railways. The paper uses this language: introduce patches of so-called reforms here and there in favor of any particular section of the population, for that is impossible." “Apart from their connection with the projected line to Bagdad, What we want, this Turkish gentleman is reported as saying in
the new privileges just acquired can not but offend Russian self
love. Think of the blood we have shed for the Bosporus, and conclusion, is not so much reforms as a proper execution of ex
how ardently we have contemplated the cross over the Sophia-isting laws:
and now, presto! the Germans, who have sustained no serious “A clean sweep should be made of the contemptible horde of
sacrifices in gaining their influence over Turkey, acquire, in fee spies who now render the life of every Turk a burden, and the
simple, a harbor on the Bosporus! Really, this almost sounds tribunals must be thoroughly purged. The administration re
like a fantastic tale, except that the end is a very unpleasant one quires to be placed on the usual European footing, where an offi
Or, rather, it is like an oppressive, incomprehensible cial can look to his own efforts and capacity for advancement,
nightmare." and not to the favor of some protector. And, lastly, each depart
The Moniteur Ottoman (Constantinople), a Turkish organ, is ment of state should be responsible, and allowed to manage its own affairs, instead of the whole machinery of government be
quoted in Russia as saying that these valuable privileges have ing, as it now is, centralized at Yildiz. This centralization is
been secured chiefly through diplomatic efforts, and that they one of the most crying evils of which we complain, for it has de- afford another indication of the growing friendship between the stroyed all respect for the Porte both in the people and in the German Emperor and the Sultan's Government. Hence in any embassies. The ministers are mere ciphers, and Turkey is quarrel between a Western European Power and Turkey Gerbeing ruled by his Majesty through a few practically nameless
many would feel a direct and vital interest. and completely irresponsible individuals composing his immediate entourage."
There is, it further appears, a connection between the new
German privileges in Turkey and the tariff question raised by The British press generally heartily supports France in her
the proposed German customs law. The Novoye Vremya exThe Daily News (London) hopes that France will take
presses apprehension on this score also. severe measures. The partition of Poland, it says, was a crime, but the partition of Turkey would be a blessing. No self-re
“The free port concession on the Bosporus means that all the
goods brought by German merchants from Asia Minor, and later specting government could do otherwise than France has done,
from Mesopotamia also, will be exempt from the internal customs says The Times (London). The Spectator (London) believes
payments imposed on all shipments from the provinces to Conthat the question involves the larger matter of waning French stantinople. Why the Germans should enjoy this special privprestige throughout the entire Levant:
ilege we can not understand. But the effect will be that the Ger"If France beats the Sultan, and forces him to do her bidding
mans will get the grain of Asia Minor cheaper than Russian or publicly and openly, a great deal will have been done to restore
American grain. To facilitate the imports of Asiatic grain into
Germany the Turkish irade allowed the Anatolian railway comto France her old position at Constantinople. If the Sultan, on the other hand, gains the victory, French influence must con
panies to build elevators at all the stations on their present and tinue to decline still further, and the process which has been
projected lines." going on for the last fifteen or twenty years will be still further Thus Germany will be relieved from the fear of the retaliation accentuated.”
threatened by Russia and the United States. The Spectator believes that the French ambassador, M. Con- The Novosti and the Rossya, both of St. Petersburg, deplore stans, is making the stroke of his life to counteract the growing the whole matter and set down the Sultan's obstinacy to direct German political and commercial preponderance in the Near East. German encouragement, as the Germans "undoubtedly desire While most of the continental Powers would be secretly pleased to step into the shoes of the French quays company."— Translato see France rebuffed, this London journal declares that Eng- tions made for The LITERARY Digest.
