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appearance of the other crops most nearly resembling it in character. The whole estimated amount of the rye crop for 1844 in the United States is 26,450,000 bushels.
The buckwheat crop is the least of all the grain crops, and, except in two or three States, the amount raised in any, will reach only some hundred thousands of bushels, at most.
It is unnecessary to enter with much minuteness into the description. The editor of an agricultural paper in Maine writes us to this effect: that this grain is “not much cultivated, but the crop was very good when sown. I raised a very fair crop, which was harvested in just two months to a day from the time it was sown. It filled well; my horses are very fond of it be. fore threshed, and will eat the straw now as quick and as heartily as they will clover hay. It was cut when about one-third of the seed had changed to a black color, suffered to wilt, then raked into a winrow, where it laid ten days, when it was got in. I propose to sow more next year, to harvest it as above, and keep it unthreshed for winter feed for horses.” The crop probably, so far as it was raised, was a slight advance (say 5 per cent.) over that of 1843.
In New Hampshire and the other New England States, the ratio of increase is about the same; as we are informed the crop was good,“ an av. erage one," "very fair," "full average and good," "good, and gathered in fine order," &c.
New York, which ranks as one of the highest in the list of the States producing this grain, seems to have gained very considerably on the crop of the preceding year, which, it will be recollected, fell off from that of 1842 at least 20 per cent. On Long Island, in consequence of the drought, the crop suffered, and is less than usual. In the river counties, and those in the vicinity of the city, the crop of buckwheat is considered by some as “the same as last year;" “about an average.” A very good judge of the matter, speaking of the vicinity of Orange county, says of this crop, that it " is raised by our farmers for exportation, and is considered by many among our most profitable crops. The season has been very favorable for this grain, and the crop is at least one-sixth larger than common; the quality of the grain is also uncommonly fine." Still higher up, it is pronounced to have been very good," “excellent.” In Schoharie county, our informant says: “ Buckwheat is raised in large quantities, and is more profitable this year than either rye or oats. The dry weather in the month of September has injured the crop with us; the average yield is about twenty bushels to the acre.” In the county of Otsego the crop is thought to have been “much more than usual.” Along the Moltawk valley, about as last year. In Jefferson county the increase was probably 20 per cent., as it is estimated at 46,000 bushels, which is an increase on the census returns of about 25 per cent. In the more northern section, it is said to have been “a good crop.” In the vicinity of the lake, and the central counties bordering, it is considered as “ 50 per cent. above that of 1843," “good, and about the usual quantity;" and also yet lower, towards the southern border, “ more than an average,” “a full average crop." Further west, the report is quite as favorable: thus, in Steuben and Allegany counties, it is thought, on account of the season having been better,
that the crop was 25 per cent. better” than the year previous. In Genesee and Wyoming counties our informant says that the yield was 100 per cent better than in 1843, as much was then lost, owing to the bad weather. Of Niagara county and vicinity, the report given us is to this effect: “ The cultivation of this grain is increasing. The crop in the season past is probably larger and of better quality than ever before; a larger amount sown, and the season has been favorable for ripening and perfecting the grain; increase over 1843, at least 25 per cent. In Cattaraugus county, the crop is said to be “good, better than last year."
On reviewing this various information, and comparing it with the estimates of 1843, we feel authorized in placing the buckwheat crop for the whole State at an average advance of at least 25 per cent.
The estimates from New Jersey, on this crop, are equally favorable ; it is called “a good crop;" and in some of the central counties it is rated even as high as 40 per cent. We have put the whole, as in New York, at 25 per cent. over the crop of 1843, which fell off some 30 per cent. from the previous year. It will be recollected that the decrease in the crop of buckwheat, in Pennsylvania, in the last report, was large. The crop of 1844, though much better, was not equal in comparative increase to that of New York. In the vicinity of Philadelphia, it is said not to have been a good crop. In some of the central counties, on the upper branches of the Susquehanna, the crop fell off from the average one, in consequence of the drought; and it is even estimated that perhaps there was “nut more than one-half the usual quantity.” In other sections, the general report is, “an average crop," very good,"
more than an average.' Of this crop, in the southwest section of the State, it is said, “buckwheat, a heavy yield, but not so much sown last summer as in some other years." In the northwest counties, and on toward the northern central, it is believed to have exceeded the crop of 1843 by “one third.” In Armstrong county, likewise, the yield was very good for the crop put in. Taking the State through, with reference to the weather, amount sown, &c., it is believed that 20 per cent, advance on the crop of 1843 is a fair allowance as the average increase for the whole State.
In Virginia and Maryland, so far as any reports can be gathered respecting this crop, it was an “average one," "good as usual." We omit the
” last in the table.
