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northwest, towards the central counties, the report is less favorable; and, owing to the “wet weather about the time of planting," it is thought that there is a decrease of 10 per cent. And, again, by another, it is said: “ Very poor, scarcely two-thirds of a crop, in consequence of the
Still further towards the central part of the State, in the vicinity of Marion and Richland counties, "a wet spring" also caused a “decrease of 10 per cent." from the crop of 1843. In the southwest corner of Ohio, also, the crop is estimated as “one-third less than usual.” Again, it is stated of the Miami valley: “ This crop will fall short of that of last year about 25 per cent." In some counties the yield was excellent; in others very poor. The decrease is attributed to long-continued rains, which prevented proper cultivation. In the valley of the Muskingum, the southeast section of the State, on the other hand, it was unusually good, and has been rated even as high as 100 per cent. advance on the crop of the preceding year. North of this, in the eastern counties bordering on the Ohio river, the report is : “ The crop is good this year, and may be estimated at 25 per cent. more than an average one ;
and in the southern portion of this district it is 100 per cent. greater than it was last year.".
It is stated in an agricultural paper, under date of 4th of July, at Goshen, Ohio, that "corn is greatly injured by the wire worm, which has been making sad work for several years, and appears to be increasingly mischievous. It is a yellow hard worm, about an inch long, and the size of a knitting-needle. It works itself into the heart of corn before it is up, and afterwards collects around the roots, and seems to take away the juices, so that the corn makes but little progress in growing. Unless means are found to stop the work of this insect, some of the farmers talk of abandoning the crop of corn altogether."
When we recollect that, in 1843, the corn crop was but a poor one in Ohio, we feel warranted, from such accounts as we can now gather, to fix the advance of the crop for 1844 on that year at about 25 per cent.
The early prospect of the corn crop in the south part of Indiana appears to have been good, as we find notices like this in the first week in June : “In Jefferson and Jennings counties, the corn crop is doing well, though the ground has been considerably beaten and hardened by long-continued and heavy rains.” In general, however, the crop was much injured by the wet season; especially was this the case in the western part of the State. In the southwestern counties, lying on the Wabash, and in the northwest section, it is estimated that “one-quarter was drowned out on the bottom lands, and the balance was light;" so that there was not, as another expresses it, “ more than three-fourths of last year's crop raised.” The loss is considered even greater in the central western counties, between the two sections just nentioned, and it is said to have been “ very poor, on account of the weathersay 50 per cent. less than last year."
În the central part of the State, also, it is considered to have been at least but“ a medium crop," having likewise there been injured by wet weather during the spring, and the overflowing of the bottom land.” At the southeast, in the counties bordering on the Ohio, it was full an average crop, and by some it is estimated as being “ 10 per cent, better” than the crop of 1843.
The decrease on the corn crop for the whole State, we think, can hardly be less than 30 per cent. The wet weather operated also unfavorably on the corn of Illinois, especially in sections bordering on the Mississippi,
where many hundreds of acres have overflowed. From the notices in the agricultural journals, we gather the following account. In Warren county, under date of June 3d, it is stated: “Many have not planted their corn ; some have not even been able to plough, on account of the excessive rains since the 1st of April; many who have planted will be under the necessity of ploughing over, their first having rotted in the ground, and the weeds having gained the mastery."
In July, “the corn on dry ground is doing tolerably well, but the prospect on the whole is poor; much of it was planted two or three times over.” The squirrels were destructive, and the loss from the rains was great.
Again: “ The corn crop in much of this country will be light.” Also, from Quincy: “ The prospect for'corn is very poor; there will probably be a failure.” The other accounts received are no more favorable. In the southeastern section of the State, and along on the Wabash, it is considered to have been “not more than half a crop, owing to the unusual rains.” In the south western counties, lying on the Mississippi and its branches, the estimate is, that “two-thirds of the crop on the American bottom was cut off by the flood, and on the uplands injured early in the season by the wet and baked by the dry weather.” North of this, also, on the Mississippi, it is thought to have been “ 50 per cent. less” than the crop of 1843.
From the central counties, the information furnished us is: “The corn crop yielded about two-thirds of an average crop. Subsequent to the rains in the spring time, succeeded a considerable drought. The joint effect was to destroy the crop on low or flat lands, and injure it on all lands.” South of these central counties, it seems to have been somewhat better. The average decrease of the corn crop in Illinois, it would seem, was from 30 to 50 per cent.; and we fix it at 40 per cent. for the whole State.