CHINESE PRESS ON REFORM,
HE native Chinese press is at present chiefly occupied with
discussion of political and social reform. According to a missionary in the vicinity of Shanghai, who writes to The LITERARY Digest, the invitation of the imperial court to all loyal Chinese to submit reform suzgestions has resulted in a mass of correspondence containing suggestions "of every degree of sense and nonsense.” The condition attached, that the EmpressDowager must approve of any measure before its adoption, predoom many to failure unless backed up by great influence or pressure. One writer goes so far as to advocate the adoption of Western clothes by officials and the compulsory observance of one day in seven as a day of “bathing and rest." A suggestion to abolish the records of precedents which reach so far back and contain so many contradictory decisions that may admit of endless corruption, and to make a new start, was at first adopted, and an imperial rescript was promulgated to that effect; but, under reactionary influences, this was afterward rescinded. gestions or memorials, says the missionary, strike at the real root of China's ills—the lack of upright men at the head of affairs. Most anxiously looked for have been the memorials of the famous Yangtse viceroys, Tsang Chih Tung and Liu Kun Yi, who, it will be remembered, were the men who last year took the lead in saving the south of China from anarchy and war, and who, with Governor Yuan Shih Kai, of Shangtung, and Li Hung Chang, were the “saviors of their country and are the greatest men of China to-day." Our correspondent translates from The Universal Gazette (Chang Wai Jih Pao), of Shanghai, a summary of the suggestions just offered by these viceroys as follows:
not either establish their own characters or regulate their families, or take their places in the world, or perform their duties as subjects. Neither can they rule the people. For these are the topics upon which their fathers and instructors are silent."
The Mercury, referring to an editorial in the native paper, Shen Pao, calling for reform, says: “Yes, reforms are needed, but the main thing is to get men.
How is it that, at the beginning of China's history, customs. which have been handed steadily down to our own times próduced such prosperity then, and now fail so lamentably? It is simply because we lack the men. It is not that the laws of Western nations so far transcend the Chinese in excellence. It is only that they are able with sincerity to seek after their coun-try's good and their powers are fixed immovably. Alas! In, China the upper and the lower classes are mutually suspicious, so that a disgraceful weakness is the result. . .. We think that in China's vast expanse there must be good men if they couldı only be found."
A few sug
In all there are three memorials. The first is in regard to establishing civil and military schools, a changing of methods of examination, the abolishing of the old military examinations, and rewards for those who go to foreign countries to be educated. There is also a memorandum in regard to imperial provision for expenses.
The second is in regard to the reform of Chinese laws and contains twelve recommendations bearing on the following subjects: 1. Economy. 2. Repeal of obnoxious laws. 3. Doing away with the buying of official position. 4. A stricter oversight over officials and better salaries. 5. Abolishing the system of clerks, who have so much authority. 6. The same of subordinates. 7. Prison reform. 8. Selection of officials for competency rather than by the old method of examination. 9. Some other and better method of pensioning Manchus. 10. Abolishing local guards. II. Abolishing the system of idle soldiery. 12. Adopting a simpler and less ceremonious style in official documents.
The third memorial contains recommendations concerning the adoption of Western ideas and has thirteen articles: 1. Sending men to the West for education. 2. Improvement of military methods in accordance with Western ideas. 3. Military expenditures. 4. Agriculture. 5. Manufacture. 6. Regulations regarding mines. 7. Regarding railroads. 8. Regulating punishments in accordance with Western ideas, 9. Currency. A stamp tax. 11. Extension of the imperial post-office. Practise of medicine. 13. Translation of important books.
