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VOL. XXIII.. No. 10
New YORK, SEPTEMBER 7, 1901.
WHOLE NUMBER, 594
Published Weekly by
is rapidly disintegrating." "Undoubtedly," obserres the FUNK & WAGNALLS COMPANY,
Brooklyn Standard-l’nion, “the strike has proved a failure." 30 Lafayette Place, New York.
44 Fleet Street, London.
It seems to many papers that President Schwab of the trust Entered at New York Post Office as Second-Class Matter.
has made up his mind to crush the Amalgamated out of existence, and the Pittsburg Commercial Gazette says that “the
declared attitude of the United States Steel Corporation leaves TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION.
no room for hope that any of the offers of arbitration now being PRICE.-Per year, in advance, $3.00; four months, on trial, $1.00; single copies, 10 cents.
made will be entertained." The New York Sun and the BrookRECEIPT and credit of payment is shown in about two weeks by the date lyn Citizen, indeed, think the trust ought not to consent to arbion the address label attached to each paper.
tration. “An unqualified surrender of Shaffer," says the latter POST-OFFICE ADDRESS.-Instructions concerning renewal, discontinu
paper, "is what it ought to insist upon.” The New York Press ance, or change of address should be sent two weeks prior to the date they are to go into effect. The exact post-office address to which we appeals to President Shaffer to call off the strike at once for the are directing paper at time of writing must always be given.
sake of the men, and the Chicago Evening Post agrees that it is DISCONTINUANCES.-We find that a large majority of our subscribers
"time to sue for peace." That Mr. Shaffer has failed, prefer not to have their subscriptions interrupted and their files broken in case they fail to remit before expiration. It is therefore
Boston Herald, seems now to be generally admitted even by assumed, unless notification to discontinue is received, that the sub
those who greatly deplore his want of success." scriber wishes no interruption in his series. Notification to discontinue at expiration can be sent in at any time during the year.
The Pittsburg Times, published in the center of the strike disPRESENTATION COPIES.- Many persons subscribe for friends, intending
trict, says: that the paper shall stop at the end of the year. If instructions are
“The history of strikes makes it plain tliat to win in an unqualgiven to this effect, they will receive attention at the proper time.
ified degree strikers must win promptly-right off the bat, as it
were. The necessities of men's families, the possibility of havTOPICS OF THE DAY.
ing to remove to another neighborhood, the spectacle of men from other communities taking their places, the temptations and
weariness of enforced and unwelcome idleness, the lack of a tanFORECASTING THE RESULTS OF THE STEEL
gible issue, such as more wages and fewer hours of labor-all STRIKE.
these considerations eventually have their influence in weakenRACTICALLY all the newspapers that attempt to predict
ing the lines. When you add to these the lack of effectual and how the steel strike will end express the belief that the
general cooperation by other labor-unions and the absence of that
active and sympathetic public sentiment which has so often in strikers have lost the battle. The trust is gradually but steadily
the past been quick to respond to the appeal of a striking organistarting mill after mill with non-union labor, and has rejected zation, the dispassionate observer can not help but be puzzled to the offer to settle the strike by arbitration. Figures quoted in a discover in the pending contest any element or sign of ultimate comment given below show that the Amalgamated started the victory for the Amalgamated Association." fight with a much smaller force and with smaller resources than Some interesting figures showing the strength of the laborhad been commonly
union when it began supposed; and The
its battle with the Labor World of
trust are contained in Pittsburg calls for the
comimpeachment of Pres
ment by the Louisident Shaffer “for
ville Courier - Jourplunging the Amal
nal: gamated into a strike that was unwarrant
"The more that is
learned about the .ed,” and declares
Amalgamated Assothat"the fight against
ciation and the slenthe steel trust is lost.”
