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or the powers and duties of such may be conferred upon other courts of justice; but such tribunals or other courts when sitting as such, shall have no power to render judgment to be obligatory on the parties, unless they voluntarily submit their matters of difference and agree to abide the judgment of such tribunals or courts.

ARTICLE V.-Elective Franchise.

Sec. 121. Every male person of the age of twenty-one years or upwards belonging to either of the following classes, who shall have resided in the state one year, in the county six months and in the precinct ninety days next preceding any election, shall be deemed a qualified elector at such election:


Citizens of the United States.

Second. Persons of foreign birth who shall have declared their intention to become citizens, one year and not more than six years prior to such election, conformably to the naturalization laws of the United States.

Third. Civilized persons of Indian descent who shall have severed their tribal relations two years next preceding such election.

Note This section amended by Article 2, amendments to the constitution.

Sec. 122. The legislative assembly shall be empowered to make further extensions of suffrage hereafter, at its discretion to all citizens of mature age and sound mind, not convicted of crime without regard to sex; but no law extending or restricting the right of suffrage shall be in force until adopted by a majority of the electors of the state voting at a general election.

Sec. 123. Electors shall in all cases except treason, felony, breach of the peace or illegal voting, be privileged from arrest on the days of election during their attendance at, going to and returning from such election, and no elector shall be obliged to perform military duty on the day of election, except in time of war or public danger.

Sec. 124. The general elections of the state shall be biennial, and shall be held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November; provided, that the first general election under this constitution shall be held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November A. D. 1890.

Sec. 125. No elector shall be deemed to have lost his residence in this state by reason of his absence on business. of the United States or of this state or in the military or naval service of the United States.

Sec. 126. No soldier, seaman or marine in the army or navy of the United States shall be deemed a resident of this state in consequence of his being stationed therein.

Sec. 127. No person who is under guardianship, non compos mentis, or insane, shall be qualified to vote at any election, nor shall any person convicted of treason or felony, unless restored to civil rights.

Sec. 128. Any woman having the qualifications enumerated in section 121 of this article, as to age, residence and citizenship, and including those now qualified by the laws of the territory, may vote for all school officers, and upon all questions pertaining solely to school matters, and be eligible to any school office.

Sec. 129. All elections by the people shall be by secret ballot, subject to such regulations as shall be provided by law.

ARTICLE VI.-Municipal Corporations.

Sec. 130. The legislative assembly shall provide by general law for the organization of municipal corporations, restricting their powers as to levying taxes and assessments, borrowing money and contracting debts; and money raised by taxation, loan or assessment for any purpose shall not be diverted to any other purpose except by authority of law.

ARTICLE VII.-Corporations Other Than Municipal.

Sec. 131. No charter of incorporation shall be granted, changed or amended by special law, except in the case of such municipal, charitable, educational, penal or reformatory corporations as may be under the control of the state; but the legislative assembly shall provide by general laws for the organization of all corporations hereafter to be created, and any such law, so passed, shall be subject to future repeal or alteration.

Sec. 132. All existing charters or grants of special or exclusive privileges, under which a bona fide organization shall not have taken place and business been commenced in good faith at the time this constitution takes effect, shall thereafter have no validity.

Sec. 133. The legislative assembly shall not remit the forfeiture of the charter to any corporation now existing, nor alter or amend the same, nor pass any other general or special law for the benefit of such corporation, except upon the condition that such corporation shall thereafter hold its charter subject to the provisions of this constitution.

Sec. 134. The exercise of the right of eminent domain shall never be abridged, or so construed as to prevent the legislative assembly from taking the property and franchises of incorporated companies and subjecting them to public use, the same as the property of individuals; and the exercise of the police power of this state shall never be abridged, or so construed as to permit corporations vo

conduct their business in such a manner as to infringe the equal rights of individuals or the general well-being of the state.

Sec. 135. In all elections for directors or managers of a corporation, each member or shareholder may cast the whole number of his votes for one candidate, or distribute them upon two or more candidates, as he may prefer.

Sec. 136. No foreign corporation shall do business in this state without having one or more places of business and an authorized agent or agents in the same, upon whom process may be served.

Sec. 137. No corporation shall engage in any business other than that expressly authorized in its charter.

Sec. 138. No corporation shall issue stock or bonds except for money, labor done, or money or property actually received; and all fictitious increase of stock or indebtedness shall be void. The stock and indebtedness of corporations shall not be increased except in pursuance of general law, nor without the consent of the persons holding the larger amount in value of the stock first obtained at a meeting to be held after sixty days' notice given in pursuance of law.

Sec. 139. No law shall be passed by the legislative assembly granting the right to construct and operate a street railroad, telegraph, telephone or electric light plant within any city, town or incorporated village, without requiring the consent of the local authorities having the control of the street or highway proposed to be occupied for such purposes.