Very little information has been gained respecting the corn crop of Missouri. From a notice in a public journal, we learn that in the lower counties, on the Mississippi, the corn crop was light; but in the upper counties of southeastern Missouri it promised well. Taking into consideration the state of the season, and the operation on the other crops, so far as known, , we are inclined to think this crop should be rated at about the same comparative decrease as Illinois. By some, it is even put as high as one-half. We allow, however, somewhat less, on account of the additional increase by settlement.
From every part of Michigan, the account is of a good crop for 1844. Last year it fell off, but for this there has been a great increase. In the southeastern section of the State, it was probably not equal to that of some others. Thus it is said: “ The corn crop was generally fine, but the aggre. gate amount was about the same with last year, because less was planted, owing to the season for planting being exceedingly wet.” In the northeastern and western sections, embracing the remaining cultivated portions, we are told that it was “unusually good, and will yield more than an average crop.” And, again : “A good crop; 30 per cent. better than that of last year.'
We shall not probably be far from the truth, if, in consideration of the advancing settlements, and the increased amount of land cultivated, together with the season, we allow an increase of 25 to 30 per cent. over the crop of 1843.
The corn crops of Iowa and Wisconsin also suffered from rain in the
early season, and were not average crops. Thus, in July, it is said, after allowing for the wet season, lasting for three months: "The corn, at besi, cannot be more than half a crop.” Again, at Salem, in Iowa, June 30th : “ The corn is very small. Some farmers here have ploughed it up when it had been replanted two or three times, and been as often drowned out by the great rains.” This loss will in some measure be balanced by the iris creased land brought under cultivation.
It will thus be seen that there has been considerable diversity in the corn crop of the United States for the year 1844. The general estimate is thus summed up in a paper in the State of New York, which perhaps in the main is too favorable : “ The corn crop in this State, as well as in the middle States, and also throughout New England, is promising, and it looks well at the West; but the continued rains before alluded to are said in many sections to have done this crop an irreparable injury. The thousands, or rather millions, of acres planted with corn, on the fertile bottoms of the Wabash, the Illinois, the Missouri, the Arkansas, the Red, and the Mississippi rivers, were overflowed in June for such a length of time that this great Western crop must thereby be diminished. But the Eastern, Southern, and Middle States will repair this deficiency, so as to make a full average
The whole amount, according to the tabular estimate, was 421,953,000 , bushels.
The importance of the corn crop, as well as the fact that it is so universally cultivated, and so great a favorite, has induced us to subjoin some suggestions, gathered from different agricultural papers respecting the method of planting, tillage, &c., which may be found in appendix No. 5. In the same appendix, also, will be found the report of the Middlesex County Agricultural Society, in Connecticut, on a crop raised by Mr. W. Wadsworth, of Durham, in that county and State, on a crop which yielded at the rate of one hundred and fifty-one bushels and eighteen quarts of shelled corn to the acre. Samples of this corn will be soon distributed from the Patent Office. It shows what may be done by selecting seed, and properly cultivating it. In a letter of Verdine Ellsworth, of the same State, we have an interesting account of a crop of one thousand bushels of fine corn on 3 acres, or 125 bushels to the acre-specimens of which have been received. The mode of tillage is also described in detail. (See appendix 5, as before.) Another of these papers is from the report made to the Agricultural Society of South Carolina, which may be applicable to the culture of this crop in the South. We derive from this paper the following facts relating to the consumption of corn in that State. In the years 1838 and 1839, about five hundred thousand bushels of corn were imported. From October, 1841, to October, 1842, three hundred and sixty thousand; and from October, 1842, to October, 1843, two hundred and sixty thousand bushels.” This is said to show an increase of the crop of one hundred thousand bushels. But this mode of estimate is calculated to give the impression that such was the only increase; which would mislead, for the data are not sufficient on which to rest the conclusion. The increase, as we have attempted to show in the report for 1843, was larger.
In the late geological survey of New Hampshire, by Dr. Jackson, we find some interesting remarks respecting the elements of the different kinds of corn, and their comparative nutriciousness, accompanied with illustrative plates. These, with the useful deductions from the same, which he suggests, may be found extracted from his volume in appendix No, 6.
Much has been said and written respecting the use of corn stalks as fodder for cattle, &c. Some remarks and extracts from agricultural journals, on this subject, may likewise be found in the appendix. (See No. 7.)
As the corn crop has suffered so much by the drought during the last season, in various parts of the country, it may be useful to remark here, that it appears, by an experiment mentioned in some of the agricultural journals, that “ corn planted last spring, in very dry, sandy soils, and when suffering from drought, on being served with a pint of ashes to a hill, revived and did well.”
The subject of corn-stalk sugar, and the relation it bears to the corn crop, may be appropriately considered under the head of sugar.