So little is raised in the District of Columbia, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Arkansas, that it is also thought proper to omit altogether any estimate, for these States &c., in the column of buckwheat.
The reports from Kentucky, Indiana, and Illinois, are favorable; and, although the quantity is small, there is an advance probably of 10 per cent.
In Ohio and Michigan alone, of the Western States, is the amount deserving of much notice. The crop was probably 20 per cent. better than that of 1843. For these two States the estimates are, "good crop," “good crop, never better," "average," or " usual crop," &c. We may therefore consider the whole buckwheat crop, as we have given it in the tabular estimate, at 9,071,000 bushels.
MAIZE OR INDIAN CORN. This great crop is in high favor, but the amount raised this year is less than in 1843.
The crop in Maine promised, in the early part of the summer, to be a first-rate one. In some parts of the State, it is considered so uncertain a crop, from the season, that the farmers rely less on it than they formerly did. From one in the central part of the State, who is well qualified to judge correctly, we have the following report:
“ The crop of Indian corn, contrary to the expectation of every one, turned out well-very well. The season of summer was cool. The worms made great havoc with the seed planted. We had hardly a "real corn night' during the whole summer. It was from ten days to a fortnight later than common, and it was expected that an early frost would sweep the whole by the board. In September, however, we had a fortnight of real sultry weather. It brought the corn to maturity in grand style, and we have seldom had better bins of excellent corn than can be shown among us at this time."
Another, also speaking of the crop of corn in Maine, says, of the southwestern section of the State, that “there was more planted than usual," and a “fair crop" was gathered—“10 per cent. more” than the previous year. The average increase, we think, must have been fronı 20 to 25 per cent. over the crop of 1843.
Respecting the crop of Indian corn in New Hampshire, the early notices are favorable. In July, it is said to “ look well ;” and again, in the middle of September, an agricultural journal of high authority, says: “Nearly the whole Indian corn crop, early and late kinds, in this part of the Merrimac river valley, is at this time so ripe as to be beyond the fear of injury from the frost. This crop will be excellent the present year; the well-tilled fields are extremely prolific of ears, and the ears themselves tipped with corn even to the very points.” The subsequent accounts correspond with the above. In the central western section of the State, bordering on the Connecticut river, the crop is said to have been “much above common." South of this, the crop was “excellent;” at least a quarter more was raised than in 1843. The season is stated to have been “ kindlier for this crop than for many years past.” In the lower part of the State, further east, it is said to have been full “an average," "a good one, equal to that of last year;” and by one who is well fitted to form an accurate opinion, the remark is made, “increase of quantity, but no better crop, one-eighth." From the whole we gather, as the general result, that there was probably an increase of 20 to 25 per cent. over the crop of 1843, to which the millionth unit should be added.
The corn crop in Vermont is differently estimated at an average of 15 to 20 per cent. over the crop of 1843. It may have been about 10 per cent. gain through the whole Slate.
The earlier notices of this crop in Massachusetts are promising. Thus, it is said, for 60 miles from Boston, the prospect for corn is good. In Berkshire county, also, the crop is said to look well. In the northeast section of the State, we are told, since the crop was gathered, “ Indian corn better than an average crop; the ears are heavy, and well ripened.” West of this, it is stated to have been “ 10 per cent. better than the crop of 1843, and fully ripened.”
In the more central counties, it is thought to have been “15 per cent. better than in 1843 ;” and from what we can learn respecting the whole crop, as compared with that of the previous year for this State, we believe it may be safely considered as an advance on that year of from 15 to 20
In Rhode Island, also, there was an increase probably of about 10 per cent., though the crop in the western section of the State does not seem to have been equally good with that of the eastern. The warm autumn was favorable to the growth of this product, and the amount gathered better than ordinary.
The report with regard to the crop, from Connecticut, is highly favorable. It is said to have “come in much better than usual, and the season for its ripening having proved “ favorable,” the crop is said to be “abundant."
The average increase of the corn crop in Connecticut over that of 1843 was equal probably to from 20 to 25 per cent.
The notices, which we find during the summer, of the appearance of the corn crop in different parts of New York are quite promising. In the western part of the State, we learn that as early as the fore part of May they had already begun to plant corn. In July, the corn crop in the vicinity of Albany is said to look well. The same is the report under the same date for western New York, Schoharie county, and also for Utica; and near the lake region, it is described as "unusually promising.” Thus, in the vicinity of Batavia, it is stated, “corn never was better, and more than usual in quantity.” In Onondaga county, somewhat early, the corn is mentioned as being “ somewhat backward,” the cool weather having affected it, though the warmer weather and rain then experienced promised to aid it. Near Buffalo, it is said to look "remarkably well.” In an agricultural paper, under date of July 21, for central New York, we find the following remark as to the corn crop: “Generally looks well, the early plant being tasselled. Some of our gardens, occupying warm soils, have had green corn in market already. The field crop bids fair to make a good average.”
