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Vol. XXIII., No. 13

NEW YORK, SEPTEMBER 28, 1901.

WHOLE NUMBER, 597

Published Weekly by

FUNK & WAGNALLS COMPANY, 30 Lafayette Place, New York.

44 Fleet Street, London, Entered at New York Post-Office as Second-Class Matter.

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ica and the Pacific coast ports of Mexico, Central America, and South America.

The encouraging of the merchant marine and the building of ships which shall carry the American flag, and be owned and controlled by Americans and American capital.

The building and completion, as soon as possible, of the Isthmian Canal, so as to give direct water communication with the coasts of Central America, South America, and Mexico.

The construction of a cable, owned by the Government, connecting our mainland with our foreign possessions, notably Hawaii and the Philippines.

The use of conciliatory methods of arbitration in all disputes with foreign nations so as to avoid armed strife.

The protection of the savings of the people in banks and in other forms of investments by the preservation of the commer

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TOPICS OF THE DAY.

PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT'S POLICY. THE 'HE accession of Theodore Roosevelt to the Presidency un

der conditions at once so deplorable and so dramatic has naturally given immediate interest to the personality of the new President and the policy it is believed that he will adopt. He is the youngest man who has ever occupied the Presidential chair, as several papers point out. “His is the greatest opportunity that has ever suddenly befallen an American citizen," adds the Memphis Commercial-Appeal (Dem.). The President's announced purpose to "continue absolutely unbroken the policy of President McKinley” is viewed generally as a deliberate state. ment of his intention, not merely an expression of sentiment, and both Democratic and Republican papers express the opinion that, even were it true that some of his past actions had caused apprehension, the graver and larger duties of the Presidency would arouse in him a response equal to their requirements and the welfare of the country. President Roosevelt's decision to retain all the members of the McKinley Cabinet is regarded with special favor, especially in view of the fact that rumors were already being printed to the effect that the new President meditated some important changes. “Nothing could so instantly and thoroughly convince the country of the sincerity of the new President's pledge to continue absolutely and without variance' the McKinley policy as will his action in keeping the Cabinet,” remarks the New York World (Dem.). Last week the new President informally outlined in some detail the measures and principles he understands to be embraced by the broad McKinley policy. They are summarized as follows:

The adoption of a more liberal and extensive reciprocity in the purchase and sale of commodities, so that the overproduction of this country can be satisfactorily disposed of by fair and equitable arrangements with foreign countries.

The abolition entirely of commercial war with other countries and the adoption of reciprocity treaties.

The abolition of such tariffs on foreign goods as are no longer needed for re venue, if such abolition can be had without harm to our industries and labor.

Direct comriercial lines should be established between the eastern coast of the United States and the ports in South Amer

Copyright by R. W. Thatcher.

MRS. ROOSEVELT AND HER DAUGHTER ETHEL.

cial prosperity of the country and the placing in positions of trust men of only the highest integrity.

“This program is the best possible commentary on the solemn pledge which followed the administration of the constitutional oath. It leaves nothing to be said or desired,” says the Chicago Evening Post (Rep.), voicing the opinion that finds expression in almost all the Republican papers. Of the new President's tariff view's the New York Evening Post (Ind.) says:

“Mr. Roosevelt has been a consistent Republican through all his political career, and has perlaps felt constrained at times to accept a protective policy more extreme than he would have liked. He has never been reckoned, however, as a high-tariff

It is probable now that he will range himself with the more advanced thinkers of the Republican Party in this behalf, among whom may be reckoned all, or nearly all, the members of the present Cabinet, as well as hairman Babcock of the Repub

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lican congressional committee, and most of the Senators and Representatives west of Ohio, and the manufacturers represented in the Detroit convention of last spring."

Some of the Democratic papers think that President Roosevelt is not going to find it nearly so easy to carry out his outlined commercial policy as is generally assumed. The principle of trade reciprocity, maintains the Atlanta Constitution (Dem.), is “now in the hands of enemies." It continues :

“President McKinley, had he lived, would have been fought most bitterly all along the line, and the next Republican nomination would have been a battle between the extreme protection school and the reciprocity people. Mr. McKinley's unique position in the party might have drawn sufficient support to make the liberals successful.

