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Vol. XXIII., No. 9
New YORK, AUGUST 31, 1901.
WHOLE Number, 593
Published Weekly by
men tried to take a negro from the jail at Charlotte, N. C., but FUNK & WAGNALLS COMPANY,
"on a show of strength by the guards," says the press despatch, 30 Lafayette Place, New York.
44 Fleet Street, London.
“they finally dispersed.” The next night a mob in Sardis, Miss., Entered at New York Post Office as Second-Class Matter.
gathered to lynch a negro who was in jail there. Sheriff Mit
chell, however, had secured a company of militia from Gorernor TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION.
Longino, and the company stood guard all night "while the mob
hooted and howled on the outside." The despatch adds the inPRICE.-Per year, in advance, $3.00; four months, on trial, $1.00; single copies, 10 cents.
teresting information that “this is the first time in Mississippi RECEIPT and credit of payment is shown in about two weeks by the date
that the militia has rescued a negro from would-be lynchers," on the address label attached to each paper,
and the governor, it says, “extended his congratulations to the POST-OFFICE ADDRESS.-Instructions concerning renewal, discontinu
company.” Sheriff Fly, of Gonzales, Texas, recently dispersed ance, or change of address should be sent two weeks prior to the date they are to go into effect. The exact post-office address to which we
a similar mob who wanted to lynch a Mexican. “I value my are directing paper at time of writing must always be given.
honor as an officer and a man more than life itself," he declared, DISCONTINUANCES.-We find that a large majority of our subscribers
as he stood with revolver in hand, and the mob retired. “Nerve prefer not to have their subscriptions interrupted and their files broken in case they fail to remit before expiration. It is therefore
staggers a mob,” says the Houston Post, commenting on the assumed, unless notification to discontinue is received, that the sub- sheriff's action. Sheriff J. H. Dukes, of Orangeburg, S. C., scriber wishes no interruption in his series. Notification to discon. tinue at expiration can be sent in at any time during the year.
gave another illustration of the same spirit two or three weeks PRESENTATION COPIES.-Many persons subscribe for friends, intending ago when the governor of the State, fearing that a negro in that the paper shall stop at the end of the year. If instructions are
Sheriff Duke's jail might be lynched, asked the sheriff if he did given to this effect, they will receive attention at the proper time.
not think it would be wise to remove the prisoner to a safer
place. The sheriff, it is reported, replied that he had the pris. TOPICS OF THE DAY.
oner in jail, and that the jail was made for the purpose of confining criminals, and he went on to say that if extreme measures
became necessary he would promptly resort to them, and “if A NEW PHASE OF THE LYNCHING PROBLEM. some people get hurt it will be their own fault." When this decWITHIN HIN the last two or three weeks eight prisoners in North
laration became known, the lynching talk died out. In the neighCarolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Missis
boring State of Georgia Sheriff Joseph Merrill, a few days before sippi, Kentucky, and Texas have been saved from lynching by the
Sheriff Duke's experience, faced a lynching mob with equal courage and determination of the local sheriffs. The similarity
courage shown by the other officers mentioned above, and with of these widely separated events, the active opposition of Gover
equal success. In Lebanon, Ky., on Friday of last week, Officer nor Candler, of Georgia, Governor Longino, of Mississippi, and
Brent opened fire on a lynching mob that was battering in the ex-Governor Jones, of Alabama, against lynching, and the reso
jail doors, and the mob took to their heels before anybody lution of the Alabama Constitutional Convention, giving the
“It is evident,” remarks the Salt Lake Herald, governor power to remove any sheriff who permits one of his
"that the repugnance which the calmer element in the South prisoners to be lynched, are all taken as "a most healthful indi
must always have felt for such atrocities has, by the frequency cation," to quote the Philadelphia Press, “of the growth of a
with which crimes of this nature are committed, been aroused to public opinion in the South in favor of law and order.” The
a pitch where active steps will be taken to stem the tide of bruaction of the sheriffs is especially significant, adds the same pa
tality, which, while it shows no good effect in restraining the per, "as upon the sheriffs rests the enforcement of the law, and blacks, is debauching and brutalizing the whites." as their attitude reflects local sentiment more nearly than the
The Southern papers give these sheriffs as much praise as the governors'."
