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service or labor, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due.

Sec. III. New states may be admitted by the congress into this union; but no new state shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other state; nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more states, or parts of states, without the consent of the legislatures of the states concerned as well as of the congress.

The congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this constituion shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular state.

Sec. IV. The United States shall guarantee to every state in the union a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion; and on application of the legislature, or of the executive, (when the legislature cannot be convened) against domestic violence.

ARTICLE V.-Amendments.

The congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this constitution, or, on the application of the legislatures of twothirds of the several states, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which in either case, shall be valid, to all intents and purposes, as part of this constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several states, or by conventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the congress; provided, that no amendment which may be made prior to the years one thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article; and that no state, without its consent, shall be deprived of is equal suffrage in the senate.

ARTICLE VI.-Miscellaneous Business.

All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adoption of this constituion, shall be as valid against the United States under this constitution, as under the confederation.

This constiution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or whcih shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of tle land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in the constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding.

The senators and representatives before-mentioned, and the members of the several state legislatures, and all ex

ecutive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound by oath or affirmation, to support this constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public the states so ratifying the same.

ARTICLE VII.-Ratification.

The ratification of the conventions of nine states shall be sufficient for the establishment of this constitution between he states so ratifying the same.

Done in the convention by the unanimous consent of the

states present, the seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the independence of the United States of America, the twelfth.

In witness whereof, we have hereunto subscribed Our

names,

Geo. Washington, President,
And Deputy from Virginia.

Attest: William Jackson, Secretary.
New Hampshire-
John Langdon,
Nicholas Gilman.

Massachusetts

Nathaniel Gorham,
Rufus King.

Connecticut

William Samuel Johnson,
Roger Sherman,

New York—

Alexander Hamilton.

New Jersey

Wil: Livingston,
William Brearly,
William Paterson,
Jona Dayton.

Pennsylvania

B. Franklin,
Thomas Mifflin,
Robert Morris,
George Clymer,
Thomas Fitzsimons,
Jared Ingersoll,
James Wilson,
Gouv. Morris.

Delaware-
Geo. Read,

Gunning Bedford, Jun.,
John Dickinson,

Richard Bassett,
Jaco. Broom.

Maryland

Dan of St. Thos. Jennifer,
James McHenry,
Daniel Carroll.

Virginia

John Blair,

James Madison, Jun.,

North Carolina

William Blount,

Richard Dobbs Spaight,
Hu. Williamson.

South Carolina

J. Rutledge,

Chas. Cotesworth Pickney,
Charles Pinckney,
Pierce Butler.

Georgia

William Few.
Abr. Baldwin.

Attest: Wililam Jackson, Secretary.

ARTICLES.

IN ADDITION TO, AND AMENDMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, PROPOSED BY CONGRESS AND RATIFIED BY THE LEGISLATURES OF THE SEVERAL STATES, PURSUANT TO THE FIFTH ARTICLE OF THE ORIGINAL CONSTITUTION.

ARTICLE I.

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

ARTICLE II.

A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.

ARTICLE III.

No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

ARTICLE IV.

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrant shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized.

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ARTICLE V.

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war and public danger, nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.

ARTICLE VI.

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses aganist him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.

ARTICLE VII.

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of common law.

ARTICLE VIII.

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

ARTICLE IX.

The enumeration in the constitution of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

ARTICLE X.

The powers not delegated to the United States by the constitution nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.

ARTICLE XI.

The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another state, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state.

ARTICLE XII.

The electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for president and vice president, one of whom, at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as president, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as vice president; and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as president, and of all persons voted for as vice president, and of the number of votes for each; which lists they shall sign and certify,

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