derness of its reThe Washington
sources, the greater Times, too, thinks
the wonder both that
it dared to strike, and that “on the whole, the indications seem
that it poses as the
representative of to favor the idea that
union labor. Some the strike will not
two months before last much longer,"
the strike a careful and the New York
sketch of the organiEvening Post says
zation was published "EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE AMALGAMATED ASSOCIATION
in the Courier-Jourthat “the numerous Officers Sitting (left to right)-Walter Larkin, V. P. 2d District ; M. F. Tiglie, Assistant Secretarr;
nal and other newsreports concerning John Williams, Secretary-Treasurer; Theodore Shaffer, President; Ben I. Davis, Editor "A. A." Journal; John Chappell, V. P. 8th District : David Rees, V. P. ist District,
papers, in which it the starting of mills Officers Standing (left to right)-Clem Jarvis, V. P. 5th District ; ('. H. Davis, V. P. 3d District;
was explicitly stated here and there show
John H. Morgan, Trustee; Fred. Williams, V, P. 7th District ; Elias Jenkins, Trustee : John
that the membership that the steel strike President Sieel Smelters' Association of England.
a little under
14,000. The temerity displayed by President Shaffer in ordering a general strike and his talk of boundless resources gave the impression that some 40,000 skilled mechanics composed the Amalgamated membership, and that they had funds sufficient to carry on a protracted struggle.
“It turns out that the earlier statement was correct. The se cret of the membership and the receipts and expenses for the past twenty-five years have leaked out, with the result that it is now known that when the Amalgamated Association entered upon its present warfare it had but 160 active subordinate lodges with a total of 13,892 members and a balance of only $74,898 in its treasury. Yet with this pitiful showing of strength, the infatuated leaders rushed into a war with the strongest and ablest managed corporation in the world. Small as the army was, all the force could not be controlled, and of the 9.392 employed by the steel trust probably not over 8,000 have gone out, tho in all some 80,000 or 90,000 laborers have been inade idle.
"It is obvious that the Amalgamated Association never had more than the ghost of a show for victory. Shaffer's mind and those of his associates have been full of misconceptions. In the first place he counted upon the popular antipathy to trusts to bring the force of public opinion to his support, and in the next place he relied upon producing a panic in the stock-market, wliich should frighten the steel stockholders into conceding the association's demand. In both these matters he was disappointed. The public could not approve a causeless strike and there was no headlong decline in the value of steel shares. The lowest range reached after the announcement of the failure of the conference between the manufacturers and labor leaders only put down the market about ten points, and such effective support was received that a rally has been steadily going on ever since.
“Under the circumstances the failure of the strike was a foregone conclusion from the start."
been indifferently dismissed with a few lines each in some obscure corner of the newspaper. Many note, too, that lynching seems to increase crime instead of acting as a deterrent, and the Columbia State declares that legal hangings would accomplish the purpose much more effectually: "In substantiation of this,” it says, “.
"we might direct attention to the fact that in the above list (of recent lynchings] South Carolina does not appear, and in connection with that fact recall that the only assaults which have occurred in this State within the last three years have been punished by the law, and further, that since the two or three trials, convictions, and executions for such crimes within that time, there has not been an assault committed by a negro on a white woman in this State." In Wetumpka, Ala., last week, a member of a lynching party was convicted of murder in the first degree and sentenced to life imprisonment, six men are in jail in Nashville on a similar charge, and warrants are out for others.
The Southern papers denounce these mob executions as strongly as those of the Norti). The Rome (Ga.) Tribune says there is not a community in the South where men who chained a mad dog or a mad bull to the stake and burned it alive would not be prosecuted, and it adds that the people of the South must call a halt upon the “horrible practise " of burning negroes, “or the South will go back into darkness and barbarism.”
AN EPIDEMIC OF LYNCHING.
Where Will it End ?—“Lawlessness feeds on lawlessness. Formerly the mob was satisfied to hang its victim. When the Texas mob burned a negro it was a shock to the country. The world regarded it with horror. But as crime becomes familiar its repulsiveness grows less. The first burning of a victim by a mob suggested the crime to others, and it has been repeated so often it has ceased to be more shocking to the benumbed public mind than an ordinary hanging formerly was. It has grown to be the common method of the mob. It will grow more common and on smaller provocation until some more fiendish and brutalizing method is resorted to. Cannibals eat their victims. We have not arrived at that point-yet. The enlightened mind can not fail to realize that such crimes can not be committed without injury to those who commit them. The fire may consume the victim, but the crime leaves black scars on the living which do not heal. There is a penalty for all this which we shall not escape. The thoughtful must shudder as they contemplate this downward drift. Where will it end?" -- The Nashville Ameri
THE frequency of lynchings in the South of late, in spite of
the efforts of such sheriffs as those mentioned in these columns last week, is stirring up comment in every part of the country. In the last few weeks these mob executions have sometimes occurred as often as one a day, the victim usually being burned alive. The Atlanta Constitution says that this state of affairs "has, perhaps, never been more acute than at the present time.” Many papers note the fact that while the burning of Sam Hose a few years ago sent a thrill of horror throughout the country, the negro burnings of the past few weeks have
CHINA: “Thank goodness, it's Turkey's turn to be down for a while.'