papers of the North. The Birmingham Age-Herald, for examOn Thursday of last week in Asheville, Ala., a mob of 400 men
ple, says of Sheriff Kyle, of Tuscaloosa : tried to lynch a negro who had just been sentenced to death after
“The State of Alabama needs more Sheriff Kyles. She may “one of the swiftest and fairest trials ever witnessed," as the
not need sixty-five more, for she may have a few like him on despatches from Asheville declare, and after a strong appeal hand, but no doubt she lacks a goodly number of such men. In from the father of the negro's victim to let the law take its every instance courage on the part of a sheriff has proven suffi
Sheriff North and twenty-eight deputies defended the cient. The members of a lynching bee have no expectation of court-house against the mob, and after considerable firing on
encountering personal risks. They are looking for excitement both sides the mob retired with the loss of its two leaders, two
and a frolic, not for battle, and when a 'sheriff does his duty
they go away. They went away in Carroli County, Ga., and in brothers who "had been in town since Monday trying to stir up
Charlotte, N. C., and they dispersed themselves in our own Tusthe trouble.” One of the brothers was killed and the other des- caloosa County. perately wounded. A driving rain helped to dampen the mob's “The Constitutional Convention located the trouble, wben it ardor, and while they were considering a second attack the pris- practically called upon sheriffs to defend their prisoners against oner was hurried out by a rear door and taken safely to Birming
mob action. Sheriff Kyle shows how it can be done when a mob
seizes upon a favorable occasion for. mischief and an outrage ham. In Tuscaloosa, Ala., on August 15, Sheriff Kyle, after
against law and the State's good name. Sheriff Kyle deserves being surprised and overpowered by a mob of fifty men bent on
special honor, and the law-abiding people of Tuscaloosa County lynching a negro prisoner, secured a shotgun by a ruse and drove
will let a rare occasion go unimproved if they do not act up to the entire mob out of the jail. On the same night a mob of 300 their opportunity.”
SHOULD THE UNITED STATES INTERVENE IN
lombia, accompanied by frequent clashes between armed bands and great internal disturbance in the territory affected, has excited some apprehension both in this country and in Europe as to future developments among the South American republics. In Europe, the opinion is freely expressed that the United States meditates intervention and even territorial acquisition in South America. The Berliner Tageblatt remarks that
Señor Castro, President of
firm foundation,” observes PRESIDENT CASTRO, OF VENEZUELA.
The Daily Graphic, “the
eventual permanent inter-
will become inevitable.” These European comments, it is said, have provoked both irritation and amusement at Washington. “They show," says the Washington correspondent of the Philadelphia Public Ledger (Ind.), "that the attitude of the United States is not at all understood in the European capitals. No one was more amused than the diplomatic representatives of the Central and South American republics. These gentlemen and their governments thoroughly understand the motives of the United States, and do
not share the fears of Europe that the Government at Washington is dreaming of territorial acquisitions south of the Rio Grande." "This European talk about the United States's al. leged purpose to appropriate territory in Central or South America," adds the St. Louis Globe-Democrat (Rep.), in the same strain, "is too foolish to demand ;much attention in this country."
At the same time, the United States Government is blamed in many quarters for its “dilatory policy,” and while undoubtedly the great majority of American papers are decidedly opposed to any entanglement in the South American embroglio, there are a few which favor aggressive action and armed intervention. “Under similar but less threatening conditions," says the Chicago Chronicle (Dem.), “President Cleveland acted instantly. He considered only his duty under the treaty. President McKinley seems to be much afraid that he will be suspected of sinister designs if he acts in like manner. He does not seem to understand that there is far greater danger not only of misunderstanding, but of actual collision, in delay than in prompt and decisive action.” The New York Journal (Dem.) declares :
“Our Government has not shown a sense of its responsibilities in this South American trouble. With sixty or seventy modern ships to call upon, it has not one within a thousand miles of the Isthmus of Panama, altho we are now a Caribbean power, and one of our greatest naval stations is on the edge of the West Indies. And when we do finally make a belated move to fulfil our treaty obligations as the guardians of the neutrality of the Isthmus, we send two toy gunboats, one in the Atlantic and one in the Pacific, each capable, on a pinch, of putting ashore a landing party of perhaps fifty men.
“We must do something more than that if we are to make good our claim to the leadership of the Western hemisphere."
The New York Herald (Ind.) says:
“It is a surgical operation that is called for, not remedial measures; the time for them will come when the root of the evil has been extirpated.
“A nation of eighty millions of people can not allow their supremacy on the American continent to be endangered without lifting a hand. Their economic and political interests must be defended, whether closet diplomatists like it or not. A halt
must be called to the high-handed brigandage that, if unsuppressed, is fraught with a menace to the United States."