The Shanghai Mercury quotes the native journal, the Sin Wan Pao, as strongly condemning the old essay style of examination, which it characterizes as "a destroyer of men's faculties and one of the main causes of the poverty and weakness of China." This native journal continues :
“Unless the examinations are changed and the essay abolished men's talents will not be developed, and the kingdom will never revive. True, it will be hard to abolish the essay. But the examinations have been postponed so often, and there is talk now of a general cessation for five years. The opportunity for abolishing the essay is very favorable. Under the present system, all students must restrain their talents and close up all their own avenues of intelligence, all for the sake of the most slavish adherence to certain ancient models of style. Such students can
Bismarck and the Late Empress Frederick.-The“official" life of the Emperor Frederick I., of Germany, husbandi of the late Dowager-Empress, which has been recently published in translation in this city, declares that it was the dearest wishi of Frederick's heart to reconcile his wife and the great Chancellor Bismarck, who had quarrelled for years. T. P. O'Connor, who reviews the book in The New Liberal Review (London, September), says of this quarrel :
"The Empress was an English woman to the very tips of her fingers ; proudly, defiantly, persistently--sometimes even ostentatiously and imprudently-English. I know few things more curious in history than the final defiance and the final profession of her English faith which is to be found in her instruction that even her coffin should be English in shape, and should bear fac. similes of the English rose on its lid; and that an English bishop and an English vicar-they were both Irishmen, as a matter of fact, but they belonged to the English Church-should say most of the prayers over her remains. And similarly Bismarck was. narrowly and uncompromisingly German, and so far as he had preference and antipathies outside his political purposes, wasrather anti-English. In addition to this reason for the partizanship of Englishmen on the side of their countrywoman in her struggle with Bismarck, there was the fact Bismarck's. methods were often inexpressibly brutal and mean. It required all his cynicism to first pay a journalist to abuse the Empress, and then pay either the same or other journalists to denounce the venal and unworthy ruffians who had abused her. Chivalry was. not one of Bismarck's virtues; it is doubtful if any great leader of men has ever been chivalrous—I mean, of course, in the world of conflict. And to Bismarck, accordingly, a struggle with a woman who happened to be a political opponent had presented no, more claim for quarter than if it had been with a man.
Despite this alleged brutality, Bismarck, says Mr. O'Connor, was right, because he was fighting for the destinies of millions..
ACCORDING to the Dziennik Narodowy (Chicago), the first woman drug. gist in Russia has just been licensed to do business in St. Petersburg. She is Miss Antonina Lesniewska, a Polish lady, and her shop is on one of the busiest sections of the Nevsky Prospect.
A PAN-BRITISH Exposition is one of the possibilities of the near future, in the opinion of The Canadian Manufacturer (Toronto). This journal de. clares that there is a growing demand for an exposition in Toronto, which would include not only the provinces of the Dominion of Canada, but those embraced in the Commonwealth of Australia, and also every land which owes allegiance to the British flag, including Great Britain herself.
IN a bitter editorial denouncing the course of the American Navy Department in the Sampson-Schley controversy, The Argus (Melbourne, says: “In the United States, where officers in supreme command, naval or military, seize their pens as soon as they have sheathed their swords, and begin to contribute accounts of their campaigns to the periodicals, the sequel of a war is always likel to be a series of vehement scolding matches."
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A PARTIAL LIST
tween the lines" was freighted with the OF CONTRIBUTORS destinies of nations. Here was a eulogy expressing in few but virile words the love, the honor and the tears of millions,
Joseph H. Choate and there an address pregnant with the fruits of a strenuous
Chauncey M. Depew
Lord Beaconsfield Henry Ward Beecher life's work. Or, perchance, a reminiscence, ket n, scintillant
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Seth Low guiding rule of Mr. Reed and his colleagues. Their editorial
Charles A. Dana George William Curtis labors have been immense.
Robert J. Burdette Artemus Ward
Russell H. Conwell Paul du Chaillu
John B. Gordon
Newell Dwight Hillis manuscript their brain children—while reminiscence, repar
Wendell Phillips tee, and story were being reduced to type, and speeches,
Josh Billings addresses, and lectures, which money could not buy, were in
Henry M. Stanley John Tyndall
Wu Ting Fang friendship's name being offered, Mr. Reed was preparing for Lyman Abbott
Chas. Francis Adams this work, his most ambitious contributions to literaturehis Charles Dudley Warner John L. Spaulding HORACE "POKTER
piece de resistance—“The Influence and the History of Oratory." William Cullen Bryant Joseph Chamberlain Prof. Lorenzo Sears, beloved and honored in many lands for
Grover Cleveland his critical and contributary work in literature, was writing
Theodore Roosevelt Fisher Ames
Arthur J. Balfour
Jonathan P. Dolliver Henry Drummond Clark, Edward Everett Hale, Senator Dolliver, and Hamilton
Edward Eggleston James A. Garfield Wright Mabie—each was producing a special contribution, William E. Gladstone Sir John Lubbock which of itself is a gem of thought, a monument to research,
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John M. Allen
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