Some remarks were made in a former report on the subject of broom corn. It is now stated that this seed is excellent to fatten sheep, and that they are fond of it, and will falten better on it than on Indian corn. Broom corn is thought, by one, who has thus used it, to be more valuable for sheep than oats, or any grain, pound for pound.
It is said that "large quantities of the brush of broom corn, raised in the valley of the Ohio and elsewhere, have been shipped to England within three months past, together with broom handles, for the purpose of manufacturing brooms. By managing in this way, we understand that brooms can be afforded cheaper in Great Britain than if made here and exported."
Saltpetre is often used as a preparation for the seed. Some caution is necessary in its application, as appears by a trial mentioned in an agricultural paper, in which it is stated, that where too much saltpetre was used, the kernels were reddish and decayed. The proper proportion may be ascertained by experiments, though something must depend on the nature of the soil and the circumstances of the season.
POTATOES. When, the last year, (1843,) the potato crop was found in many parts of the country to have suffered from a new disease, it was hoped that it might prove temporary, and that during another year it would be seen that the loss was owing to some peculiarity of the season, which would not operate again; but, from the reports for the year 1844, it is to be feared the worst
is not yet experienced. The crop, in other respects promising, seems to be much cut off by the evil before mentioned; and, what is still more disastrous, it appears to be extending into districts which have before been free from it. This will be seen by referring to the notices which we have been able to gather respecting it. Though an important crop for the comfort of the inhabitants of our country, yet, for some reason or other, it does not seem to engage the notice of the agricultural journals while in the earlier progress of its growth.
The soil and climate of Maine appear to be peculiarly well adapted to the cultivation of potatoes; and it has here, happily, in a great degree escaped the destruction which has caused such injury in the other New England States.
In some of the earlier notices which we find of the potato crop, we are informed that it " appears well,” and “ promises to be an abundant crop." Such was the result. In the southeast section of the State, it is said that “ more was planted than in any previous year," and there was “a good crop, and but few have rotted ; the quality is good ;” and in quantity it
was at least “10 per cent. above the previous year. In the central section, and running up to the north, also, there was “an increase of 10 per cent.”. In some places they rotted in the ground, and this was then attributed to the “hot and dry weather.” Again, from one who is well fitted to form a fair estimate, we have the following information : “Large quantities were planted, and the cool weather was very favorable for their growth; and the quantity and quality of the crop are extra. Some complaint has been made on the seaboard, and some parts of the interior, of the wet; and some farmers have lost nearly the whole of their crop; and yet the average throughout the whole territory is more than in former years, owing to the increased attention paid to the crop.” It would seem probable that from 15 to 20 per cent. advance on the crop of 1843 may be allowed.
As early as May, the prospect for the potato crop in New Hampshire is said, in some of the agricultural journals, “not to be flattering;" and we accordingly find that the disease prevailed here, greatly to the diminution of the amount gathered. One of our informants in the lower part of the State says: “We think potatoes fall short about 30 per cent."'° Another, more to the east, says that, “though there was a full crop, yet there was a loss of 10 per cent. by the rot or disease;" and yet another good judge in these matters says, “ suffering more rot-one-fourth less.” In the central western part of the State, on the Connecticut river, “the potatoes were early struck with rust, and nearly one-third of the crop has rotted.” Lower down, towards the southern boundary, also, the report is :“Greatly injured by the rot; all of one-third of the crop was destroyed. They suffered most on manured lands; on lands not manured, they escaped the disease entirely."
In the central section, towards the eastern border, it is said : “ This crop, had it not been for the rot, would have been 25 per cent. better than in 1843; but I should think about 10 per cent. will be lost by the rot, as several farmers have informed me that they have continued to rot ever since harvested.
In the whole State, the average decrease was, we think, full 25 per cent. from the crop of 1843, which was itself less than an average one.
Vermont likewise possesses a fine soil and climate for potatoes, and the crops there are usually rich and abundant. But the crop of 1844 suffered from the general evil. The decrease is differently estimated from 10 to 30 per cent., or still higher. One person says the loss was one-third of the crop. We may fix it at 25 per cent. In an agricultural journal, we find the following remarks:
“ So readily may potatoes be produced by the mellow rich soil of the northern counties of Vermont, that the price of 124 and is cents a bushel, delivered at the starch mill, makes that one of the most profitable crops. In many towns, starch mills have been in operation, and it has become quite common for an ordinary farmer to raise his one, two, and three thousand bushels of potatoes in a season. In the entire Green Mountain region, from Berkshire on the south, to the Canada line on the north, there has been such a failure in the crop of potatoes that it is said there will be none lest the present year for the manufacture of starch.”
The potato crop in Massachusetts, in the northern section of the State, running towards the east, is described as being “full an average crop, not affected by rottenness or any new disease." Nearer to the ocean, however,