The St. Paul Dispatch (Rep.) goes a step farther, and declares its belief that South America will be the field of “our next expansion.” “It is foreign to the scheme of things," it says, "that a people so indolent, so unprogressive, so incapable of government as the Latins of South and Central America should be permitted to retain occupation of a land so rich, so fertile, so capable of wealth production as is the southern continent." It is the "manifest destiny," thinks The Dispatch, "of this nation, as the foremost of the expanding Anglo-Saxon peoples, to possess the Western hemisphere."
position as the South Chicago workers, but later reversed their decision as the result of a visit from National Secretary Tighe.
The course of the Joliet and Milwaukee workers in going out on strike, in spite of their contracts, is almost universally condemned in severe terms by the daily papers. "If their view prevails,” remarks the Boston Journal, “a contract which employers may make with men who are members of a union is binding on one side only. The employers are held by it, but the men may break it without scruple when their union directs them to." “The example set by the men of South Chicago is a most impressive one,” adds the Chicago Chronicle ; "it stands for common sense and common honesty as against violence, irresponsibility, and mischief. In deciding to consult their own interests and to observe their contract obligations they have placed themselves upon a much higher plane than that occupied by Mr. Shaffer or any of his representatives."
The New York Commercial Artvertiser thinks that the unionists who did break their contracts have struck a serious blow at the whole principle of labor organization, and it adds :
TRADE-UNION CONTRACTS IN THE STEEL
has aroused wide discussion in the press, is raised by the refusal of the South Chicago steel-workers to respond to President Shaffer's strike order, on the ground that it would involve a breach of contract with their employers. The South Chicago lodges of the Amalgamated Association, in a resolution making public their decision, declare that "owing to the existing contract between our lodges and the Illinois Steel Company we are justified in standing by our contracts," adding that “owing to a ruling of President Garland in 1897—that the association never broke an agreement-we do not wish to bring the Amalgamated Association into disrepute with our employers, all labor organizations, or the general public by breaking a contract at this time.” The contract in question was one providing that there shall be no change in wages, hours, or conditions of employment without one side or the other giving three months' notice. A similar contract existed in the mills at Joliet and Bay View, Milwaukee, and the men in these cities at first took the same
“What now will be the practical results of their action? It undoubtedly will encourage those who are now on strike to continue the struggle, when if there had been no defection among the Western lodges their enthusiasm would liave been dampened. In this way the contest is likely to be prolonged for a greater length of time than seemed probable at the outset of the week. But it means a very much worse position for the Amalgamated Association when they are forced, as inevitably they must, to settle on the corporation's terms. Any proposition to take the men back in a body as union men will be out of the question. The companies would reply that a promise or agreement with a labor-union is worthless, and nobody could gainsay the assertion. The men would have to come back as individuals with their wages fixed by individual contract, or they would not come back at all. Had the employees of the Joliet mills possessed the moral courage, not to say good sense, of their associates at South Chicago, the labor organization in the Illinois steel-mills would not
only have remained, but would have strengthened itself by ac- while compelling the frightened male passengers to part with quiring a stronger claim on the confidence of the company offi- their wealth. He may appear to impressionable persons to be a cials. There is no stopping-point now short of the utter exter- fascinating fellow-perhaps the scion of some good family gone mination of the Amalgamated Association, and Shaffer has made wrong, but for all that he ought to dangle at rope's end just as this issue the clearer by casting out of the union all those who soon as the law will premit. It is true that the highwayman are not willing to violate their wage contracts."
does very little injury to the public when his operations are com
pared with the gigantic schemes to swindle by which the unwary As the reversal of the decision of the Joliet and Milwaukee
are continually victimized. Wall Street probably dips deeper workers was brought about by the visit of National Secretary
into the pockets of the unsophisticated every year than all the Tighe, the arguments that he used are of considerable interest, highwaymen that ever carried on business in this country, from especially in view of the fact that his position is undoubtedly colonial days to the present time. The armies of the Christian that of the strikers, and probably represents also the attitude of
nations' which recently invaded China carried away more plunPresident Shaffer. In an account of his Western mission printed
der than all the stage-coach robbers of history. But Wall Street
and the armies of the Christian nations' do their looting under in the New York Sun, he is quoted as saying:
the protection of the law, whereas the highwayman is outside "The Chicago men hesitated to come out because of the con- the pale of the law and must be sternly discouraged. Highway tract which existed between the Federal Steel Company and the
robbery has declined as an industry, pot, perhaps, because men Amalgamated Association. When I reached there and held a are better than they were in the last century, but because holdmeeting of the men, I found a good many held to the belief that ing up stage-coaches is a crude and ineffective way of acquiring they were bound to keep the contract with the company in spite
wealth. There is no use for a man to risk his neck in such periof the fact that the company had declared that it would not
lous enterprises for the sake of a few hundred dollars when great henceforth recognize the Amalgamated Association, which was
fortunes are made, without breaking the statutes, by modern a party to that contract.
methods of 'holding up' the public.” “I told them that the United States Steel Corporation had declared it would not recognize the union which had made the agreement. There could not possibly be a contract in force, for
A VICTORY FOR THE AMERICAN one of the parties to the contract denied the existence of the
LOCOMOTIVE. other. . .