- The Detroit News-Tribune.
CARTOON SNAPSHOTS OF THE FRANKO-TURKISH TIFF.
imitative of Apache Indians at their worst—and of an old man barbarous. Is it not about time, then, for lynchers to ask why burned in his own home, and all negroes being chased from their prescription fails, and for the people of the South to detertowns in Missouri, including a number of entirely respectable mine that the enforcement of law is a more effective remedy, and and inoffensive citizens of that race. Despite the smug declara- that the punishment of crime by the commission of crime is a tions that the race problem will solve itself, made by those who failure wherever tried ?”—The Chicago Tribune. wish to elude the trouble of considering a very complicated question, the race conditions are worse than they were twenty-five years ago. The burning of human beings by white men was then unheard of. Now, it is a custom, and the newspapers have
CONGRESSMAN LITTLEFIELD'S CRITICISM OF ceased to discuss it. Our people have become hardened to the
THE INSULAR DECISIONS. horror. We are destroying our own instincts of civilization and putting ourselves on the level of the vilest savages. “State sovereignty is the most valuable principle of our Gov
sular decisions of the Supreme Court before the recent ernment, and should be maintained at all hazards. Yet, if the session of the American Bar Association at Denver has attracted States continue to permit horrors like those in Texas and Mis- national attention, and has had the effect of bringing once again souri, it will be a serious question with thinking people whether
into prominence the the general Government should not be asked to interfere, even if
whole issue involved an amendment to the Constitution should be required. It may
in the insular cases. be better to impair a great principle than to bring up our children to regard the burning and slow torture to death of men by mobs
Mr. Littlefield's critias the common and proper method of punishing crime. Such cism is considered all acts revenge themselves gradually but surely. The race guilty the more noteworthy of them suffers more in the end, by degradation and loss of cir
on account of the fact ilization, than the race that is the victim of them."— The Rich
that he is a Republimond News.
can, and the Kansas Statistics of Lynching.—“The number of lynchings during City Times (Dem.) goes the present year to date has been ninety-nine. In no other year
so far as to say that he is during the last decade has the number been so large during the same period. Of this total there have been thirteen in the North
"acknowledged by his and eighty-six in the South. This is not stated invidiously, but
colleagues to be the because the relations between lynching and crime are most con- ablest member of his spicuous and most easily studied in the South. If the theory of party in Congress.” the advocates of lynching be true, then this unusual increase in
Mr. Littlefield said, in the number of lynchings should have been accompanied by an
part (we quote from unusual decrease in crimes committed. Has such been the case?
the Denver News) : “Far from it. While crime has increased all over the country, it has increased most rapidly in the South, and in the four States, “With the greatest Mississippi, Georgia, Alabama, and Louisiana, where lynchings respect for the court are most frequent. In Mississippi the record of the last thirty and without intimatdays shows forty-five murders committed. In other States there ing, either directly or
CONGRESSMAX (HARLIS F. LIT I LEFIELD, OF has been a corresponding increase. Evidently lynching does not indirectly, that any prevent murder. In the South criminal assault is characterized justice was actuated as 'the usual cause' of lynching, tho it is not so, murder being by any censurable motive, I feel bound to say it seems to me the principal cause year by year. Lynching, however, has been that they were too profoundly impressed with the supposed conregarded as the remedy for that crime, but, instead of preventing sequences of an adverse decision. or even decreasing it, it is rapidly increasing, and most rapidly "The insular cases, in the manner in which the results were in the sections where lynchings are most numerous and most reached, the incongruity of the results, and the variety of incon