“With President Roosevelt the situation is quite different. He is not going to be accepted without default as the mentor of his party. Neither is he going to have a walk-over for the nomination of 1904. Every position he takes will be antagonized by rival ambitions. He does not possess the same pull on his associates as did the late President, and they will not do as much for him. It may easily be seen that the Republican Party is now entering into a wrangle, in which President Roosevelt will head the better element, but most likely not the stronger. Reciprocity, the Isthmian Canal, and other important subjects, instead of passing through a period of construction, will become but the puppets in an inter-party

struggle for supremacy. The era of legislative progress, so fa: as the Republican Party is concerned, may be considered a postponed until 1905."

There has been apprehension in some quarters lest the “stren uous" note in the character of the new President might lead to a too aggressive national policy, and several papers draw a comparison between the intellectual qualities of Mr. Roosevelt and

the militarist German Emperor. In Europe, especially, the feeling aroused by the accession of President Roosevelt has undoubtedly been one of uneasiness. The President's specific declaration in favor of international arbitration has had a reassuring effect.

“As an assurance that he intends to pursue a pacific policy,” says the Chicago Chronicle (Dem.), "Mr. Roosevelt's pledge is calculated to give satisfaction to all wlio love peace and justice, and rejoice in the progress of civilization and enlightenment, and deprecate aggression and violence.” The Springfield Republican (Ind.) takes the same view, and adds:

“In one respect, the known prepossessions of the new President may be fortunate. He is not likely to veer too far toward an alliance with England, or to formulate a policy which is more concerned to keep the good-will of that country than the good - will of other countries of the first rank. President Roosevelt at heart sympathizes with the Boers in their struggle and their passion for

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THE VAULT AT CANTON IN WHICH PRESIDENT MCKINLEY WAS LAID.

IN

WORDS

NOW

independence. He is no Anglophile, and this should tend to larger and more vital questions than does a change of executives reassure those Powers which are apprehensive of an 'Anglo- in any other land. Saxon coalition.'”

“Hence the American people have every reason to be thankful “President Roosevelt will be more aggressive than President

that all questions as to the effect upon public policies of Presi

dent Roosevelt's accession have been answered in advance by McKinley was,” thinks the Savannah News (Dem.), “and he

widespread knowledge of his character. That they have been will be in evidence oftener and in more ways, but there is every answered and that the answer is one of implicit confidence in reason for thinking that the people will never bave reason to him we have abundant and conclusive evidence. . . . Americans complain of a lack of fidelity to the great trust so tragically and foreigners alike are assured that with Theodore Roosevelt at thrust upon him.” The Raleigh (N. C.) News and Observer the helm there will be no alteration in the course set by William (Dem.) says:

McKinley and that the ship in which the hopes of 80,000,000

people are embarked will be steered straight ahead." “Mr. Roosevelt will disappoint those who look to see him do many radical things. He will, like Cleveland, lean on the finan. ciers of Wall Street, and the banking world will pronounce him “safe,' tho they will be afraid all the time that he may go to “YELLOW" JOURNALISM AND ANARCHY. war to add new islands to our imperial Government. He will seek to make a great President, for he is at once ambitious and

N the discussion that has recently been filling the editorial patriotic. He is like Mr. McKinley in nothing. Two men more

columns of the newspapers on the causes that lead to Anunlike have not lived, and yet he had a sincere admiration for archy and the methods for suppressing the Anarchist propathe President, which was reciprocated. He will also disappoint ganda, the charge has been frequently made that the so-called those who look to see him follow in Mr. McKinley's footsteps. "yellow" journals are responsible not only for class-hatreds in He can not do that, for he must do things his own way. He is

general, but for Anarchism in particular. The New York Sun to be numbered among the men who do things and who do not mind a row, if one is necessary to accomplish his purpose.

(Rep.), the New York Press (Rep.), the Chicago Journal (Ind.), Naturally he is combative. He will not cultivate that trait, but

and the Philadelphia Inquirer (Rep.) have been especially acat times he will fight to carry his point even if the dictate of wisdom would lead to yielding for a time and winning by indirection. He has plenty of sense-what is called horse sense, too-and as governor of New York rarely failed to do what his party leaders approved, and when he did act differently it was after consulting them. He will have a tenfold stronger incentive now to be in harmony with his party associates."