“I informed them that the creator of a contract was always greater than the contract itself, and that their vow to the Amal
making for supremacy over locomotives built in England gamated Association was far more to be observed than a later occurred in Jamaica, a British colony, last week, with "a great agreement.
victory" for the American machine, as press despatches put it. “I asked them, if they had a contract to furnish projectiles for This is the second test of the respective merits of American and two years to the English Government, and if during that time
British locomotives that has been made in Jamaica, and both the United States should engage in war with Great Britain,
tests have resulted the same way. In the present test the Amerwhether they would consider the contract with the foreign government superior to loyalty and duty to their country. I said
ican engine “drew 126 tons over the heaviest part of the line in that in one case they would be furnishing ammunition to the
seven minutes under schedule time," while the English locomoenemy to destroy, bombard, and devastate the land of their birth tive (which cost twice as much) "completely failed to pull the or adoption.
same load, and when materially lightened failed to make even "I claimed that it was a parallel case with our present fight.
regular time.” The English experts who were present, we are The United States Steel Corporation has waged war, is now
told, experienced “a great disappointment," and the Jamaica bombarding our strongholds, and is trying to crush our organization. I told them, and told them forcibly, that they were fur
government “is expected to make strong representations to the nishing the ammunition to assist in the destruction of the body
crown agents in London who arranged the purchases.” The to which they gave their solemn allegiance."
New York Journal of Commerce says: The question of incorporation for labor organizations has be- “The English engine-builders sent some of their experts to come a prominent one, on account of the present controversy.
the island in June, and of course they were bound to get the necAs voluntary associations of workingmen, the trade-unions have
essary work out of their machines if it were possible. This last
trial has resulted like all the others, the first of which occurred been without standing in court, and could neither sue or be sued.
in April or perhaps March, in the utter discomfiture of the British "It is very possible that one outcome of the strike,” observes the
engines, tho they cost fully twice as much as the American enWashington Times, "will be that the question of recognition of gines and were specially designed by an English expert for the the great labor-unions by industrial corporations will turn upon work they would have to do, the leading feature of which is the willingness of the former to assume legal responsibility for
running over a very steep grade." their actions by becoming incorporated bodies." President The Chicago Tribune remarks on the difference between Shaffer, when approached on this subject, replied that he had American and British locomotives : not given it consideration. “I will say this,” he added; "the "An English engine, built in 1870, has run 4,000,000 miles and Amalgamated will consider incorporation after the scale agree- is still in service. The managers of the road to which it belongs ments have been signed. We are ready to do what is right, but are proud of this record. In the United States a first-class paswe do not propose to become entangled in any legal meshes."
senger-engine makes from 100,000 to 110,000 miles a year, and at the end of twenty years is supposed to be ready for the scrap
heap. Seemingly, Americans are more extravagant than British A Renaissance of Highway Robbery.-The stage
railway managers, but the former do not think they are. They
believe their policy is the more economical one. coach robber used to be considered a purely Western product,
“As soon as a locomotive is put in service in this country it is and is so far the relic of a bygone age that one would hardly pushed as hard as is possible in doing profitable work, on the ashave expected him to outlive the nineteenth century. Yet he sumption that by the time it has been driven to death there will turned up again recently, “holding up” coaches in the Adiron- be so many improvements in locomotives that it will be unecodacks and California on the same day, terrorizing the passen- nomical to keep the old one in service even if it can be rebuilt. gers, and filling his pockets with the jewelry and money of his
Thus when slaves were cheap a Cuban planter would reason that
it was more economic to work a slave to death and buy a new one victims. The Baltimore Sun moralizes on the subject as follows:
than to exact less labor from a slave and thus have his services "It is not to be assumed that there is anything admirable in for a longer time. the highwayman who holds up a stage-coach. He may be hand- “In England an engine is taken great care of. It is rested some and debonair; he may sometimes spare the ladies' purses occasionally. Its life is prolonged as much as possible. Hence