In the vicinity of New York city, we have here the following statement as to the appearance of this crop, also in July : “ This is our great crop in this part of the country. The weather, since the ground was first turned up, and the crop put in, has been uncommonly favorable. The plant had
, a good start before the hot weather came on, and its appearance is all that could be wished. The stalk is large, the leaf broad, and the color that dark rank green that denotes health and vigor. The ear is now beginning to set, and the silk and tassel are out. There is therefore every prospect that the crop will be a good one. Indeed, the season is so much advanced, that it cannot well be otherwise."
A month later, we gather the following notices: In the vicinity of New York, “the season has been favorable, with sufficient warm weather to bring the plant forward. The ears have filled, and there is every prospect of an abundant harvest.” Again : “ Corn looking well, generally; the stalks have a good growth, and the ears are abundant and well filled." Utica: “Corn promises to be fine.” Some complaint is made at Syracuse of the drought, as affecting the corn, in August. Under date of Buffalo, September 2, we find it said: “Corn is generally doing well, and if the frost holds off for twenty days, we shall have a better crop than usual." So, again, from Rochester, early in September, speaking of the crop of western New York, one writes: “ Indian corn crop never better.” Somewhat later, (September 20:) “The warm weather has hastened the ripening of corn, which is now out of reach of frost.” And in October, from Buffalo: “Corn in capital order.” In the central part of the State, an agricultural journal remarks, about the middle of September: “We have not yet experienced any frost, and the corn is pretty much out of danger on that score; and,
from present appearances, a fair crop will be harvested.” Again: “In the early part of the season, the temperature was rather low, and the months of May and June were of a rather moist character, but the warm temperature and seasonable showers in July produced a vigorous start, and the present prospect bids fair for a good crop.” Again, in a public journal in Albany, it is stated: “The corn crop is ripening most finely. This, which in the early part of the season was so backward, has lately come forward so rapidly, that the promise is most abundant. Another week of favorable weather would place it beyond the reach of frost."
The information otherwise gained since the gathering of the crop is also highly favorable. On Long Island it is said to have been “a great yieldprobably one-third more.” In Westchester and Rockland counties it is said that it was “ 25 per cent. better than last year.” In Dutchess and Putnam, and some of the other river counties," a little better than in 1843." In Ulster and Delaware counties," at least one-third more than in 1843." In Orange and Sullivan counties, the statement by one well fitted to judge is : “ This is the most favorite grain product of our county, (Orange,) and has been very generally cultivated by our farmers for many years. A few years since, forty bushels to the acre was considered a crop to be hoped for rather than exrected, whilst now such a yield is considered almost a failure. The great improvements in the mode of cultivating this crop have not only more than doubled the product per acre within the last two years, but have individually increased the sum total raised in nearly as great a proportion-the increased profits of raising the crop encouraging our farmers to cultivate this grain in preserence to almost all other spring grains. The past season has been with us very favorable to this grain, and the crop is on every account a very large one-probably at least one-fifth larger than last year. The best crop offered to our agricultural society yielded one hundred and fifteen bushels and twenty quarts of grain to the acre. The second best yielded one hundred and six busliels and twenty-four quarts to the acre.”
In Schoharie and Otsego counties, we are told that the corn crop" is a good one,” “rather better than last year;' and, again, that it has done “ extremely well, the average crop per acre probably reaching as high as forty bushels. The season here has been favorable to corn--neither too dry nor too wet; and a long spell of warm weather in the fall has brought in the crop in excellent order.” In Rensselaer county, it is pronounced “a fair crop.” In the Mohawk valley, it is said to be equal to that of last year—"good.” In the northern part of the State, around the head of Lake Ontario and vicinity, there was an increase of “ 50 per cent." on the census returns in 1840. In Madison and Oswego counties, an increase of 30 per cent. In Onondaga county the crop is considered to have been a good one; but, owing to there having been less than usual planted, as also dryness in June,“ less than an averagu one"-perhaps “10 per cent." less than in 1843. In Cayuga and Cortland counties,“more than an average crop.” In some of the counties further west, as Tompkins, Chemung, and Yates, there was “more than an average crop;" and from one in the latter of these counties, who is well fitted to form an estimate, we are told "there was an increase of 40 per cent. this year over the last; severe drought last year injured the crop. I have raised this year, on one acre and three-fourths of land, one hundred bushels of shelled corn; it is called the large white corn.” In Steuben and Allegany counties, also, it is described as having been “25 per cent. better than last year,” as the season was also better. In the counties of Genesee and Wyoming,