The Denver News (Dem.) thinks that Western interests should fare well with President Roosevelt at the head of the Govern

OTLABEL

SR SWEET ment. “The West will look to Mr. Roosevelt hopefully for as- OSLANDER sistance in the development of irrigation and the reclamation of

BEING arid lands," it says; “he lived for years in the West and became acquainted with many of its needs and its boundless possibilities.” The Denver Republican (Rep.) adds:

"There probably is not another prominent man living east of the Mississippi River who could enter upon the Presidency so well qualified to discharge its duties with intelligence respecting the affairs and the interests of the Far West. The West has had ground for complaint on this score against several Presidents, notably Mr. Cleveland, who has never been farther west than Sioux City, and to this day does not know whether Pike's Peak is a mountain or a hole in the ground. Mr. Cleveland never

-- The Chicago Journal. was able to appreciate the importance and strength of the Far West. But President Roosevelt enters upon his important du- tive in the crusade against "yellow" journalism, the first three ties with excellent knowledge of this part of the country and papers directing their shafts against the Hearst newspapers, with sentiments of respect and friendship for our people."

while the last-named specifies the Philadelphia North Ameri"President Roosevelt," declares the San Francisco Chronicle can (Rep.). Mr. Abram S. Hewitt, ex-Mayor of New York, has (Ind.), “has appealed to the American people as the personifica

also drawn attention, in an address before the New York Chamtion of ardent, generous, inspiring American youth. But that ber of Commerce, to what he terms “the perverse teachings of a Roosevelt exists no longer. The solemnity of the responsibility reckless press that has not hesitated to coin conscience into dolof an American President would sober the most impulsive, and lars." Referring to the President's assassination, he said: the shadow of the tragedy which calls him to high office can not "So long as prominent men in public life, or in the walks of be lifted for many a day. President Roosevelt will never again business, or in the spheres of society, are willing to recognize by be young.” “There need be no fear in any American breast," social receptions, by subscriptions to the papers which we all says the Jacksonville (Fla.) Times-Union and Citizen (Dem.) ;

recognize as at the foundation of this sad development in public “Roosevelt will make a safe President." The Chicago Inter

opinion, by their advertisements which support these papers, so

long as gentlemen in your position shall give your countenance, Ocean (Rep. ) says:

either by social intercourse or otherwise, to these enemies of “The speculations as to possible changes of policy in which the mankind, to these traitors to humanity, it is idle to deplore American people indulge upon the accession of a new President events like this. Let us see that they are made impossible by have probably never proceeded from any lack of confidence in raising the standard of the conscience of the community to a the good intentions and personal integrity of the incoming Ex- higher plane, when it shall be impossible for the assassin to ecutive. They arise solely from an appreciation of the peculiar justify himself by the arguments of a destructive logic.” position of our Chief Magistrate. To the President of the United States are entrusted greater powers, and upon him are laid heavier

“That Czolgosz was egged on to his crime not only by proresponsibilities, than any other ruler in the world has or sustains. fessed Anarchists, but also by the newspapers that have continuTherefore the effect upon public affairs of a new personality in ally depicted the President as a creature too contemptible to de. this great office is necessarily a subject of speculation. It raises serve the respect of a mongrel dog, is an unquestionable truth."

HEARST'S

CHICAGO AMERICAN

USED

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remarks the Chicago Inter Ocean (Rep.). The Brooklyn Eagle appeal to the consideration of certain uncritical minds who have (Ind. Dem.) believes that the cartoons in the "yellow" journals

been induced to use it as a vehicle of communication with a supare responsible for popular passion against public officials, and

posedly large part of the public, to which its very coarseness

gives it peculiar access. Even Christian ministers have confavors a law which shall “make it an offense to hold the rulers of

sented to become conspicuous contributors to one of the journals the country up to the scorn or hatred of the people.” The Phila

of this school, and have enjoyed, or resented, the sight of the delphia Inquirer (Rep.) says:

faming portraits of themselves with which their association “Day after day McKinley has been made the victim of the with the forbidden journalism was celebrated. most atrocious cartoons and editorial attack. The country has "Now that an atrocious Anarchistic assault on the President prospered, but because some vicious publisher liad axes of his has been provoked by the teachings of this journalistic school, own to grind, he has turned his columns into thunderbolts of perhaps these bishops and other clergy will begin to see that falsehoods. It is easy for sensational newspapers to gather their alliance was only courted in order that incendiary journalaround them a certain following, and in that following are sure ism miglit seein to have the sanction of priests of religion. For to be persons who actually believe that 'vellow' journalism is such journalism, from its original ribaldry and coarseness, the height of patriotism and truth. Some poor, miserable brain adopted at first in order to attract the vulgar crowd, has now becomes turned, and then follows crime.

graduated into a serious and studied propaganda of social revo“Character assassination ends in physical assassination. lution."