Sec. 140. Every railroad corporation organized and doing business in this state under the laws or authority thereof, shall have and maintain a public office or place in the state for the transaction of its business, where transfers of its stock shall be made and in which shall be kept for public inspection books in which shall be recorded the amount of capital stock subscribed, and by whom, the names of the owners of its stock and the amount owned by them respectively; the amount of stock paid in and by whom and the transfers of said stock; the amount of its assets and liabilities and the names and place of residence of its officers. The directors of every railroad corporation shall annually make a report, under oath to the auditor of public accounts, or some officer or officers to be designated by law, of all their acts and doings, which report shall include such matters relating to railroads as may be prescribed by law, and the legislative assembly shall pass laws enforcing by suitable penalties the provisions of this section; provided, the provisions of this section shall not be so construed as to apply to foreign corporations.

Sec. 141. No railroad corporation shall consolidate its stock, property or franchises with any other railroad corporation owning a parallel or competing line; and in no case shall any consolidation take place except upon public notice given at least sixty days to all stockholders, in such manner as may be provided by law. Any attempt to evade the provisions of this section by, any railroad corporation by lease or otherwise, shall work a forfeiture of its charter.

Sec. 142. Railways heretofore constructed, or that may hereafter be constructed in this state are hereby declared public highways, and all railroads, sleeping car, telegraph, telephone and transportation companies of passengers intelligence and freight are declared to be common carriers and subject to legislative control; and the legislative assembly shall have power to enact laws regulating and controlling the rates of charges for the transportation of passengers, intelligence and freight, as such common carriers, from one point to another in this state; provided, that appeal may be had to the courts of this state from the rates so fixed; but the rates fixed by the legislative assembly or board of railroad commissioners shall remain in force pending the decision of the courts.

Sec. 143. Any association or corporation organized for the purpose shall have the right to construct and operate a railroad between any points within this state, and to connect at the state line with the railroads of other states. Every railroad company shall have the right with its road to intersect, connect with or cross any other, and shall receive and transport each others passengers, tonnage and cars, loaded or empty, without delay or discrimination.

Sec. 144. The term "corporation" as used in this article, shall not be understood as embracing municipalities or political subdivisions of the state unless otherwise expressly stated, but it shall be held and construed to include all associations and joint stock companies having any of the powers or privileges of corporations not possessed by individuals or partnerships.

Sec. 145. If a general banking law be enacted, it shall provide for the registry and countersigning by an officer of the state, of all notes or bills designed for circulation, and that ample security to the full amount thereof shall be deposited with the state treasurer for the redemption of such notes or bills.

Sec. 146. Any combination between individuals, corporations, associations, or either, having for its object or effect the controlling of the price of any product of the soil or any article of manufacture or commerce, or the cost of exchange or transportation, is prohibited and hereby declared unlawful and against public policy; and any and

all franchises heretofore granted or extended, or that may hereafter be granted or extended in this state, whenever the owner or owners thereof violate this article, shall be deemed annulled and become void.

ARTICLE VIII.-Education.

Sec. 147. A high degree of intelligence, patriotism, integrity and morality on the part of every voter in a government by the people being necessary in order to insure the continuance of that government and the prosperity and happiness of the people, the legislative assembly shall make provision for the establishment and maintenance of a system of public schools which shall be open to all children of the state of North Dakota and free from sectarian control. This legislative requirement shall be irrevocable without the consent of the United States and the people of North Dakota.

Sec. 148. The legislative assembly shall provide, at its first session after the adoption of this constitution, for a uniform system for free public schools throughout the state, beginning with the primary and extending through all grades up to and including the normal and collegiate


Sec. 149. In all schools instruction shall be given as far as practicable in those branches of knowledge that tend to impress upon the mind the vital importance of truthfulness, temperance, purity, public spirit, and respect for honest labor of every kind.

Sec. 150. A superintendent of schools for each county shall be elected every two years, whose qualifications, duties, powers and compensation shall be fixed by law.

Sec. 151. The legislative assembly shall take such other stęps as may be necessary to prevent illiteracy, secure a reasonable degree of uniformity in course of study, and to promote industrial, scientific and agricultural improvements.

Sec. 152. All colleges, universities and other educational institutions, for the support of which lands have been granted to this state, or which are supported by a public tax, shall remain under the absolute and exclusive control of the state. No money raised for the support of the public schools of the state shall be appropriated to or used for the support of any sectarian school.

ARTICLE IX.-School and Public Lands.

Sec. 153. All proceeds of the public lands that have heretofore been, or may hereafter be granted by the United States for the support of the common schools in this state; all such per centum as may be granted by the United States on the sale of public lands; the proceeds of

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