"It is a wonder that more public men have not fallen victims to the vicious newspapers that are forever denouncing public “We are well aware that no law can be framed to reach yellow men as thieves."

journalism and the men who promote it," declares the Chicago The New York Press (Rep.) goes so far as to say that William Journal (Ind.): "but there is a liigner law than the law of the R. Hearst is a direct sharer in Czolgosz's crime. In the case of land, that rests in the bosoms of all men of right feelings and the Chicago Anarchists of 1887, the jury decided that a man whose just regard for the public welfare. That law can be invoked to name was unknown, and whose in

condemu such inen as William R. dividuality was declared only by

Hearst. That law can punish him the throwing of the Haymarket

with the scorn of honest men. It bomb, had read one of August

can place him in the pillory of pubSpies's editorials and had acted

lic contempt. It can make him an upon the reading. “We have only

object of obloquy to all mankind." to place Leon Czolgocz in the back

The New York Journal (Dem.) room of a Chicago beer saloon real

in replying to the attacks made ing William R. Hearst's

TRUSTEE

upon it, intimates that the "naupaper," says The Press, “and we

seating cynicism " and "pompous can place William R. Hearst at the

insolence" of such papers as The bar of Erie County beside Leon

Sun are the real breeders of class Czolgocz, there to answer for the

hatred, and declares : murder of William McKinley." The

“Is all life hereafter to be lived New York Sun (Rep.) says:

in a graveyard by Americans and “This school of journalism began

by American journalism, lest when with vulgarity and indecency, and

death comes to a public man the sefor that reason it was soon excluded

vere word, the light word, and the from the homes of refined and self

funny picture may be produced in respecting families as a corrupting

the death-chamber by malice, shedinfluence, and by formal action

ding calculating tears, and shock by from all reputable clubs. GraduSOME THINGS THAT DO NOT TEND TO DISCOURAGE ANARCHY.

inappropriateness there? ally, however, it has been able to

- The Detroit News. "Suppose Mr. Bryan had been

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SETH LOW.

elected and assassinated, as was Mr. McKinley, how would the forces, declares the New York Times (Ind. Dem.), Mr. Low editorials and cartoons of the Republican press sound and " has the two essential qualifications,” since he is "known to poslook? ..

sess an entirely trustworthy character," and has “proved his The Journal is an American newspaper for Americans. It

ability in actual experience," as mayor of Brooklyn. Moreover, is a conservatire paper, for the truest conservatism is that radicalism which would uproot revolution-breeding abuses.

says the New York Evening Post, “What good institution, what good cause, has The Journal

he demonstrated his capacity to injured ?

make an active campaign as the “Has it assailed the state?

anti-Tammany mayoralty candi“Has it attacked the church? Has it antagonized any reform

date in 1897. “No one need fear movement, or hurt at any time any legitimate business interest?"

that under him honest administra“No: but it has damaged bad causes, punished rogues in high

tion would mean fanaticism," says places, and filled them with a passsionate desire for revenge. “The sum of The Journals offenses is that it has fought for

the New York Tribune (Rep.), for the people and against privilege and class pride and class greed

his record in the government of and class stupidity and class heartlessness with more varied

Brooklyn shows that he can be weapons, with more force and talent and enthusiasm than any

trusted to give the city an honest other newspaper in the country.

government“ irithout interfering "All the enemies of the people, of the democratic order--conscious and unconscious—all who reap where others have sown,

with personal liberty or trying to all the rascals and their organs, and many fools caught by the

force New Yorkers to conform to contagion of an intereste: or malignant and mendacious uproar

the standards of an old-time New are yelling at The Journal. Let them yell."

England village." The comment

the New York Sun (Rep.) on the nomination of Mr. Low is "Only a very extraordinary kind of a fool can be made to be

short, but to the point : “Seth Low will be the next mayor of lieve that because a murderous wretch has attempted the life of New York." the President it becomes everybody's patriotic duty to cease

The New York Daily News, a supporter of Tammany Hall, criticizing the trusts, cease discussing the problem of poverty

declares that Mr. Low is simply a stalking-horse for the Repuband the dangers threatening the republic through the rapid

lican politicians. “Ample as are the folds of President Low's growth of enormous fortunes which have their roots in monop

silken college gown," says The News, “it scarcely serves to hide oly," says the Philadelphia North American (Rep.). “It is pro

the face of the Republican spoilsmen; and benignant as is the foundly unscientific," adds the New York Times (Ind. Dem.),

smile that plays ceaselessly upon the features of Dr. Low, it does "to seek to establish a causal relation between yellow journalism

not conceal the familiar countenance of the real candidate, and the beliefs and crime of Czolgosz. The Anarchists are crea.

'Thomas C. Platt." tures apart from the mass of humanity. Outside the direct teachings of their own sect and the promptings of their own insane delusions, there is not only no evidence, but a strong improbabil- SOME RESULTS OF THE STEEL STRIKE. ity, that they are influenced by any utterances or precepts whatsoever."

CHILE the terms of the recent strike settlement have not WHILE

been made public, it is generally conceded that the The Independent (New York, September 19) thinks that if

Amalgamated Association has sustained considerable loss in its American newspapers of every class, "the best and the poorest

struggle with the Steel Corporation. This conclusion is conalike," will learn a lesson from the President's assassination,

firmed by the dissatisfaction of the strikers themselves, who in and endeavor to raise their standards higher in the future, that

many localities have disregarded President Shaffer's order detragedy will not have been altogether in vain. It says:

claring the strike over, and hare refused to return to work. “In some measure the American newspaper is responsible for “The workingmen have lost millions in the strike and gained a low moral tone, a somewhat vulgar view of life, a cynical atti- nothing," declares the Pittsburg correspondent of the New York tude toward all idealism, a tendency to violence and lawlessness,

Evening Post (Ind.) ; "in many cases their families are living and even an increasing criminality, which thoughtful observers

in straitened circumstances with the winter at hand; the resources have long been noting with sorrow and with shame, as they have watched the development of a people in which, we sincerely be

of all but a very few of the higher-paid men have been exhausted, lieve, are centered the highest hopes for the future of mankind.

and their bank accounts depleted; the general public blame the "Could there be a better time than this, in the hour of national men for going into what they term a foolish and useless struggle, mourning, for all who in any degree share in the molding of the and are less inclined to support the principles of trades-unionism national mind, to abandon unworthy deeds of the past, and with than before the struggle." The actual losses of the Amalgahigher aims, and kindlier hearts, and cleaner thoughts, to set

mated Association are estimated by the same writer as follows: about the work of strengthening in and for the people a moral life that shall be not only in its strong vitality without fear, but In funds, $150,000; a fourth of the mills, if of the American also, in its character, without reproaéh?”

Tin-Plate Company, have been made non-union, and the association in that branch lost 1.300 members; a fourth of the strength in the mills of the American Sheet Steel Company has been lost,

and 800 members have been lost in the sheet branch ; in the NaSeth Low for Mayor of New York. The decision of

tional Steel Company 200 members have been lost, and 700 have

been lost in the mills of the Illinois Steel Company. This is a the anti-Tammany conference committee of eighteen to present

net loss of about 3,000 men, reducing the membership from 13,800 the name of Seth Low, president of Columbia University, to the

to 10,800, most of which is in the mills of the Republic Iron and various bodies in its membership as its choice for the nomination Steel Company, an independent combine, and in independent tinfor mayor of New York wins hearty approval from the majority plate, sheet, and hoop mills. About 4.000 men are all that remain of the metropolitan newspapers, and it is generally believed that in the mills of the corporation, and they are employed in the older the nomination will be indorsed by the conventions that are to

and smaller plants. It is currently reported that less than

$25,000 remains in the treasury. act upon the matter, “The redemption of the city from a political control that has blackened its name before the country and The losses of the Steel Corporation have also been very heavy the world seems to be already in sight," says the Brooklyn in the way of trade lost, cost of maintenance of plants during enStandard-Union (Rep.). As the nominee of the anti: Tammany forced idleness, in interest for several months on a vast invest

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